Research Report on Effects of Consumption of Drugs during Pregnancy

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction 4
1.1. Statement of problem 4
1.2. Significance to the society 4
2. Relevance to the study 5
2.1. Hypothesis 5
2.2. Research questions 6
3. Research method 6
3.1. Data Sampling and Participants 6
3.2. Data Evaluation and Analysis 7
4. Findings 7
5. Sensitivity to ethical issues 9
6. Strengths and limitations 9
7. Conclusion 10
8. References 11

There has been an increase in the number of infant deaths and other disorders among the new born babies. There are a lot of complications observed in the mothers during the pregnancy and during the time of giving birth. The major reason of such issues is consumption of drugs as well as other substances like caffeine, alcohol and nicotine by the mother before delivery, that is, during their pregnancy.
The purpose of the research paper is to identify the influence of the consumption of legal as well as illegal drugs by the expecting moms during their pregnancy. The data has been collected through interactive interviews, using a questionnaire. The reasons for the illnesses among the mother and the new born child are obtained and a further empirical data can be analyzed for future implications.

Pregnancy is a condition where the immunity of the women becomes weak and she requires special care to be taken of, where she has to take proper, balanced and healthy diet. She not only has to take care about using illegal drugs, but also at the same time, has to take care while taking many legal and prescribed drugs as well. This is beacause the foetus in the womb of a woman is very critical and it is very prone to any kind of infections or abnormalities depending on the consumption of food and other substances by the expecting woman (Casper, Fleisher, & Lee-Ancajas, 2003).
During pregnancy, the use of drugs is not only limited to the consumption of drugs like marijuana and cocaine, but it also involves consumption of alcohol and caffeine in excess (Streissguth, Barr, Martin, & Herman, 1980). The research including such women who used drugs during the time of their pregnancy has been carried out and provided in the resarch. It has been evaluated and analyzed for developing useful remedies and solutions to this problem (Sannerstedt, Lundborg, Danielsson, & Kihlstrom, 1996).
Statement of problem
The harmful effects of consuming drugs by the expecting moms during their pregnancy. This serves to be the problem which has been evaluated in the research.
Significance to the society
The health of the babies at the time of their birth and for some time after that is a matter of great concern for the doctors and scientists. This is due to the reason that irrespective of the improvement and upgradation of technology and science, there is a huge number of deaths among the infants. It has been found that on an average about 50% of the women took legal or illegal drugs during their pregnancy. The immmunity of the child is adversely affected by this. It is observed that about 2 – 3 % of the total defects found in the child during their birth were due to the consumption of specific drugs to cure their illness or treat any disorders faced by the expecting mother (Gunatilake & Patil, 2015).
The use of drugs also worsens the condition of the expecting mom and she has to go through unnecessary complications while giving birth to their child. There may be many diseases or disabilities developed in the baby in the later stages. It is observed that the number of cases of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has increased tremendously (Kesmodel, Wisborg, & Olsen, 2002).
Relevance to the study
It has been observed that the consumption of prescribed drugs, knowingly or unknowingly, has serious health issues in the child even before their birth in the foetus of the mother. Many times, the disabilities and other disorders related with the mental condition of the child and its capacity to resist virus have been incorporated through the use of drugs by the expecting mom during pregnancy (Casper, Fleisher, & Lee-Ancajas, 2003). There are many cases which are relevant to the study carried on the statement problem. This relevance has been obtained through researches carried among the women who consumed drugs during their pregnancy. There were different effects on the health and condition of the children who were born from such mothers (Gunatilake & Patil, 2015).
The effect of consumption of drugs is different depending on the level of consumption. This has to be obtained in the research. Also, the influence of prescribed drugs, alcohol and caffeine on the health of the child and mother after delivery has to be obtained.
The research would be evaluating and analyzing the same in a predefined and statistical manner.
Research questions
1. Does consumption of illegal drugs like marijuana and cocaine by the expecting moms during their pregnancy affect the baby?
2. Which are the legal drugs which should be avoided during pregnancy by a woman? Why should they be avoided?
3. What is the level of prescribed drugs that can be taken during pregnancy?
4. What are the disorders which are most commonly sen in the child whose mother had consumed drugs during their pregnancy.
Research method
Quantitative research has been carried out which will help in obtaining the data regarding the effects of the drugs consumed by the expecting moms during their pregnancy. Quantitative research would help in obtaining the logistics of the data. There has been a questionnaire which has been developed on the basis of the effects on the child as well as mother.
Data Sampling and Participants
The research that has been carried out involves considering the cases of women where they used to consume legal and illegal drugs before pregnancy. It has been done by taking interactive interviews of the women who consumed such drugs in their teens as well as during their pregnancy. The women who were interviewed were in the age between 20 – 30 years. The sampling was random, that is, all the women were from different fincancial, social and cultural backgrounds. The only things that they had in common was that they had consumed drugs during their pregnancy in different quantities. It may even include usage of alcohol and excessive consumption of caffeine and nicotine.
The participants were asked responsive questions on the basis of a questionnaire that was prepared in advance considering most of the factors related to the consumption of legal as well as illegal drugs.
Data Evaluation and Analysis
The level of consumption of drugs has been evaluated among the women. The effects of the drug consumption was then tabulated on the basis of the level of consumption and the effects on the mother as well as the baby born to them.
The evaluation of the data was carried on the basis of likert scale where the intensity of the effects as well as the level of consumption were developed on a scale which ranked between 1 – 5. In the scale, 5 ratings shows extreme agreement and 1 rating shows extreme disagreement and 3 shows undefinite response.
In the table, the average of the responses got from the mothers are shown. Here, 5 ratings show that the effect was extreme and the condition was worst. The level of intensity decreases from 5 to 1.
It was found that when the consumption of drug was very low during the pregnancy, there were mild effects on the health of the child and the condition of the mother during the delivery was average. However, the condition worsened with the increase in consumption of drugs, where the babies were observed to have various mental and physical illnesses. There was Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) observed in most of the cases where the expecting mom consumed heavy drugs. The condition of the child whose mother had regularly being consuming alcohol and caffeine was somewhat improper. The child experienced excessive frustration, prolonged illness and weak immunity.
The findings of the data collected is shown in the table below:
Consumption details Drug consumption Very low
(during pregnancy) Drug consumption Medium
(during pregnancy) Drug consumption Very high
(during pregnancy) Alcohol and caffeine
Effects on:
Problems during the delivery of the child 3.5 4 5 3
Health of the mother after delivery 4 4.5 5 3.5
Condition of the child 4 5 5 3
Disorder in the child 3.5 4.5 5 3.5
Nature of the child 4 4 4.5 3.5

Sensitivity to ethical issues
The topic is very sensitive as it is related to the health of the new born babies and also on the health of the mother. Developing of disorders and issues of mental and physical illnesses would lead to huge requirement of the medical facilities. This would consumer a large portion of the government’s revenue (Gunatilake & Patil, 2015). Also, it would promote unhealthy environment in the country. Hence, it is a matter of great concern to tackle the ethical issues created by the use of drugs consisting of legal as well as illegal drugs and also including the consumption of caffeine and alcohol (Gunatilake & Patil, 2015).
Strengths and limitations
The research has been supported with empirical data which strongly supports the findings. Any futher research carried on this topic can use the findings of this research as a base for extensive research in the future.
The women were randomly collected and were asked before the research regarding the consumption of drugs during their pregnancy. On the basis of that only, the women were selected for the interview.
However, there are few limitations of the research. It is not involve women from across different countries. This has to be achieved as the behavior and strength of the women are different as per their origin. The data was not able to accurately name the disorders faced by the children. it only provided the presence of any disorders or illnesses among the children.
It cn be stated that the women who were consuming drugs during their pregnancy had large number of adverse effects on the child which was born. The intensity of these effects depended on the level of consumption of the harmful substances by them.

Casper, R. C., Fleisher, B. E., & Lee-Ancajas, J. C. (2003). Follow-up of children of depressed mothers exposed or not exposed to antidepressant drugs during pregnancy. . The Journal of pediatrics, , 142(4.
Gunatilake, R., & Patil, A. S. (2015). Drug Use During Pregnancy. Retrieved from
Kesmodel, U., Wisborg, K., & Olsen, S. F. (2002). Moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth and death in the first year of life. . American journal of epidemiology, 155(4), , 305-312.
Sannerstedt, R., Lundborg, P., Danielsson, B. R., & Kihlstrom, I. (1996). Drugs during pregnancy. . Drug safety, 14(2), , 69-77.
Streissguth, A. P., Barr, H. M., Martin, D. C., & Herman, C. S. (1980). Effects of maternal alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine use during pregnancy on infant mental and motor development at eight months. Alcoholism:. Clinical and Experimental Research, 4(2), , 4 – 12.

Essay on Comparison of Doctrines of Mozi and Confucius

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Table of Contents
I. Introduction 2
a. Historical Background of Mohism and Confucianism 2
b. General Similarities 3
c. General Differences 4
II. Body 4
a. Obedience and Hierarchy 5
b. Political Theory 5
Role of government (Compare between the two) 6
Anti-war stance 7
c. Familial Ethics and Social Order 8
Universal Love vs. Filial Piety 8
Frugality of Mohism 8
III. Conclusion 9
References 9

I. Introduction
Mohism and Confucianism are two teachings and philosophies that existed in the time period of 200 BC to 400 BC in China. Their details are obtained as under:
a. Historical Background of Mohism and Confucianism
Confucianism is believed to be developed from a person named Confucius and his actual name was Kong Qiu. However, the principles and teachings of Confucianism refer to the cultural practices of the Zhou clan. The birth of Confucius was on 28th September 551 BC. He developed codes of behaviour for the people to be observed in the society. He had developed a system which was based on “virtues”. It was very much accepted by the Han Dynasty in their schools (Lai).
Mohism was founded by Mozi, whose actual name was Mo Tzu and was born in Tengzhou, which lies in the Shandong province of China. He developed an ideology and philosophy which challenged the core principles and teachings of Confucianism. The teachings of Mohism were based on observing self-reflection and self-learning and not to follow the practices which were followed by their ancestors since ages. It had innovation and logical approach. Its importance declined after the introduction of the Qin dynasty and it further declined by the acceptance of Confucianism through Han Dynasty in their schools (Ning).
b. General Similarities
The basic principle in both the philosophies tends to focus on obtaining the ultimate goal of spreading love among all the people. This is the biggest similarity among the two philosophies and teachings.
Both of the philosophies emphasized on putting forth the interests of the society ahead of the personal interests by the people. It involves sacrificing of their interests for the overall benefit of the society. Both of them heavily stressed on the conduct of the individuals.
There was similar style and structure of administration and bureaucracy observed in both of the philosophies (XUE and MA).
c. General Differences
In Mohism, people were prescribed to learn from their self-reflections and question existence of each and every thing until they got satisfied by the answers obtained. On the other hand, Confucianism prescribed the followers to learn from the methods, techniques and working patterns which were followed since ages by the ancestors.
Mohism developed the concept of Universal love which was based on a specific purpose or goal. While, Confucianism developed the concept of benevolence in love, which was based on following of ethical behaviors and duties derived from ancient times. The concept of both were same, but the method of attaining the love was different in both the philosophies as seen in the above discussion.
Confucianism was based on the virtue of uniting oneself with the heaven (Tian) and it provided the relationships between men and heaven. While, Mohism is observed to be depended on the behavior inculcating the virtues of impartiality in the practices of men (Qi-zhou).
II. Body
There were many differences in the approach and living styles of the people which were derived from the differences between the two teachings and ideologies of Mohism and Confucianism.
a. Obedience and Hierarchy
There were different levels of hierarchy observed in both the philosophies and the important characters in both of them were also different depending on their approach.
In Mohism, the level of hierarchy was passed on directly without any second opinion from the subjects. While, in Confucianism, the hierarchy was passed too, but there were interests and opinions of the public which were considered. Hence, it can be seen that there was difference in the pattern of inheritance displayed in both of them. This ideology of hierarchy was developed from the traditions and logic developed in the two philosophies.
Regarding the obeying of authority, Mohism emphasized to strictly follow and obey the orders of the rulers and people who were at higher positions. People should not argue or express their opposing opinion regarding the laws and strategies developed. It stressed that the main cause of any conflict was difference of opinions. While, in Confucianism, there was obedience of the rulers and higher authorities, but it also involved obtaining the views and opinions from the subjects participating in the government and this opinions may also be contradicting to the ones of the rulers (Thompson).

b. Political Theory
In Mohism, the political theory was very much based on ruling the people with appropriate importance given to the merits of the people. It emphasized that people have to get rid of the ancient baseless traditions and methodologies and develop new ones for themselves. This describes that the Mohism philosophy was based on innovation and developing a logical approach rather than a rational one. This was the political basis which was prominent in the followers of Mohism.
While, in Confucianism, there was emphasize on developing an intrigue relationship of one’s body so as to reach heaven. It focuses on developing virtues and practices on for the well-being of the human beings which can be obtained from the traditions and customs followed by the ancient people since ages in their lives. It involves learning from their experience and using the solutions developed by them in the same way. Thus, the political theory was much like the structure adopted before few ages (Thompson).

Role of government (Compare between the two)
There were different perceptions regarding the role of the government in these two ideologies. They focused on both the logic required for administration, innovation and implementation. The level of intensity of these two factors was different.
In the Confucianism, a good leader would be achieving the steps of reaching the Heaven for his subjects. Whereas, in Mohism, a good leader would propagate the principle of universal love for his subjects and promote the same to be followed.
Regarding the equality and meritocracy, the policies were much lenient in Confucianism. It stressed on taking up of important positions in the administration by the people who were suggested by the rulers or high authorities and they were not only selected on the basis of merit, but also on the basis of their relation with any other higher authorities or on the basis of their nobleness. In Mohism, the system was fair and provided chance to the meritorious people as against the relatives of the higher authorities in selection for the administrative roles in their kingdom.
The legitimacy of the two philosophies was different owing to the difference in their ideologies and justice structure. In the Confucianism, ancestors were taken as ideals in developing the laws and imparting justice to the people. In Mohism, however, the experience along with the talent of the rulers was important for imparting justice to the subjects and establishing laws in the kingdom (Qi-zhou).
Anti-war stance
There were different approaches in the two philosophies regarding their strategy for war. However, both of them inculcated peace in their strategies. In Confucianism, there was provision for the subjects and higher authorities to provide their opinions and challenge the decisions of the rulers. This was to be done peacefully without affecting the peace of the kingdom. In Mohism, it was ensured that the conditions of war does not arise as it was against the practicing of war and fights for winning any territory. It emphasized that the rulers had highest powers and that everyone had to obey and follow his orders and there would be no other opinion developed against him (Huang).
c. Familial Ethics and Social Order
Universal Love vs. Filial Piety
In Mohism, there was no partiality in the authority or age of the person while providing them with the respect. Hence, it adopted the principle of universal love in its administration and philosophy.
In Confucianism, there was Filial piety, which refers to a system where the people respect their elders, parents and the ancestors. This was hugely practiced in Confucianism. The concept of love was based on benevolence in Confucianism, which was depended on specific reasons and purposes (Brooks).
Frugality of Mohism
Mohism was based on frugality of each and every rites and rituals that were carried out. It challenged the existence of the rituals and proposed development of logical approach towards it. It was very economical in considering the various tasks like listening to music, holding of funerals, weddings and other such gatherings for a social cause. They stated that people wasted their time by listening to music and getting involved in the above mentioned occasions. They stressed on utilizing the same efforts on production and development of resources.
Confucianism, on the other side was very traditional and firmly believed in rituals. They stressed on development of the people through social gathering and enjoyment offered by them. It believed in sustaining the ancient culture and rituals and also emphasized on the importance of listening to music (Huang).
III. Conclusion
It can be stated that the concepts and ideologies in both the philosophies were different. Both of them had many followers and they emphasized the school of thoughts in adopting their culture and improvising it for the next generations. The Confucianism focused on benevolence perspective of love, whereas, Mohism, stressed on the Universal perspective of love.
Brooks, A. Taeko. “”Mwodz 14-16″ Universal Love.” Warring States Papers 1 (2010): 129-131. print.
Huang, Siu-chi. “ “Musical art in early confucian philosophy.” .” Philosophy East and West (1963): 49-60. print.
Lai, Karyn. An introduction to Chinese philosophy. . New York:: Cambridge University Press,, 2008. print.
Ning, Chen. “ “Mohist, Daoist, and confucian explanations of Confucius’s suffering in Chen-Cai.”.” Monumenta serica (2003): 37-54. print.
Qi-zhou, W. A. N. G. “On Mohist View of Literature——A Co-discussion on Differences and Similarities Between Confucian and Mohist View of Literature.” Journal of Shaanxi Normal University (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition)2 (2008): 3 – 11. print.
Thompson, Scott. Compare Mozi vs. Confucius. 2015. Web. 9 November 2015. .
XUE, B. C. and H. F. MA. “A Review of Researches on the Comparison of Confucianism and Mohism in Recent Decade [J].” Journal of Jilin Normal University (Humanities & Social Science Edition), 2, (2011): 11 – 25. Print.

Essay on Directing style of Paul Verhoeven

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Paul Verhoeven, is a film director with the Dutch origin. He has played different designations and portfolios in his career. These portfolios consist of being a film director and producer, television director and producer as well as a screen writer. There are different genres of films that he has explored throughout his career and his direction have touched several subjects that can be taken in the film industry. He has been extremely versatile in providing the different types of films that are from completely different type of films. He has been quite experimental in developing films that belonged to different categories pertaining to the core concept and theme displayed in it.
The films that are directed and produced by him include the science fiction ones that include films like Total recall, RoboCop, Starship Troopers. It also includes developing films on the concept of erotic drama and thriller theme in a movie and this has been developed through his striving urge to provide excellent and highly entertaining as well as interesting movies for the audiences. Along with the above mentioned science fiction movies, he has also developed a classic erotic thriller with a touch of thrill and sexual content in it. Hence, it can be observed that there are different satires of film making that are explored by Paul Verhoeven (IMDB.COM).
He has been praised for the different themes and versatility that he inculcates across these themes among the audiences. He has been awarded many times by the international film festivals and other awards. It has been quoted in the Seattle times that, “Director Paul Verhoeven often appears to be a one-man Dutch movie industry”. On the other hand, he has been called as “a busy bee whose movies pollinate the festival circuit”, by the San Diego Union.
Three different genres of movies that can be seen in the movies directed by Paul Verhoeven has been discussed. These three movies are the RoboCop, Basic Instinct and the Total Recall. These movies are completely different from each other and they have completely different themes in them. They are belonging to the three different genres of science fiction, erotic thriller and an action film respectively. He has achieved great recognition and many awards for these three movies which tend to take his career as a director to an all-time high. The concept of these three movies led to his appraisal and the industry recognized his skills as an excellent director and screenwriter.
RoboCop tends to be an action packed and inspirational movie that partially incudes science fiction too. It is based on the theme that a police officer, named Alex Murphy, who was severely injured during his duty was provided some superpowers that can be possessed only by a robot. This process was carried out by the OmniCorp that is present across many nations. In this process, he tends to become half robot and the remaining part is his body. Inspite of the accident, he was not ready to quit and he served to be half robot and half man for performing the activities and tasks that are carried by the cops. There is a mix flow of memories in these movie. The cop struggles between his duties and his life, where in between he has a strong urge to live for his family.
Robocop serves to be the first significant break for Paul Verhoeven in the Hollywood industry. Initially, before the inception of this film, he had been directing many films in the Netherlands. The film focused on providing inspiration regarding the fulfillment of one’s duties for the society as well as their family. He has displayed sheer courage of a police officer who was killed brutally by many criminals. It was his bravery and urge to return back that his body too accepted the experiment that as performed by the multilateral organization OmniCorp in the industry.
There is also a blend of scientific fiction in the movie where the technology is used to showcase the physical structure that was acquired by the cop and the powers that he got after acquiring the body of a half robot. This scientific fiction was taken to an altogether new level when the technology was combined with the action that was carried by the RoboCop across the city.
There were many issues in the ratings that were provided to this movie. One significant reason was the excessive use of the violence and blood showing scenes in the fighting scenes and in the background. it was observed that there was no such sexual content, yet, the movie was X-rated by the “Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA)”. Thus, in order to get a universal rating to the movie, the scenes which showed blood were restricted to showing minimal or almost no blood. The fighting scenes that were intense were made lighter and there was an addition of a humor element in the action sequences that were planned by the director Verhoeven to be the core feature of the film. But, it did not go well with the MPAA and they restricted the level of violence that was shown in the movie. The movie grossed a huge revenue of about $8 million in the very first week (ROGEREBERT.COM).
Hence, it can be observed how the scientific fiction and action themes have been combined by the director Verhoeven in this film.
Total recall
Total recall is an American action film based on scientific fiction. It is a very unique and absurd story that contains that a construction worker dreams about going to other planet, that is, mars. He also meets his dream lady over there. There is a huge mystery about this lady who is present in Mars. He is very much attracted to her, but he is very much confused regarding his existence. He is confused that whether he is on earth or somewhere else where he meets this charming lady in his dreams. The movie has won many awards for different categories where the last one was for its visual effects by the “Special Achievement Academy Award”. It tends to be one among the most costly films of those times. But, there is no reliable and valid proof for that.
In the movie, it has been very well narrated by the director Paul Verhoeven through his imagination where he takes others to the new unexplored world of Mars planet. However, the real confusion that holds every person to the field is that during the virtual dreaming and development of memories, the man had reached mars in reality. It tends to surprise and shock the man in sudden grief and he tried to come out of it, but was not possible. The movie is an amazing combination of scientific fiction and imagination regarding the development of stories that has been witnessed in this case (ROTTENTOMATOES.COM).
Thus, it can be stated that it would be similar to the RoboCop movie that has been directed by the same director, that is, Paul Verhoeven. However, inspite of the similarities in the themes of these movies there is a huge difference in the portraying of these characters by the director. He has very differently shown more of his innovative and designer side in Total Recall where it is completely based on his imagination unlike RoboCop which is more based in the violence, action and acquaintance of power.
Basic Instinct
Basic Instinct has the tag of being one of the most erotic thriller movie across the entire Hollywood. It revolves around an investigation that is carried out regarding the brutal murder of a Rock star. The prime suspect who is believed to be the girlfriend of the Rock star attracts the investigating officer who in turn gets involved with her in an intense relationship.
It is an extremely imaginative and thrilling story where the two main characters are playing around each other and the chase between them is really interesting. The director has very well displayed the thrilling effect along with a touch of erotic sequences in it. Like RoboCop, basic Instinct also faced many opposition from the board due to its explicit content and highly violent scenes in it. However, inspite of so many controversies, it went out to become one of the most successful movies in the year 1992. The director has emphasized on each and every detail to give it a thriller effect and the dialogues have been developed accordingly to create suspense throughout the plot (IMDB.COM).
Thus, it can be seen how Paul Verhoeven has specialized in different genres of the film making industry where he has always been striving on the provision of different experiences to the viewers across the industry.
IMDB.COM. Basic Instinct. 2016. Online. 20 April 2016.
Paul Verhoeven. 2016. Online. 20 April 2016.
ROGEREBERT.COM. ROBOCOP. 17 July 1987. Online. 20 April 2016.
ROTTENTOMATOES.COM. TOTAL RECALL (1990). n.d. Online. 20 April 2016.

Essay on Human services worker for developmental disabilities

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Human services worker for developmental disabilities
Developmental disability refers to a medical condition in which the person has mental or physical impairments and they are unable to perform their daily routine tasks and carry other such movements with their body. They have very less control over their brain and have problems in learning and hence they are not self-dependent. They always need some kind of assistance to regularly perform their tasks. People suffering from developmental disability have different types of this condition and their symptoms as well as effects differ from one person to another. For guiding and helping the people who are suffering from developmental disability, there are different volunteering programs developed across the globe (Wehmeyer, 2007).
There are other features that the developmental services or human services worker has to observe while carrying their tasks and these features are mentioned below.
Providing person-directed support
As we have mentioned above, each and every case of developmental disability is different from one another, though all of them require one thing, that is are. The people who are suffering from developmental disability are either born with it or they acquire it within 18 years and they would be having it for the rest of their life. However, these people are capable of possessing unexplored talent that would help them in becoming athlete, sportsperson, artist and other such achievements. The only thing that they require is individual support and this can be provided with the help of person directed support (Caldwell, 2007).
Person directed support includes providing the person with developmental disability with special care that would help them to explore their talents and develop it to such a level that they can pursue their dreams through it. It would help them in living a more systematic and balanced life through the compassion and care provided by the human services workers. A human services worker has to take special care of the needs of the people that are suffering from developmental and intellectual disabilities.
Respect and promote self – determination
As mentioned above, providing care and love to the person with developmental disabilities would also respect and promote self-determination among them. It would help them to live with respect and stand with a good level of self-confidence with them. By providing them with care and showing respect makes them feel that they too are the part of the society and gives them the feeling of getting inclusive in their communities.
Self-determination is one such quality or virtue that would help the people with these disabilities to reach great heights in their lives and achieve magnificent things for them. It would in developing their self-respect which would in return boost their confidence and they would be able to dream big. They would also achieve their dreams through self-determination quality that has been developed through training with love and compassion. By promoting self-determination among these people, the entire community can be uplifted through their extra-ordinary talent and skills that needs to be identified and then explored through consistent motivation and self-determination (Wehmeyer, 2007). When a human service worker promotes self-determination qualities and inculcates respect for themselves within the people with developmental disabilities, it provides the people with these disabilities with amazing strength, power and energy that would help them achieve anything they want.
Support health and well-being of people with intellectual disabilities.
By providing the person with developmental disabilities with extensive care and support and helping them feel inclusive in the community, their health and well-being would be promoted. These are the people with intellectual disabilities where they cannot easily learn things, evaluate and analyze it in their mind and can also not develop movement abilities (Rosenbaum & Stewart, 2004). The health and well-being of the people with intellectual communities should be provided with the help of a human services worker and they should be able to provide extensive support with the feeling of love, intricateness and care.
The human services worker should take special care of the health and well-being of the people with these disabilities. This would ensure that they stay in good health and then only they can learn various skills and develop their talents. Thus, supporting the health and well-being of the people with intellectual disabilities is necessary to inculcate a feeling of belongingness among them and helps in developing leadership qualities along with the feeling of inclusive communities for them.
Thus, it can be seen that by providing person-directed support, respect and promoting self-determination among the people with developmental disabilities would result in their well-being and good health.
Caldwell, J. (2007). Experiences of families with relatives with intellectual and developmental disabilities in a consumer‐directed support program. Disability & Society, 22(6),, 549-562.
Rosenbaum, P., & Stewart, D. (2004). The World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: a model to guide clinical thinking, practice and research in the field of cerebral palsy. In Seminars in pediatric neurology WB Saunders., 1(1), 5-10.
Wehmeyer, M. L. (2007). Promoting self-determination in students with developmental disabilities. Guilford Press.

Guide on Develepment Plan for HR


Table of Contents
1. DEP unit 1
2. HRC unit 2
3. RAI unit 3
4. MER unit 5
5. CJA unit 6
6. RTO unit 7
7. PRM unit 8
8. SCO unit 9

Development Plan
1. DEP unit
Planned outcome
I would be developing the importance of Continuous professional development concept which involves analysing the elements that are required in its development. By the end of the study, I would identify the needs involved in CPD and I would be learning the impact of Continuous Professional Development and I want to utilize it for the development of better HR/ L & D skills on the topic. There are two parts which are developed in different points.

What do I want/need to learn? What will I do to achieve this? What resources or support will I need? What will my success criteria be? Target dates for review and completion

The importance of the use of Continuous professional development concept in the management and growth of an organization.

The effect of the use of Continuous professional development concept for the overall development of employees needs to be learned.

I would develop the influence of elements like knowledge, skill and behaviour on the performance of the employees.

Appropriate evaluation and analysis of the above mentioned three elements will be done which will help in proper understanding of the Continuous professional development concept.

I would need to analyse the three development needs that are very important for meeting the demands of the company which are communication skills, negotiation skills and conflict management.

The effect of these needs has to be observed while developing the importance of the Continuous professional development concept and it has to be evaluated and analysed from the HR point of view.
I would fill the gaps that are created in the performance of an employee and develop a solution to it from the HR point of view.

It involves prompt understanding and applicability of the needs that develop specific outcome from the employee for the benefit of the company.

In the second part, I would discuss the role of HR in enhancing service delivery in Abu Dhabi Health Services Company – SEHA.

I need to understand the kind of service that is provided by SEHA to the people in Abu Dhabi.
I would be considering the Internal Customers of HR and their Expectations from HR for evaluating the role of HR in the development of SEHA.

I would need to understand the effect of these elements on the services provided by SEHA.

I would need to evaluate and analyse the effectiveness of the HR in the handling of the services that is being delivered to the customers of SEHA.

The understanding of the role of HR will be required while developing an ideal course of working for the employees in SEHA.
The success of the learnings from the evaluation and analysis of the HR framework in SEHA would be in the form of factors that I would be developing for improving the performance of the organization in terms of the health care services that it provides.

The study will be useful in identifying the minor flaws pertaining to the HR point of view that would be existing in the working of the organization

2. HRC unit
Planned outcome
The development of the SEHA organization which is the Abu Dhabi Health Services Company would be studied in this unit and I would identify the factors that helps the organization to achieve success in the fulfillment of its goals and objectives by effectively evaluating the task of the HR. I would be evaluating and analyzing the different elements that are existing in the working framework of SEHA and would carry a detailed study of these elements that would help the HR in better understanding of the needs of the people.

What do I want/need to learn? What will I do to achieve this? What resources or support will I need? What will my success criteria be? Target dates for review and completion

I would like to learn the framework that is adopted by the SEHA organization for providing a high quality in its services to the people in Abu Dhabi.

I would be analysing organization’s position in its industrial sector, its products and services and its customer/consumer base.

I would need to observe the purpose and goals of the organization and how well these are expressed to both customers and employees so that they are satisfied by the functioning of the organization on the whole.

I would evaluate the external factors that has impact upon the successful achievement of the goals and objectives.

This will be done by carrying a PESTLE analysis of the Abu Dhabi Health Services Company which would help in obtaining the impact of the external factors on the working of HR.

I would obtain the hindrances in HR’s working through identifying some of the biggest issues that the organization is facing and I would aim at developing means to overcome these issues and help the HR in achieving the desired results through coordinated efforts.
I would need the elements that supports the smooth working of the HR in an organization and helps them in performing their task in an easy way.

I would have to evaluate and understand the effect of such factors on the decisions and implementations made by HR which enable them to fulfil the objectives of the organization and manage it effectively.

There are various factors which will be studied by me that will help to boost the quality of service that SEHA provides to the customers and aims at achieving the best service at an economic cost through the involvement of government.
The effectiveness of the study is ensured by obtaining the three ways in which HR subsequently supports (or should support) the organization in achieving its goals and they are:
• Build effective Relationships
• Rewarding system and employee engagement
• Succession & development planning

These factors help in achieving the desired results from the employees and helps in fulfilling the needs of the people which would lead to increased level of satisfaction and the work of HR would be justified.
3. RAI unit
Planned outcome
I would be analysing the element of collecting appropriate data and information that contributes to the success of the organization. Data and information in general play a vital role in ensuring that the organization runs logically, and that the human resources are optimally utilized towards the achievement of the objectives of the organization. The data and information pertaining to the SEHA organization which is the Abu Dhabi Health Services company would be evaluated and analyzed here. I would like to help the HR in evaluating the amount and necessity of the investments that are to be made in the achievement of goals by SEHA for providing a quality service to the people.

What do I want/need to learn? What will I do to achieve this? What resources or support will I need? What will my success criteria be? Target dates for review and completion

I would like to analyse the fact that HR data in healthcare is as important as it is in other organizations and I would focus on the data and information that SEHA, “Abu Dhabi health Services Company” stores, evaluates, analyses and uses.

The various data that the organization records and uses has a significance of its own.

I would need to establish statistics that would be supporting the expenditure of the company on various factors and a proper classification of such factors needs to be done to channelize the efforts of the HR.

I would be collecting the data that helps the organization to channelize its resources and make the necessary investments that would improve the performance of the organization on the whole.

The importance of collecting the data and information from the HR point of view will be determined and it would be further used for improving the utilization of finance by the organization.

I would be executing the collection of the data and information and then use it to evaluate the organization on the basis of the expenditure, efforts and emphasis on quality service that it provides.

I would require to collect various type of data which includes employee turnover data, salaries, benefits, employment costs and other data for employees, employee data on the number, names, address, location as well as relevant personal information, absence data due to various reasons such as sickness, leave or otherwise, including many others.

I would be requiring the various ways in which SEHA records and stores their data which involves the use of computer databases to store data.

I would need to study the various legislative obligations and requirements that an organization in the UAE, such as SEHA, would need to meet in its data recording and storing process.
It provides the fact that the organization has ensured that it is as interactive as possible through the feedback application on its portal indicates how determined SEHA is to comply with the legislative requirements of the UAE.

The evaluation of the data and information that is being used by SEHA will help us in establishing an optimum structure for utilization of resources that are available to them to ensure that the quality of service at an economic cost is maintained at SEHA.

4. MER unit
Planned outcome
I would like to evaluate and analyse the effective management of the employment relationship between employee and worker which is very critical to achieving success in business. The impact of the organizational policies and institutional laws would be analyzed and studied in order to understand the nature of the employees while establishing these laws and policies. It would be discussed in three parts which involves development of the impact of employment laws on the behavior of employees, individual rights of the employee and the critical process of terminating an employee.

What do I want/need to learn? What will I do to achieve this? What resources or support will I need? What will my success criteria be? Target dates for review and completion

I would like to understand the impact of employment law at the start of the employment relationship which affects the attitude and behaviour of the people working in the organization.
I would analyse the factors which are of internal and external type that affects the employee relationship within the organization and has a certain effect on the employee’s attitude and behaviour.

The factors that would be affecting the employee’s relationship are to be studied here which include organizational culture, market situation of the firm, government laws and policies and the employment status.
It is important to observe this point since the management of an organization is likely to experience prosperity in terms of increased sales and revenue if it has a positive employment relationship with the employee.

In the second part, I would need to understand the main individual rights that the employee has during the employment relationship with an organization.
I would be analysing the basic and special characteristics that are to be observed for maintaining of relation with the employee within an organization.

The elements that impart rights to the employee like the work life balance, legal support, fair treatment and psychological contract are to be evaluated in detail.
In order for an organization to meet its primary objective of profit maximization, it must formulate and implement policies that protect the rights of the employees during their entire stay at the organization and this provides the significance of these point.

In the third part, I would understand the issues which are to be addressed at the termination of the employment relationship.
I would be analysing various elements which are to be considered and taken special care of while terminating an employee and its effects on other employees and the prestige of the organization is to be discussed.
The study of the dismissals that are made in the organization, exit interviews and the redundancies is to be done for the evaluation and analysis of the impact of termination process.
The termination of an employee needs to be done on the basis of the reasons that are mentioned in the employment law and while observing that the organization will be able to hold its dignity and respect in the market.

5. CJA unit
Planned outcome
I would be developing the importance of job analysis and job design and how they fit within the broader professional area of organisational design. It involves considering the skills, knowledge and techniques which are required for the effective job analysis and design of job for the HR and help in establishing a process which inculcates fulfilment of goals and objectives of the organization. There are a number of HR practices which are to be studied, evaluated and analysed for optimum designing of job and its analysis. The principles of job design and analysis will be derived and observed through interacting with employees of the organization.

What do I want/need to learn? What will I do to achieve this? What resources or support will I need? What will my success criteria be? Target dates for review and completion

I would need to explain the principles, purposes and practice of job analysis that would generate the desired results for the organization through the means of HR and help them in deriving a structure that would be most fruitful for the organization.

I would need to contribute to the process of job analysis through adequate understanding and knowledge about the topic which will help in better framework from the HR’s side in the organization.

I would need to estimate the requirements of the organization through the understanding of the job design and analysis that is being carried out in the organization.
I would be observing the elements of equality, confidentiality, and organizational culture after assessing the EEOC standards and the company affirmative actions and these elements would help in developing an appropriate job design without any bias among the people.

The attitudes of the workers and their behaviour while performing a specific task is to be analysed and on the basis of that the requirements of job is to be designed and this analysis has to be studied for the development of the job requirement in the form of job design by the HR personnel.

I would require an analysis of the relevant skills, expertise, and familiarity in the job that is required to be performed by an individual in the organization and its utilization in the performance of the tasks given by the organization has to be studied.

Equal employment, equal payment, respect of privacy, motivation, inclusion of minorities, and nondiscrimination are elements of EEOC that the organization has to observe in executing its activities and this would ensure that the job design carried by the HR is fulfilling the goals and objectives of the organization.
The importance of job designing will be achieved through interviews, observation, vital information and work diaries and this serves to be the most critical purpose of job analysis where one has to optimize the resources and get the work done from the employees.

There are three methods which would help in the designing of job and its analysis and each of the three methods will apply for purposes of ensuring credibility and validity of data that is used within the organization.

6. RTO unit
Planned outcome
The process of resourcing and talent planning activities are to be discussed in this unit. I would like to develop various means of recruiting the employees and carry a prompt analysis of their skills and qualification from the HR point of view. I would develop the relationship between recruitment and selection by identifying the key stages in each separate phase of resourcing and this includes undertaking of various means of executing the process of recruitment by an organization. The entire on-boarding process is to be evaluated and analysed and this will help in obtaining the key set of qualities that are required for the fulfilment of the tasks by an employee with the example of Elektronika Company.
What do I want/need to learn? What will I do to achieve this? What resources or support will I need? What will my success criteria be? Target dates for review and completion

I would need to explain the factors that affect an organisation’s talent planning, recruitment and selection policy and identify appropriate recruitment and selection method for the HR department which is involved in the hiring of the employees.

I would like to contribute to the recruitment and selection interviewing process for a job role on the basis of the evaluation and analysis of the hiring process and the importance of effective induction will be explained while carrying the analysis of the in an organization.

I would be deriving and analysing the factors affect the resourcing of manpower by the HR personnel and development of the talent requirements for the job that is going to be assigned to an individual.

A proper job analysis will help to obtain an optimal recruitment and selection process which will contribute to the overall development of the organization through improved and talented set of employees that will be hired by the HR after the above process.

There would be consideration of examples for obtaining the understanding of the recruitment process and these examples would most likely be live cases.
There are internal as well as external factors that are affecting the recruitment process and the description of the job is very important for the process of hiring.

I would need to the resources available to the organization for the recruitment of new employees and the need of hiring new ones has to be evaluated and discussed for ensuring that the resources which are available to the organization are properly utilized.

The job which is available in the organization needs to critically examined and the feasibility of hiring a new personnel for the same has to be evaluated.
The use of the social media, telecommunications and other such means of advanced technology has increased the size of the talent pool that is available to the organization for hiring employees and this provides them with a positive side while they get to hire the best talent from the available options.

A proper understanding of the needs of the job and its description will help in precise selection of candidates and will result in the selection of the most suitable candidates.

7. PRM unit
Planned outcome
I would be developing the link between organisational success, performance management and motivation. This would be done using the relationship that exists between the terms of performance management and reward and on evaluation it would be possible to determine the impact of these elements of the performance of employees in an organization. On the basis of that, we would be able to understand the concept of performance review in depth and understanding it will help to motivate the employees and in turn get incredible outputs from them.

What do I want/need to learn? What will I do to achieve this? What resources or support will I need? What will my success criteria be? Target dates for review and completion

I would need to obtain the connection between organisational success, performance management and motivation through various means and ensure that the results developed would be able to understand the importance of performance of employees in the overall development of the organization.

The concepts of performance review and reward management have to be evaluated and analysed in detail which will help in developing positive outcome in the organization and lead to tremendous increase in the overall performance of the organization through increase in satisfaction and content level of the employees.
I would be evaluating the purpose of performance management and its relation to the attainment of the business goals and objectives in an organization which would be related to the motivation and the reward element that is observed in the organization to encourage and retain the employees.

I would actually execute a performance review which would require assessing the skills as per the job requirements and analysing them to develop a compilation of the required skills for performing in an organization so as to achieve certain goals. Assessment of skills of the employees will also be done to ensure their effectiveness.
I would be forming a discussion group and get their opinions and views through brainstorming and reflective discussion on the topic of performance review and analysing the effects of various measures that are taken by the organization towards motivating the employees.

I would be requiring a proper reward system to be developed for analysing the relation of the results developed with the performance as well as motivation element from HR point of view. These elements would be analysed and critically examined to understand their importance in the working of an organization.
The aim of the study considers that performance management aids the effective management of employees and teams within an organization in order to achieve the highest organizational performance levels. Hence it should be exercised effectively to improve the overall performance of the employees in an organization.

It serves the purpose of the organization to be more creative in how they reward their employees through the use of financial and non-financial benefits in a ‘total reward’ approach and this will help in developing a positive performance review system.

8. SCO unit
Planned outcome
I would be developing a research that would help to establish the impact of change in an organization. This would be carried by evaluating and analysing various elements that motivate the need for imbibing changes in an organization. The role of HR has to be considered as one of the most crucial one in implementation of change and the approaches that they undertake while introducing change and implementing it is to be analysed. The key factors that are involved in the change process would be discussed and it would be done from the HR point of view so as to ensure that the best possible decision in terms of changes to be made in the organization are taken with the help of LG company.

What do I want/need to learn? What will I do to achieve this? What resources or support will I need? What will my success criteria be? Target dates for review and completion

I would need to understand and develop the terms that are involved in implementation of changes in an organization and its effects on the organization as a whole system is to be analysed.

I would like to learn the importance of executing and implementing change within an organization from the HR point of view.

The effect of changes on the structure of an organization and the role of managers in using this change for the benefit of the organization has to be learned.
I would undertake evaluation of various strategies that would be developed by LG company while bringing changes in the industry.

The four key factors that are involved in the change making process would be developed along with evaluating the stages that are involved in change making process I nan organization.

The role of HR in implementing the changes effectively has to be analysed and it has to be observed critically to understand their function in the positive development of the organization through changes which are incorporated.
I would need to determine the need for change which has led to the development and implementation of change in LG Company. These changes were introduced for the purpose of improving the performance of individuals in the organization.

The three critical stages of Change preparation, Change Management and Change Reinforcement which are involved in establishment of change in an organization will be studied and analysed here.

There is a need to observe the changes in the attitude and behaviour of people while implementing changes in the organization.
It ensures that effective research on the changes in an organization with respect to the practice and means of implementation is carried out by the HR personnel.

The role of HR is very important in developing changes in the organization and supporting it to make sure that it gets welcomed by the employees in the organization so as to boost the performance of the employees and benefit the organization.

I would be successful in the study while deriving the impact of changes on the development of an organization.

Project on Design of Road Surface

Task name 1
Review & comparison of distresses 2
• Longitudinal distress 3
• Alligator distress 3
• Ravelling distress 3
Repair Details 3
Causes of pavement damage: 4
Quality of raw materials: 4
Chemical reaction: 4
Climate: 4
Maintenance: 5
Leakage of water and other liquids from the sewage: 5
Describing the failure 5
• Longitudinal Cracking 5
• Alligator Cracking 6
• Ravelling cracks 6
Investigating the causes 7
Vehicle load 7
Easy damage of the joints 7
In appropriate Asphalt structure 7
Alternative treatments recommendations 7
Identification through Anisotropy equipment: 7
Automatic Road Pavement assessment 8
Automatic Road Crack Detection 8
Comparison & contrast with local and international codes 8
Conclusion 9
References 9

Task name

We are going to develop a case study on the design of a road in Dubai. I am a civil engineering student and I am going to evaluate and observe the surface of a road in Dubai. We have to examine the distresses that would be existing on the surface of the road. We were supposed to pick a road at any random place of the entire UAE while capturing certain photos depicting the failure of the road.
For the research and analysis, we have selected 32A, Um AlRmool, situated in Dubai. The width of the road is 9 m and the width is 4.2 m we have also created a drawing that supports the alternatives and developed alternatives to provide a design of the surface of road that is taken into consideration. There are photos that we have captured while analysing the surface of the road.

Review & comparison of distresses
There are various stresses that are observed on the road and they are the reason for the cracks and failures that are observed in the surface of the roads. On 32A, Um AlRmool, road, Dubai which we took under consideration, we found failures in the foam of Alligator Cracking, Longitudinal Cracking and Ravelling cracks. The distresses involved in this type of cracking are reviewed and discussed below.

There are two major types of stresses that are found on the surface of the road and they are:
Surface distresses
The distresses which are formed due to the cracking, failure or other such irregular failure of the roads is termed as the surface distress. This kind of distress originates due to various reasons which involves poor climate, fatigue, vehicles load, weathering due to sand and water. It also involves the irregularities and problems that has occurred in the construction of the roads and use of poor, inadequate material in its construction also is a major reason of the cracks and failures that are observed in the roads.

Pavement distresses
The distresses that occur on the surface of the road on the pavement sides are termed as pavement distresses. The pavement distresses is widely observed due to the use of poor quality of materials on the sides or inappropriate filling that is made on the sides of the road in order to save time and cost. These pavement distresses involves rigid and flexible pavement distresses.
This types of stresses which are observed in our case on 32A, Um AlRmool, road are:
• Longitudinal distress
• Alligator distress
• Ravelling distress
They are reviewed and compared in the discussion below. The longitudinal distresses are formed on the surface in a linear pattern and tend to damage the surface in a straight line, whereas Alligator cracks tend to form a network of cracks on the surface of the road. The cracks that are formed due to the ravelling distress are observed to have a random pattern on the surface of the road. These distresses are tend to occur on the surface of the road that is taken into consideration by us.
Repair Details
The cracks that are caused on the road 32A, Um AlRmool, are due to the different types of distresses and they need to be understood and repaired.
The cracks that are formed due to the above mentioned 3 distresses that are formed on the surface of 32A, Um AlRmool, road are of two types of intensity- High intensity and low intensity.
Low intensity of cracks refers to the cracks that are less than ½ inch in width and are less frequent as compared to the other cracks. This types of cracks that are observed due to these three distresses are repaired by sealing the crack in order to provide any sort of material like water, moisture that may damage the road surface by further widening of the cracks.
High intensity cracks refers to the type of cracks that are more than ½ inch wide and are more frequent as compared to the other cracks. This type of cracks have to be worked upon immediately to avoid any sort of accident caused due to it. This cracks are repaired and reduced by placing a layer of Asphalt and other mixture in the areas that are affected by these cracks.
Causes of pavement damage:
The pavement constitutes to be one of the significant part of the road. The damage of the pavement is one of the major reason for the repair of the highway roads. These damages tend to make the roads more vulnerable to the cracks and other failures. It is found that there are two types of damage that occur on the pavements (Finn, Nair, & Abdullah, 1977):
Functional pavement damage:
It refers to the damage due to the faults in the functions of the pavement. It is tend to happen when the road does not fulfil the standard specifications and standards that are set by the governing bodies to ensure the quality and safety of roads.
Structural pavement damage:
It refers to the damage due to the external factors. It is caused by excessive vehicular movement, climate adversities, fatigue of the materials used and failure of the road design. This type of damage is majorly observed on the road that has been taken under observation by us.
We have found that the pavements on the 32A, Um AlRmool, road that we have taken in to consideration were having 3 types of failures in the forms of Alligator Cracking, Longitudinal Cracking and Ravelling cracks. We have developed that there are various causes of these pavement damages and they are as follows (Finn, Nair, & Abdullah, 1977):
Quality of raw materials:
The quality and strength of pavement is very much dependent on the quality of the raw materials that are used. The materials that are used for the construction of road should be of standard quality and there should not be efforts to save cost by compromising the quality.
Chemical reaction:
The spilling of strong gases and other liquids that degrades the materials from which roads are made also damages the pavements on a large scale. The reaction might not be immediate but would gradually deteriorate the quality of pavements.
The surface of the pavements becomes vulnerable to the damages due to excessive heat or cold affects
Poor maintenance of roads also contributes to the damage of the pavement on the surface of the road.
Leakage of water and other liquids from the sewage:
There are sewage and other lines carrying water and gases below the pavements. Due to any type of error, the leakage of this fluids damages the foundation of the pavements and this makes it vulnerable for a major damage on a long term basis.
Describing the failure
The failure of the road design that may lead to the cracking and damage of the roads of the highway is due to various reasons. These reasons are divided on the three types of cracks that are observed. On the 32A, Um AlRmool, road we found following cracks after evaluating and analysing it (Pynn, Wright, & Lodge, 1999).

• Longitudinal Cracking
It is a form of cracking where the cracks are formed in the form of a vertical line near the centreline or towards the side and it graduates along the surface of the road. This types of cracks do not tend to form a network but they may increase in size with respect to time. This cracks is 30.53 m long on the road taken by us.

• Alligator Cracking
It is a form of cracking where the cracks are formed in the form of network that are linked to one other which on graduation of time would create a huge crack. It is generally observed that this cracks are found at the sides of the roads near the pavements. This cracks is 67.35 m long on the road taken by us.

• Ravelling cracks
It is a form of cracking where the cracks are formed in random form and they may be very deep on the surface of the road. The ravelling distress leads to this type of cracks on the surface of the road. This cracks is 5.4m in width 25 m in length on the road taken by us.

Investigating the causes
The failures that have been observed on the 32A, Um AlRmool, road involves formation of three types of cracks namely Alligator, Longitudinal and Ravelling cracks. We have studied the cracks and developed the causes of the failure on this road. This causes involve the failure of pavements too and they are found to be as follows (Wirtgen, 1981):
Vehicle load
This serves to be one of the reasons for the formation of the Alligator cracks on the surface of the roads. This types of cracks are formed due to the frequency of traffic and vehicles on a continuous basis and especially on a particular region.
Easy damage of the joints
It refers to poor construction of the joints at the time of filling the roads and the pavements serves to be one of the major reason of longitudinal cracks that are formed on this roads.
In appropriate Asphalt structure
It refers to the use of improper and inadequate Asphalt during the construction of the pavements on the surface of the roads that may cause the scope for damage and make the road very much vulnerable for formation of ravelling cracks on the surface.

Alternative treatments recommendations
The various types of treatments that can be carried out to ensure that the failure in the form of these cracks that are observed on the surface of the roads are as follows:

Identification through Anisotropy equipment:
It refers to the understanding of the structure in the form of pores of the cracks. In this method, we can understand the structure and design of the surface of the road through 2D images that are formed using the Anisotropy device.
Automatic Road Pavement assessment
It refers to the treatment where there is provision of assessing the structure of the pavements on regular basis using the equipment which would continuously check the quality of the pavements (Fukuhara, Terada, & Nagao, 1990).
Automatic Road Crack Detection
It refers to the treatment where there is a constant assessment of the cracks or any irregularities that may further lead to formation of cracks on the surface of the roads (Fukuhara, Terada, & Nagao, 1990).
There are various methods that are to be undertaken to avoid and reduce the cracks that are formed on the surface of the roads.
Comparison & contrast with local and international codes
In the global market there are various such problems that are observed in the correction of road surface. Similar kind of problem was found in the European roads where “European Transport Safety Council (ETSC)” has rectified the cracks in the forms of alligator cracks on their roads through Asphalt filling in the form of layers at a high temperature.

In our case too, we have recommended filling the alligator, longitudinal and ravelling cracks on the surface of the roads through using the fillings and other such material from which the roads are made by an equipment at high temperature.
In this project, I have developed and analysed the design and surface of the 32A, Um AlRmool, road Dubai. I have developed a design that helps to evaluate the cracks that occur on this road. I have also discussed various remedies and treatments that can be used to overcome this problems. I have cleared various concepts in terms of road surface design and have developed an in depth understanding of the subject. I hope the research work and remedies developed by me helps to discuss the elements that causes cracks on the surface of the roads.

Finn, F., Nair, K., & Abdullah, A. (1977). THE USE OF DISTRESS PREDICTION SUBSYSTEMS FOR THE DESIGN OF PAVEMENT STRUCTURES. Volume I of proceedings of 4th International Conference on Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements, , (pp. 3-38). Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Fukuhara, T., Terada, K., & Nagao, M. (1990). Automatic Pavement‐Distress‐Survey System. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 280-286.
Pynn, J., Wright, A., & Lodge, R. (1999). Automatic identification of cracks in road surfaces. 7th International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications, 671 – 675.
Wirtgen, R. (1981). Method and apparatus for repairing longitudinal seams or cracks in road surfaces. US 4407605 A.