Aoyama, K. and E. Graham. “Ancient Maya warfare: exploring the significance of lithic variation in Maya weaponry.” Lithics–The Journal of the Lithic Studies Society (2016): 5. Print.
The authors have described the weapons and the variation in the warfare strategies that was observed during the Maya empire. There is a lithic variation as per the authors in the Maya warfare and these weapons were manufactured accordingly to the requirements. They used weapons that were made of metals contradictory to most of the weapons that were made of stones. The significance of the lithic production in the Maya civilizations has been stressed on and the development of lithic has been evaluated and provided in the form of an analysis. It’s impact on the society has also been obtained across the system.
Aoyama, Kazuo. “Classic Maya warfare and weapons: spear, dart, and arrow points of Aguateca and Copan .” Ancient Mesoamerica 16.2 (2005): (2005): 291-304. Print.
The development, rise as well as the fall of the Maya empire has been described by the authors in these article. They have focused on the weapons used by the Maya Empire in their cities. It included using spears and dart points when there was any kind of conflict between the groups that were present in the Maya civilization. The use of the arrow points by the people in Aquatec and Copan has been derived from the excavations that are made in these areas and their tools for the warfare have been obtained. The importance of the warfare weapons in the development of the warfare techniques that would lead to the expansion of the kingdom has been developed.
Barrett, Jason W. and Andrew K. Scherer. “Stones, bones, and crowded plazas: Evidence for Terminal Classic Maya warfare at Colha, Belize.” Ancient Mesoamerica (2005): 101-118. Print.
In this article, the authors have developed an analysis and research on the critical conditions that led to the collapsing of the Maya civilization in the global history. There were many transitions and modification in the development of lithic tools as well as there were significant changes in the settlement patterns that were existing in the society during those times.
Chase, Arlen F. and Diane Z. Chase. “Late Classic Maya Political Structure, Polity size, and Warfare arenas.” Department of Sociologu and Anthropology (1998): 11-29. Print.
In this article, they have determined the classic political structure that was existing in the Maya political structure with many long term excavations carried out in the same. The size of their polity was quite huge as per their civilization and the warfare arenas were developed on the basis of the expansion that it aimed to make in its kingdom.
Chase, Diane and Arlen Chase. ” Seventh Century Star Wars: Reassessing the Role of Warfare in Shaping Classic Period Maya Society in the Southern Lowlands.” The 80th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology (2015). Print.
The authors have highlighted the territorial gain purpose of the Maya warfare and they have shown that the conflicts that were made during the Maya times served to be one of the core element in the development of the ritual purposes that were observed during those times. It includes the main purpose of developing the warfare strategies in the Classic Maya period. It constituted a significant part of the warfare techniques and weapons developed by the Maya empire.
Dahlin, Bruce. H. “The barricade and abandonment of Chunchucmil: Implications for northern Maya warfare.” Latin American Antiquity (2000): 283-298. Print.
In this article, the author has described the warfare strategies of the northern section of the Maya civilization. There were walls surrounding the entire city and this has been obtained through various sites that have been excavated over a period of time in these regions. There was an excessive competition among the rivalries to increase their resources in order to provide their population. There are indications that there was very low rainfall, lack of soil in the Maya civilization areas. Thus, the main purpose of expansion tends to be the requirement of food.
Demarest, A. A., O’Mansky, M., et al. “Classic Maya defensive systems and warfare in the Petexbatun region: Archaeological evidence and interpretations.” Ancient Mesoamerica, 8(02), (1997): 229. Print.
The authors have described the various excavations and archaeological sites that were explored through the development of an understanding of the civilization prevalent during those times. In their warfare strategies, they used large walls of masonry for their defense and there were wooden palisades on the top of the wall. There were baffled gateways, palisades and moats at the entrance of the village that ensured high security and safety of the village during the wars.
Graham, Elizabeth, Scott Simmons and Christine White. “The Spanish conquest and the Maya collapse: how ‘religious’ is change?. .” World Archaeology (2013): 161-185. Print.
In these article, the author has provided an emphasis on the Spanish Conquest of the region that was due to the mishaps in the Maya warfare management and strategies. There was adoption of the Christian burial during the times of the Maya empire which is indicated through the archaeological excavations that are carried out in these areas. The conquest of the Spanish rule in the Maya civilization led to the major collapse of the Maya culture and civilization. Consequently, it also led to the end of the Maya warfare strategies that became outdated for the development of new warfare strategies and techniques to be adopted as per the impact that the war has on the society.
Haas, Jonathan. ” Warfare and the evolution of culture.” Archaeology at the Millennium. Springer US (2001): 329-350. Print.
In this article, the author has developed an evaluation of the evolution of the warfare strategies across different civilizations. It has been carried out on the basis of the warfare strategies that were adopted during the times of Maya civilization. The effect of the warfare skills and structure adopted had a huge impact on the culture as well as traditions that were developed during those times. The author has highlighted the significance of the warfare strategies over the development of human welfare and overall good of the society.
Serafin, Stanley, Carlos Peraza Lope and Eunice Uc Gonzalez. ” Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico.” American journal of physical anthropology (2014): 140-151. Print.
In this article, the authors have described the ancient Maya violence that existed in the Northwestern region. The evidences have been obtained from the bio archaeological analysis of the conditions that were prevailing during those times. The frequency of violence in the Maya civilization has been obtained through the cranial trauma and accident conditions that were prevailing in the society in terms of the chronological trends that were observed in the society during those times. The factors have been determined on the basis of the bio archaeological excavation and investigation of the violence and warfare that existed during the Maya culture.