Student’s Name: ID Number: Attendance Number: Section: Date of Submission:
Implementation of NIST cyber security framework for insurance company
With the increasing advancements in technology and tremendous development of smart applications, there is a significant amount of information that is shared online or is stored in the electronic system. There is a special framework developed to protect the same from being misused and also cause any kind of damage to the system in which it is stored. There is a different unit of the US Commerce department which is known as “National Institute of Standards and Technology”. It focuses on developing standards and measurement and develops specific and customized framework related to the metric system.
Cyber Security refers to providing security to the information as well as the medium or device that stores and transfers it from getting into the hands of unethical sources that may misuse them for destruction and other evil purposes. As mentioned above, there are a large number of smart devices continuously being introduced in the market and many of them help in reducing the use of paper by storing the data and information online or in any electronic medium. However, it has a major threat from the hackers and other individuals or groups who would get access of this information and then use it for their destructive and selfish motives against the humanity. In one such article by Matthew Scholl, Kevin Stine, Joan Hash, Pauline Bowen, Arnold Johnson, Carla Dancy Smith and Daniel I. Steinberg, they have determined the framework that would help in determining security measures for the health Insurance Company. It has been covered under the “Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Security Rule.” They have also discussed the implementation of the NIST cyber security for protecting several intellectual properties related to finance like the banks and insurance companies. Health Insurance companies have a major chance of getting accessed by non-trustable sources and it is more prone to fall in the hands of other people due to the lack of security observed in it (Scholl, et al., 2008).
There is a requirement of a framework with International Standards that would help in ensuring cyber security and take strict actions against the one who breaches or violates it. The IP gets stolen from various companies in US and this is a major indication of the threat that the information and data stored in these companies possess. It can also be seen that while adopting a macro-economic framework for the same would help in dealing with the issue of cyber security with greater maturity. The cyber security framework provided by NIST would help the financial sector, especially the insurance companies to secure and protect the information that it carries. It helps in successfully fulfilling the responsibility of personal security that the Insurance companies have to provide to their customers across the globe. There is an anonymous quote on cyber security which states that “They want what you have got, don’t give it to them”. Hence, it can be observed that developing an International cyber security framework is very much necessary in order to protect any country from getting destroyed through hacking and misusing of the data and information stored with the companies in them. In this way, it can be observed that NIST has a significant role in Information Security concerned with the security of the health insurance information and data.
Scholl, M., Stine, K., Hash, J., Bowen, P., Johnson, A., Smith, C. D., et al. (2008). An Introductory Resource Guide for Implementing the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule. INFORMATION SECURITY, 1-117.
HOW CAN CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE BE MEASURED?
Cultural Intelligence can be termed as an individual’s ability to adjust and adapt himself successfully, to the different cultures with unfamiliar attributes from cultural and traditional point of view (Earley & Ang, 2003). It involves the ability to think and analyse an unfamiliar situation in a specific manner, develop motivational strategies and attitude and then act accordingly considering various cultural differences (Tan, 2004).
In these highly advanced and modernized world, many of the companies and organizations across the globe are multi-cultural. Organizations design and develop their products in one particular country, set it for production in multiple number of countries and include its selling and marketing in even more number of countries (Culture and international business: recent advances and their implications for future research, 2005). All this is possible even though there are number of cultural differences among the countries owing to the different languages, religions, economies, political structures, ethics and other such characteristics. There are many factors influencing the cultural intelligence and its effect on the performance of the individuals. We are going to observe the work and researches done by various well known researchers in this field.
Cultural intelligence follows Emotional intelligence. It takes the approach from that point where emotional intelligence ends (Earley & Mosakowski, 2004). Emotional intelligence refers to the logic that people are used to culture that is familiar and they carry their interaction with the other people with the same familiar approach. They do not have a broader vision of getting themselves acquainted and adapted with the differentiation of the cultures. On the other hand, cultural intelligence inculcates the logic of interacting with people with unfamiliar cultures and background and that too, while living in an unfamiliar environment (Tan, 2004).
Let us see an example which displays both the type of intelligence: An American manager who was in Germany for his work was heading a team of engineers. When other members of the teams proposed their ideas and plans, two of the German engineers criticized their ideologies. On this, the American manager developed a conclusion that the Germans are insensitive and rude (Earley & Mosakowski, 2004). In this case, he was considering the people who gave their views and not the actual views. This approach depicts Emotional intelligence part and it can be stated that a better understanding and approach is needed to inculcate cultural thinking and eradicate emotional quotient (Morris, 2005). A more rational approach towards cultural thinking could have helped the manager to understand that the criticism provided by the German engineers was more because of their engineering background, rather than generalising their behaviour to the Germans. On the other hand, German engineers depicted an approach inculcating cultural intelligence where in spite of the speakers being of the same culture that they belonged to, criticized their ideology and plan.
Cultural Intelligence is measured by four factors given by Soon Ang in 2003 and 2007, various authors and researchers like Imai, Early, War, Triandis who have discussed Ang’s research and carried further studies. In terms of measuring the Cultural intelligence, there are four core components or dimensions which were proposed by Ang and other fellow researchers with him and they are:
It refers to the approach as well as the attitude of an individual when he deals with an unfamiliar situation or problem which may involve cross cultural entities. People need to broaden their way of thinking which will thereby improve the way they act (Vianen, Pater, Brown, & Johnson, 2004). As discussed in the example above, if the manager had understood the true meaning of the criticism offered by the German engineers, he would have thought on the clauses mentioned by them rather than drawing to a conclusion that inculcated emotional behaviour.
It is related to the behavioural factor and takes it a step ahead by describing and evaluating the type of behaviour that inculcates cultural thinking. It states that a person should not only consider the way he thinks but should also focus or work on the expression of his words. One should always remember that Words can help to make or break the enthusiasm of the people (Neeley, 2012). In the above example, the manager should have motivated the German engineers for providing honest and useful feedback and could have asked them to develop a better proposal and plan. (Tan, 2004)
It refers to the act or process understanding and acquiring knowledge regarding the various cultures and their systems. It is observed that each and every culture has got its own perspective of thinking. Hence, it is necessary that efforts should be made in understanding the various regional, traditional, ethical and other such cultural factors of a particular nation. People who have a broadened vision and wide range of acceptance can evolve themselves in the field of cultural intelligence (Ang S. , Dyne, Koh, & others, 2007). In the example, American manager can show a better understanding of the German ideology instead of judging them on the whole.
It follows the cognitive factor through deepening the approach of understanding each other’s culture by having a better and adequate understanding of individual’s own thought process. One has to awaken, realize and work on the thoughts within himself in order to understand others (Ang S. , Dyne, Koh, & others, 2007).
They considered the relationship of these dimensions with the effectivity of three intercultural outcomes which are judgement of culture and decision making, adapting cultures and performing tasks. Before the study, they carried out validation and implementation of the multi-dimensional cultural intelligence 20 points scale across the samples in USA and New Zealand among 1360 people and then the study was carried on 794 people. It was obtained that cognitive and meta- cognitive factors affected the decision making, behavioural and motivational assisted cultural adaptation and behavioural and metacognitive helped in developing task performance (Ang S. , Dyne, Koh, Chandrasekar, & others, 2007).
Early and Mosakowski in 2004, also developed three components of cultural intelligence which supported Ang’s theory and they are cognitive, physical, emotional and emotional/ motivational (Earley & Mosakowski, 2004).
Triandis, a researcher in 2006, defined cultural intelligence on the basis of two terms: Idiocentrism, which involves thinking, feeling and acting as it is in individualistic culture whereas Allocentrism which means thinking like the people in collectivist cultures. (Triandis, 2006).
On the other hand Lmai and Gelfand in 2010, developed a research on the effects of cultural intelligence on various relations and found that it does not have that much effect on the thinking capability of the individual during diverse situations, but presence of CQ helps an individual in intercultural negotiations. (Imai & Gelfand, 2010).
A well-known researcher, C. Ward along with his associates in 2011, carried a research on three studies. The first study was based on the four factors provided by Ang and was carried on a sample of around 336 international students. It was found that the results developed by the Ang’s study were not applicable everywhere across the globe as they considered only two nations, namely USA and New Zealand in their research, whereas the effect of the cultural intelligence is well beyond these factors. Second study, was carried to determine the relationship between cultural and emotional intelligence on 118 international students. A strong correlation of around .82 was obtained which implies large correlation of the emotional aspect in the cultural intelligence which is contradicting to the Ang’s and other studies. The third study was carried to determine the score of cultural intelligence and test the cognitive factors related to it with the help of MPQ Multicultural Personality Questionnaire sub-scales where a very less amount of relation was obtained among the CQ scores and the adapting capabilities of the individuals (Wilson, Fischer, & Ward, 2011).
Advise for the managers about measuring and understanding cultural intelligence:
Managers must understand that a team that is multi-cultural will provide various benefits to the organizations by possessing in depth knowledge of the product, its marketing and promotion across different cultures and appropriate customer satisfaction through all the cultures across the globe. But, this may also increase the work of the manager where he has to put more efforts and supervision among the staff from different cultures (Ward, Fischer, Lam, & Hall, 2009). A manager has to take care and analyse the root cause of the mutual conflicts occurring due to cross cultural clashes. Along with that, a proper understanding and application of the above mentioned four factors of cultural intelligence will help him to channelize the multi-cultural team towards the achievement of the organization’s goals and objectives (Brett, Behfar, & Kern, 2006).
Organizations consider cultural intelligence as an advantage in terms of market reach, competitions and development of strategy. Huge, MNCs like Lloyds TSB prefers individuals who are multi-cultured and have a sensible understanding of the cultural intelligence. This helps them to provide a wide range of customer service. Companies like Lufthansa and Levi Strauss prefer the individuals with cultural intelligence that provide the man advantage for better product development and its marketing (Tan, 2004).
Thus, it may be observed that only the four factors suggested by Ang are not capable enough to determine the capability of the individual to adapt, but special observation and analysis needs to be made on individual level by the managers (Earley & Mosakowski, 2004).
Ang, S., Dyne, L. V., Koh, C., & others, a. (2007). Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance. Management and Organization Review, 335–371.
Ang, S., Dyne, V. L., Koh, C., Chandrasekar, N., & others, a. (2007). Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Management and Organization Review, 335-371.
Bazerman, M. H. (2012). Cross-Cultural Communication Skills for International Business Executives. Program on Negotiation Harvard Law School.
Brett, J., Behfar, K., & Kern, M. (2006). Managing multicultural teams. Harvard business review, 84-91.
Culture and international business: recent advances and their implications for future research. (2005). Journal of International Business Studies, 357–378.
Earley, P. C., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
Earley, P., & Mosakowski, E. (2004). Cultural intelligence. Harvard business review, 139-146.
Imai, L., & Gelfand, M. J. (2010). The culturally intelligent negotiator: The impact of cultural intelligence (CQ) on negotiation sequences and outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 83–98.
Meurs, N. V. (n.d.). Mixed-Race: The Future’s Bright, The Future’s Blended. Retrieved july 25, 2014, from http://www.intermix.org.uk/: http://www.intermix.org.uk/events/Dr%20Nathalie%20Van%20Meurs.asp
Morris, M. W. (2005). When culture counts—and when it doesn’t. Negotiation, 3-5.
Neeley, T. (2012, march 22). Global Team Leaders Must Deliberately Create “Moments”. Retrieved august 10, 2014, from http://blogs.hbr.org: http://blogs.hbr.org/2012/03/global-team-leaders-must-delib/
Tan, J.-S. (2004). Cultural intelligence and the global economy. Leadership in Action,, 19-21.
Triandis, H. C. (2006). Cultural Intelligence in Organizations. Group & Organization Management, 20.
Vianen, A. E., Pater, I. E., Brown, A. l., & Johnson, E. C. (2004). FITTING IN: SURFACE- AND DEEP-LEVEL CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND EXPATRIATES’ ADJUSTMENT. Academy of Management Journal, 697-709.
Ward, C., Fischer, R., Lam, F. S., & Hall, L. (2009). The Convergent, Discriminant,and Incremental Validity of Scores on a Self-Report Measure of Cultural Intelligence. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 85-105.
Wilson, J., Fischer, R., & Ward, C. (2011). Assessing the predictive validity of cultural intelligence over time. Personality and Individual Differences, 138–142.
Table of Contents
1.0. Introduction 5
2.0. Location Audit / Assessment 7
3.0. Location SWOT Analysis 9
a) Strengths: 11
b) Weaknesses: 12
c) Opportunities: 13
d) Threats 14
4.0. Stakeholder Analysis 16
4.1 Identifying the Stakeholders 16
4.2 Influence of the stakeholders 18
4.3 Investigating a major Stakeholder 19
4.4 Data Analysis 21
5.0. Vision 24
5.1 Image of the destination: 24
5.2 Activities that people would be doing: 26
5.3 Value of the visit: 28
5.4 Value for the stake holders and host communities 28
6.0. Mission Statement 29
6.1 Purpose of the cultural heritage site 29
6.2 Target markets: 29
7.0. Strategies 31
7.1. Product Development: 31
7.1.1. Visitor Attractions and Activities: 31
7.1.2 Hospitality: 34
7.1.3. Access and Transport 35
7.2. Cultural Heritage Interpretation of site communicated to visitors 36
7.2.1 What to interpret? : 36
7.2.2. How you will communicate with visitors at your attraction 38
7.2.3. Training of the staff: 39
7.3. Promotion strategy 39
8.0 Sustainability – Impact Analysis 40
8.1. Environmental 41
8.2. Socio-cultural 41
8.3. Economic 42
9.0. Conclusion 43
Jebel Ali Heritage village 47
List of Figures
Figure 1: Contribution of Travel and Tourism to GDP 6
Figure 2: Location of Mina Jebel Ali 7
Figure 3: Palm Jebel Ali near Mina Jebel Ali 8
Figure 4: SWOT Analysis elements 11
Figure 5: Identification of the stakeholders 18
Figure 6: Relationship matrix between the stakeholders and project 19
Figure 7: Traditional small houses 24
Figure 8: Replica of an Ancient styled cistern in UAE 25
Figure 9: Camel riding in UAE 26
Figure 10: Holding a Falcon in hand in UAE 26
Figure 11: Power and Interest model 29
Figure 12: Traditional Housing style in UAE 30
Figure 13in UAE: Traditional store in UAE 31
Figure 14: Traditional style of shopping in the lanes in UAE 31
Figure 15: Traditional Al Dama game in UAE 32
Figure 16: Ancient art festival in UAE 32
Figure 17: Ancient style Belle dancing in UAE 33
Figure 18: Ancient style tents in the site 33
Figure 19: Traditional mode of transport design 34
Figure 20: Traditional clothing style in UAE. 35
Figure 21: Henna style of art in UAE 36
With the advancement of technology and increase in awareness among the tourists, the Tourism industry has witnessed a tremendous boost in the last decade. The interests of the tourist have been unique and specific. They significantly stress on the natural habitat, wild life and environment of the destinations while taking their decisions of travelling to these destinations. Tourists, also considered the culture of the destinations before visiting them.
There has been a great contribution of Tourism on the economy of UAE. In 2014, it has contributed about 8.5% to the overall GDP of UAE. Development of world class hotels and resorts in these regions have led to such a tremendous growth of the tourism industry in UAE. The contribution of the tourism and aviation industry in Dubai has been about 27% of its GDP. These shows the increasing importance of tourism in the economy of Dubai. This contribution is expected to increase in the coming years and the current trends in Dubai’s tourism industry show the contribution to rise up to 38% by 2020 (Henderson, 2014).
This shows that there is a tremendous scope of growth for any company which is involved in the tourism and aviation sector. It provides a promising future potential of the huge profits that has been forecasted after observing the current trends in the tourism industry of Dubai. It would therefore, be favorable and advisable to invest in the travel and tourism industry that would help in exploring the culture and heritage of Dubai to the tourists.
The statistics of the contribution of Tourism and Travel industry on the GDP of UAE in financial terms can be observed from the graph shown below. It helps in signifying the importance that would be given to our project of exploring the culture and heritage by the government.
The increase in the contribution of tourism industry towards the GDP in UAE is shown in the graph below:
Figure 1: Contribution of Travel and Tourism to GDP
The culture of UAE is very unique and authentic. It has interesting desert and night life to support these culture. The heritage of the places are retained through effective maintenance and hence, large number of tourists from across the world are interested in understanding and exploring the culture of UAE through specially visiting the places of cultural importance. This would provide large number of opportunities to the companies and hotels that are planning to develop a cultural village in Dubai which would help the tourists in exploring its authentic traditional culture and heritage through effective tourism (Henderson, 2014).
On the basis of this, we would also be proposing a location and evaluating it on various basis for establishing a cultural heritage village in Dubai and this will be discussed in the report.
2.0. Location Audit / Assessment
We would develop and forecast the potential of developing a cultural and heritage tourism in UAE. The location that has been selected by us is Mina Jebel Ali which is situated near the Jebel Ali Beach hotel as shown in the figure below:
Figure 2: Location of Mina Jebel Ali
(GOOGLE MAPS, 2015)
The location of Mina Jebel Ali, is in the heart of the city with the north side opening towards the sea near the Palm Jebel Ali Island. It has a Jebel Ali Freezone region towards its east. It has a wide network of roads and highways towards its south, which include the D53 and E11 highway, as shown in the below figure:
Figure 3: Palm Jebel Ali near Mina Jebel Ali
(GOOGLE MAPS, 2015)
This would immensely contribute to the business possibilities available in these regions as the Palm Jebel Ali island is one of the biggest investment hub of the world and it maintains the tourism to the observed level. The location could be assessed on the basis of its proximity to the sea and availability of adventurous water sports. There are also provisions for diving available in these regions in order to help the visitors explore the aquatic flora and pearls existing in the sea.
The location of UAE acts as a bridge between the east and the west countries. Hence, it tends to get visitors and tourists from both the sides of the world. There are no trade barriers and this would lead to feasibility of purchase price of the branded products and services. This would also boost the number of visitors as a large number of them would come for the purpose of shopping. It has a wide option for the tourists regarding their safety during the visits. It is due to the stability of the culture, economy, politics and administration in UAE.
There is Jebel Ali village nearby and this would help in involving the local communities from there and getting their support for the establishment of the cultural heritage site in Mina Jebel Ali. It would also ensure that the authenticity and uniqueness of the Arabian culture has been retained in the cultural heritage village. This would positively impact the decision of choosing the tourist destination by the people.
3.0. Location SWOT Analysis
SWOT analysis would help identifying the elements which hare important to be considered in the development of a project or any business model. It provides a critical evaluation of the feasibility of the project by providing the pros and con in executing the project and developing it on a large scale. It involves developing the factors in advance, and evaluate their importance for obtaining required success and growth of the project in the market. It helps in determining the potential of the project for the coming future. Carrying SWOT analysis of our project would be very important so as to obtain the feasibility of the project and develop other decisions regarding the investment of cost, time and resources in the project.
It consists of the following elements:
Figure 4: SWOT Analysis elements
(FULLESTOP.COM. , 2014)
Identifying the strengths of our project is very essential as it would help in developing a base for the marketing strategies, business model, realization of the services and products to be offered. It is also necessary to identify and evaluate the weaknesses that are present in the market, country and concept regarding the developing of a cultural heritage site in Dubai.
It is also very important to evaluate the opportunities available to the project as it would help in maximizing the efforts and utilizing of resources in the right direction towards the development of a successful project. The potential threats to the business are also to be identified. They are to be evaluated and analyzed. After that, solutions have to be developed for overcoming their effects and to minimize their potential.
The SWOT analysis of the above selected location would be carried out as follows (Ghazinoory, Esmail Zadeh, & Memariani, 2007):
• The project is very unique and is based on exploration of the culture and heritage of UAE. This is greatly appealing to the tourists across the globe.
• The stable economic and political environment in Dubai provides a huge scope for development and progress of this project.
• The geographical situation of UAE is very critical, as it is in between the east and the west. This would lead to visitors all round the world, from both the sides of UAE.
• The culture of UAS is very different form the general western culture which has not only been observed in the west, but it has also its influence on the east. This differences in culture, traditions, living styles, clothing patterns and other such factors would generate lots of interest among the tourists.
• The location of the selected site for development of the project is near Jebel Ali village. This would provide an authentic touch from the local communities present over there. It would also help in sustaining their culture for generations among the visitors who would be coming to the project.
• The proximity of the location to the Jebel palm island would boost the tourism of the Mina Jebel Ali region.
• There are many luxurious resort and interesting activities that are available in the area near the Jebel Ali beach hotel. This would attract more tourists to these regions.
• Cultural heritage tourism would help the tourists in exploring the culture of UAE and feel the privilege of its heritage.
• The tremendous boost in the tourism industry of Dubai and development of world class and state of art monuments and buildings like the Burj Khalifa Tower, The Dubai Mall and exotic hotels like the Atlantis palm, Burj Al Arab have resulted in increasing number of tourists in Dubai. It creates a great potential for our project, as the increase in the tourists base of Dubai would favoring our business and help in its growth and sustenance (Henderson, 2014).
• Dubai has been affected by recession which has resulted in slowing down of its economy. This would adversely affect the policies and government incentives to the tourism industry.
• There has been a tremendous increase in pollution observed in Dubai. Due to this, the natural touch of the destinations has been significantly affected.
• The living and travelling costs in Dubai have increased considerably and this would have negative impact on the tourist who plan to come to Dubai as it would incur very high costs to them.
• There is a very limited scope for the visitors to rent a vehicle for themselves or drive it. This is due to the strict laws and policies of the Traffic Authorities and regulations in Dubai.
• It is not very favorable for English speaking.
• There are very strict hunting and forest rules which are to be observed by the tourists.
• There are separate rules for each and every location and destination. This generates an unfavorable and confusing psychology among the visitors. This can largely affect the flow of visitors.
• There are many laws regarding the owning of the land and it does not favor the investors and buyers.
• There are huge reservations in different important sectors of the government and private companies for the local people of UAE.
• It has a huge dependence on the crude oil trade with the other parts of the world and hence, its economy is also largely affected by it.
• The other factors of infrastructure and labor are developed at a very high cost (Henderson, 2014).
• Complementing to the tremendous growth in the Tourism and travel industry, there has been a huge increase in the number of foreign visitors to UAE. The data supporting this involves increase in the contribution of tourism industry to the GDP of UAE as discussed in the earlier sections. Considering all these factors, there is a huge potential for the development of the cultural heritage site and diving village in Dubai.
• Location of Dubai attracts many tourists from all over the world, who are interested in aquatic flora and fauna and would like to indulge in the adventurous water sports and scuba diving. These services are very efficiently maintained and offered on a large scale owing to the proximity with the sea.
• The development of Dubai as a business hub across the globe has encouraged large investments from companies and entrepreneurs from the different countries of the world.
• There are many festivals and events of international importance which are celebrated and held in Dubai. This would provide large number of opportunities to the tourism industry as the number of local visitors and tourists would increase considerably.
• There are tremendous number of opportunities in Dubai for shopping as it is home to large number of global brands. There are various cultural things justifying their heritage and these traditional things are available on commercial basis. Thus, many opportunities of trading traditional games and things are available to the people involved in businesses that explore their cultural heritage.
• Dubai is extremely stable politically and hence there are many opportunities provided to the new businesses and entrepreneurs who would be interested in exploring the culture and heritage of Dubai.
• There are large number of things which are exported by Dubai.
• It has formed many unions and agreements for carrying trade with economically developed countries like U.S., Canada, UK and other countries which have huge scope as a market for UAE like South Africa.
• There are many large scale projects to develop exotic hotels and resorts that would add to the shrine of the existing state of the art infrastructure and hospitality industries.
• There are many world class infrastructure facilities proposed in Dubai like the biggest arc bridge of the world, introduction and development of moving sky scraper high rise buildings (Henderson, 2014).
• The location of UAE also poses a threat to its security and stability as it gets impacted by the conflicts between the countries in the east as well as in the west. This creates huge security and integrity issues in Dubai.
• There are unstable and insecure security conditions in the neighboring countries like Iraq, Iran. This poses a huge threat to the flow of visitors as they would not prefer to keep their security at stake for exploring the tourist destinations.
• It is observed that many visitors in these regions are not tourists and are from the local towns and nearby locations. They would be least interested in exploring the culture as they have been witnessing it throughout their whole life. This would be a threat to cultural tourism in Mina Jebel Ali area.
• There is a potential threat from many other hotels, resorts and companies who are continuously involved in developing cultural tourism parks and islands in these region. Thus, huge competition would be existing in these region.
• The authenticity of the products and services can be duplicated by other companies and hotels and they would provide the same service at lower prices. This would pose a serious threat to the business of the company and lead to decrease in the number of tourists visiting our place (Ghazinoory, Esmail Zadeh, & Memariani, 2007).
• The concept of a cultural heritage village is very unique and has requires special care regarding the services and products offered. Authenticity of the product or services has to be maintained.
• There are huge government shares in the businesses, which is collected in the form of taxes imposed on different elements of the business (Henderson, 2014).
4.0. Stakeholder Analysis
A stakeholder is a person or a group of person representing a company and holds a part in other company’s product or services, through acquisition of its shares or through partnerships (Ghazinoory, Esmail Zadeh, & Memariani, 2007).
Stakeholder analysis refers to the critical evaluation of the actions concerning the stakeholders and their behavior (Ruhanen, 2004). It helps any company in developing critical elements for a product or service that would affect the stakeholders and result in action or responses from the stakeholders. The actions from the stakeholders could be positive as well as negative depending on their attitudes and capabilities (Ghazinoory, Esmail Zadeh, & Memariani, 2007).
In our project, the stake holders need to be identified. After that, the role of the main stakeholders has to be determined. The interrelationships between the different stake holders, also has to be developed to have a proper understanding of their needs and match them with the project’s requirements.
4.1 Identifying the Stakeholders
For the development of strategies and business model of the cultural heritage village at Mina Jebel Ali, in Dubai, there are many types of stakeholders which are to be considered. There are three types of stake holders:
• Connected and
The elements and members of these three type of stakeholders are shown in the figure below:
Figure 5: Identification of the stakeholders
The identified stakeholders have different influences on the success of the cultural vilaage project. Hence, it is very necessary to consider the influence of eac hadn every element mentioned in the above types of stakeholders. The critical analysis and evaluation of this influence would help in developing strategies accordingly for the development of this project.
4.2 Influence of the stakeholders
The role of stakeholders in developing this project is very crucial. Stakeholders provide the project with the required resources and boost which would help in the growth of the business. The evaluation of the needs of the stakeholders and requirements of the project would help in developing a good model for the stakeholders. There is an inter-relationship between the stakeholders and the requirements of the project. At the same time, it would also help in developing model on the basis of the stakeholder’s requirements.
It has been shown in the matrix below:
Figure 6: Relationship matrix between the stakeholders and project
Here, the needs of the stakeholders as well as the needs of the project have been evaluated on the basis of four elements that are,
This include the critics of the project and people, companies or organizations who are against the project or any particular part of the project.
The needs and requirements of the project developed are to be identified during stack holder analysis. The team and personnel behind the development of the project would project their needs and target goals from the project.
• End Users:
The end users refers to the customers, in the form of visitors in our case. The needs and specific requirements of the customers have to be targeted while developing an analysis of the stakeholders.
Many partners would be included as it is a project involving tourism, culture and hospitality. There are many organizations and companies which are to be partnered with and their needs and requirements affect the development of the project.
4.3 Investigating a major Stakeholder
There are many stakeholders in our project which has been discussed in the above sections. However, the intensity and contribution of each and every stakeholder is different on the cultural heritage project which is to be developed by me. The major stakeholder tends to be the customers, which are tourists in our project. The role of tourists is very significant as it would help in the growth of the cultural and heritage as well as diving village that is going to be developed by me.
The major stakeholder of our project would be the host community and the local tribes. They are taken as the major stakeholders because the project involves developing a cultural heritage village in Dubai. Hence, considering the point of view of the local communities would help in developing a better business model that would attract and appeal to large number of tourists across the globe. Hosting communities would also play a significant role in the development of the project as their extensive support would be required in constructing the cultural style heritage village.
The data for understanding the behavior, culture and tradition would be collected through filling of questionnaires from the local people. There would be a questionnaire developed which would be focusing on the qualitative factors for establishing a base of the business model. There were about 50 people who were provided with these questionnaires and their responses were obtained. The questionnaire is provided in Appendix A.
It helps in focusing on the elements of the community’s culture which can be used for attracting the tourists. This would help the local communities to enrich their culture as it would be explored by millions of visitors coming in the future. The reviews from the hosting communities would help in getting their opinions regarding the structure of the cultural heritage site which is going to be developed by me. The questionnaire would stress on traditional elements involved in the development of the cultural heritage village. The traditional market and occupations would also be obtained through the questionnaire.
4.4 Data Analysis
There are various models which are available for executing stakeholder analysis in a business model. Mapping techniques are evaluated and used for carrying the analysis. There are a large number of mapping techniques available for stakeholder analysis. One of them, which is the most applicable on our project is the “Three-dimensional grouping of power, interest and attitude” mapping technique.
It helps in evaluating the elements that would add logic to the stakeholder mapping. One has to consider the elements of power and interest effectively for establishing an understanding of the interest of the stake holders in the business. Another elements to be considered together are interest and attitude. This would help in obtaining a balance between the interests of the stakeholders and their attitude towards the development of the project (Murray-Webster & Simon, 2006). All the three dimensions of the stakeholder analysis mentioned above, namely, interest, power and attitude are critically evaluated for establishing a successful stakeholder analysis of the product or service in the market.
An analysis of the collected data would be done. The collected data would be tabulated on the basis of the needs of the project and the things which the local community feel should be highlighted in the development of the village. The opinions of the local communities regarding the structure of the village is also important. The questionnaire would help in getting the traditional style of living and other regular practices of the local communities, which are being followed in their culture since ages.
The data has been collected and analyzed. There were elements obtained from the people regarding the various things that should be used to display their culture. This table was obtained on the basis of it:
Name of the elements Feedback of the people
01. Design of Cultural Village Arabian Theme: 78%
02. Strategic location of heritage Inside Jebel Ali beach hotel: 38%
Next to the hotel by the beach: 62%
03. Sustainable practices should be incorporated Recycling waste: 41%
Recycling of water: 30%
Installing new usable energy by solar panels: 29%
04. Camel riding 85%
05. Henna art activity 68%
06. Traditional culture dancing 83%
07. Diving for pearl 74%
08. Traditional culture clothing 72%
09. Traditional culture games 82%
10. Preference Tourist guide services: 71%
Touring independently: 29%
11. Social media used Instagram: 31%
12. Traditional media TV: 39%
Posters at airport: 10%
13. Will Emirati style in Heritage site help to sustain the Emirati culture Average of the responses: 3.5
14. Jebel Ali is a very good location for Expo 2020 Average of the responses: 3
15. Attracting too many tourism in Jebel Ali could be annoying the host community Average of the responses: 2.2
16. Hiring local employees within the culture heritage to provide the services to tourists, is most suitable because they know much about our culture Average of the responses: 4
17. Gender Male: 70%
18. Age-group 18 – 25: 23%
26 – 35: 32%
36 – 45: 26%
46 – 55: 14%
56 +: 5%
19. Income 7000aed-10000aed : 38%
10000aed – 20000aed : 32%
20000aed-30000aed : 21%
30000 + : 9%
20. Nationality Emirati: 30%
The table was developed after identifying the elements that would be used in the questionnaire. The questions used in the questionnaire would be including the various elements which are shown in the second column of the table. The third column describes the requirements from the local communities and the questionnaire would collect the reviews and opinions of the people regarding the support that they would be able to provide in the development of the project. The elements were developed by us and the opinion of the local communities on the designing and maintenance requirements of each and every element was collected form the questionnaires.
The vision of the company would be based on the cultural heritage of Dubai. The vision would be, “Feel and Explore the culture and heritage of Dubai”.
5.1 Image of the destination:
For achieving the vision, the destination has to be a well-maintained cultural heritage village which would help the tourist in critically understanding the culture of UAE. It would also help them to get a first-hand experience of the culture and heritage of Dubai. The destination would be looking like the image shown below:
Figure 7: Traditional small houses
There are different traditional monuments and structures which would be developed. One of such structure consists of an ancient cistern that was developed during the ancient times in UAE, for storage of rain water is shown below:
Figure 8: Replica of an Ancient styled cistern in UAE
5.2 Activities that people would be doing:
People would explore the traditions of the Arabian world, enjoy in traditional styled restaurant with Arabic Desert and similar themes, and play traditional games that were developed in UAE before many years. People would also get a chance to enjoy a camel ride which is a traditional symbol of the Arab countries as shown in the image below:
Figure 9: Camel riding in UAE
People would love their visit to this village and cultural park. They would also click pictures with Eagle (Falcon) on their forehand, which is one of the traditions since ancient times in UAE as shown in the image below:
Figure 10: Holding a Falcon in hand in UAE
5.3 Value of the visit:
This would provide a unique and ultimate experience to the tourists and they would get a feeling of the authentic culture and heritage of UAE which would be fulfilling our vision. The tourists would get an extensive first-hand experience of the traditional style of living and they would be fascinated with the sports and games which are offered in the traditional infrastructure of UAE developed by me.
5.4 Value for the stake holders and host communities
The vision would help in obtaining quick and huge returns of the investments for the stakeholders. The ideologies and concepts would also be taken from the stakeholders as their opinions and views plays an important role in the execution of this plan. The unique design of the project and its state of the art features would help in attracting large number of tourists and this would bring in other investors too.
It would also boost the reach of the community to the entire world as the park would be displaying the cultural traditions and heritage of the local communities that have been existing over there for ages. At the same time, the local communities and the hosting communities would be getting large number of job opportunities through this project as the park requires people from the community too, for ensuring that the rich culture and heritage has been maintained. The community would prosper by maintaining its culture and would not have to adopt unnecessary westernization in their culture. The high standards of living offered by Dubai would be enjoyed and afforded by the local people in the Jebel Ali village and other surrounding areas.
6.0. Mission Statement
The mission of the cultural heritage site would be, “To maximise the reach of the Arabian culture and heritage in the world”.
6.1 Purpose of the cultural heritage site
The main purpose of the cultural heritage site is to develop a tourism business that would hele the tourists in exploring the culture of UAE and also help the local communities to grow and sustain their age old traditions and culture. This is achieved through the development of a magnificent state of the art kind of heritage site in Mina Jebel Ali, which tends to be very promising location for development of the business.
6.2 Target markets:
The purpose of the cultural heritage site would be serving the local communities with growth opportunities and providing the tourists with an authentic understanding of the culture and heritage of UAE. It would help the company in developing a firm hold in the tourism market which is booming in Dubai. Company could earn huge profits and trust of the tourists for the same.
Hence, the target markets would be the local people in Dubai as well as the tourists visiting the cultural heritage sites. The needs of the community of having a secure and good job would be satisfied by the project by providing numerous opportunities to the people in these communities. The needs of the tourists are also fulfilled through the mission of helping the tourists to explore the authentic culture and heritage of UAE. Tourists would get an amazing experience of the Arabian culture and they would also get a chance to experience diving in the sea for exploring the aquatic species and pearls existing in the sea.
The needs of the communities and the tourists are developed on the basis of power and interest model as shown in the figure:
Figure 11: Power and Interest model
The target markets involve the potential tourists all over the world. The structure and design targets the young population considering the urge for adventure and the interests in exploring cultures of different countries in them. The tourists have high levels of power in the project. Hence, they have to be kept satisfied through the process. The stakeholders have high interests in the returns from the project and so, they have to be continuously informed about the growth, success and future potential of the project.
This is the structure of target markets and the needs of the tourists as well as the stakeholders in the development of the project. Understanding these relationships effectively would help the project to develop a design which would be very successful in fulfilling the needs and requirements of both the groups, including tourists and the stakeholders.
There are various strategies which are developed for the designing and structuring of the project site. The products and services that are developed involves consideration of the customs and traditions in UAE and it also inculcates the culture of UAE. The strategies and the offerings of the site are discussed below.
7.1. Product Development:
The products are developed considering different departments and details as mentioned below:
7.1.1. Visitor Attractions and Activities:
In this, ancient style of living and traditional houses would be developed as shown in the figure:
Figure 12: Traditional Housing style in UAE
(TROPICAL ISLAND. DE, 2014)
Traditional stores of street shopping style would be created as shown in the figure:
Figure 13in UAE: Traditional store in UAE
(PHIL AND KEITH PHOTOGRAPHY.COM, 2013)
Traditional style of shopping in the lanes would be created as shown in the figure:
Figure 14: Traditional style of shopping in the lanes in UAE
There will be areas where visitors would learn the traditional game of Al Dama from the local people playing it. This is shown in the figure below:
Figure 15: Traditional Al Dama game in UAE
(FATIMA AL SULAITI.WORDPRESS.COM, 2014)
The cultural festivals and arts and different forms of dancing would be displayed as shown in the figure:
Figure 16: Ancient art festival in UAE
Figure 17: Ancient style Belle dancing in UAE
The facilities of housing and accommodation would be of traditional style as shown in the figure:
Figure 18: Ancient style tents in the site
The ancient style of eating food in groups would be provided along with serving of traditional food items as shown in the figure:
7.1.3. Access and Transport
The ancient mode of transport and design would be constructed as shown in the figure below:
Figure 19: Traditional mode of transport design
7.2. Cultural Heritage Interpretation of site communicated to visitors
The interpretation of culture is very important for the tourists. Interpretation does not only contain getting information, but it also includes analysing the information and processing it through evaluation and experiencing. The cultural heritage project that is being developed by us would focus on effective tourism would always provide appropriate interpretation rather than just providing information and relying on the facts.
7.2.1 What to interpret? :
The cultural heritage village aims at not only providing information to the visitors, but to provide them with a chance to feel the culture and traditions by experiencing it themselves. It is shown in the figure below, where a family of visitors enjoys the traditional dressing style of UAE.
Figure 20: Traditional clothing style in UAE.
(Lamson, Connor, 2015)
People would get a chance to experience and interpret the traditional henna art which has been obtained in UAE before many years. It has been shown in the figure:
Figure 21: Henna style of art in UAE
(DESIGNS OF MEHNDI BLOGSPOT.IN, 2014)
The use of the henna art has been since many ages in UAE. It is an art which has been developed across many countries.
Interpretation of the culture involves effective understanding of the art too through observing different forms of art as seen in the above sections.
7.2.2. How you will communicate with visitors at your attraction
The three golden rules of heritage interpretation is used by us which involves:
Understanding of the culture:
The interpretation of the tourists regarding the customs and traditions in UAE is carried by providing well maintained and attractive tour guide handbooks, leaflets and providing of an app that has all the details of the heritage site on the mobile play store and apple store market. The unique features and elements of the Arabian culture would be explained and experienced by the tourists.
Appreciation of the culture:
The culture would be understood by the tourists and then they would be appreciating it.
Protection of the culture:
The culture is retained and protected from getting westernized by not only the communities and us, but also by the tourists, who now respect the Arabian culture after interpreting it.
We would be having easy to understand leaflets available in different languages for the convenience of the visitors. We would also provide our mobile app to the tourists without any cost, once they enter the site. Mobile app would be very effectively guiding the tourists regarding the different locations in the site and it would provide them directions to each one of them through GPRS. We would also ensure that a human touch of exploration is maintained through guides and other staff members at each and every location.
A complete and genuine interpretation of the culture would be provided by the local guides regarding the Arabian culture from the traditional point of view. A proper interpretation has various benefits on the environment, tourism industry, visitors and for the operators. Here, the authenticity of the culture ensures benefits to the environment and tourism industry. Visitors would be satisfied and the operators, that is, us, would be getting good business through the increasing number of visitors.
7.2.3. Training of the staff:
The staff would be specially trained in hospitality and maintaining the authenticity of the Arabian culture. The visitors would not only be provided with basic factual information, but there would be effective and interesting interpretation of the sources by the guides. They would help the visitors to have an experience of the culture and heritage themselves. For this purpose, many people from the local communities would be selected and trained so as to effectively guide the visitors regarding their culture. The staff would be trained on all the elements that are present and are utilized in the heritage cite.
7.3. Promotion strategy
There are various marketing strategies which are to be studied and critically evaluated for developing and promoting the product. Promotion is an element of the marketing mix and promotion mix itself has 4 elements. These elements are:
Public relations refers to maintaining of the relations with the people, organizations, various departments of the government and other advertising and financial companies across the globe.
Advertising involves the promotion of the heritage site at various places of public importance, like in the metros, TV commercials, bus stations, taxis, etc. using effective modes of advertising would help in getting the required boost for the business. This would be beneficial for the growth of the project site and it would help us in generating large profits.
Sales promotion refers to the effective selling of the products and services on the basis of its quality and authenticity. The distribution channel for the product and services are developed in this. Here, it would be very specific where the elements of the ancient tradition would be focused.
Personal selling is the form of promotion which refers to the individual promotion of the product by directly hiring the salesmen. This would involve hiring local people from the communities with efficient communications skills and train them accordingly.
8.0 Sustainability – Impact Analysis
There are various factors which are to be considered while developing the sustainability analysis and they are:
• Organising events and festivals,
• Hospitality maintenance
• Accommodation and food
• Transport Facilities
• Guides and facilities for explaining the culture in details
The above mentioned factors would have a huge impact on three elements of sustainability which are mentioned below:
The effects of our project on environment would be mostly positive. We would be restoring the culture and old practices practiced in the ancient times and this would hardly create any kind of pollution after its construction. There would be very controlled levels of air, noise or water pollution in the site. The effects of the products on the environment would be greatly looked upon and analysed. The effects of the processes involving exploration of the culture and traditions would be very authentic and carried out with minimal health hazards towards the environment.
For the henna art, we would be using scientifically proven herbal components that would not harm the individuals who use them. We would also be recycling most of the products after being used by the tourists. We would be installing garbage bins and highlight them so that they are easily visible. We would provide cleanliness guidelines to the visitors and ensure that no part of the environment gets dirty. We would be installing CCTV cameras inside the project site. This would help in curtailing all the anti-environmental activities that would pollute or harm the environment through effective monitoring of the entire project site by the team.
Establishing of a cultural heritage site would greatly influence the culture of UAE. It will spread the culture to different corners of the world through exploration by the tourists coming from different places of the world. There will be a social boom observed as the tourists would be helping the local communities to earn and share their culture. These socio-cultural benefits are a part and parcel of the cultural heritage site. The society would get more civilised as it would develop better living conditions for the communities and villages around our cultural site.
Development of the cultural heritage site would help financial growth of the local communities. They could utilize their knowledge in the best possible ways through guiding the tourists in our site and also in the construction and maintenance of the heritage site. It would provide them with a stable economic income for the coming generations.
It would also boost the contribution of tourism in Dubai through increasing the number of visitors to Dubai. The revenues collected would involve paying taxes to the government and hence, government would earn huge revenues from the site as well as from the visitors as they would be using the government’s services.
Thus, it can be concluded that development of a cultural heritage site would help in boosting the culture and spreading it to the different parts of the world. The cultural heritage site prepared by us after evaluating and implementing the above factors would help in the upliftment of the local communities. The vision of exploring the culture of Dubai and making the tourists feel it themselves will be achieved.
Baldwin, D. (2012, April 17). Palm Jebel Ali to open Heritage Island eco-park. Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com: http://gulfnews.com/news/uae/culture/palm-jebel-ali-to-open-heritage-island-eco-park-1.1009444
Bourne, L. (2012, December 18). The Stakeholder Mutuality Matrix. Retrieved from https://mosaicprojects.wordpress.com: https://mosaicprojects.wordpress.com/2012/12/18/the-stakeholder-mutuality-matrix/
DESIGNS OF HENNA.BLOGSPOT. (2013, July 1). Mehndi Designs On Hands And Legs. Retrieved from http://designs-of-mehndi.blogspot.in: http://designs-of-mehndi.blogspot.in/2013/07/mehndi-designs-on-hands-and-legs.html
FATIMA AL SULAITI.WORDPRESS.COM. (2014). INSPIRED BY THE SEA. Retrieved from https://fatimaalsulaiti.wordpress.com: https://fatimaalsulaiti.wordpress.com/tag/souq-waqif/
FULLESTOP.COM. (2014, September 16). How to analyze your website through SWOT Analysis? Retrieved from https://www.fullestop.com: https://www.fullestop.com/blog/analyze-website-swot-analysis/
FULLESTOP.COM. . (2014, September 16). How to analyze your website through SWOT Analysis? . Retrieved from https://www.fullestop.com: https://www.fullestop.com/blog/analyze-website-swot-analysis/
Geronimo, A. (2014, May 05). DC forecasts strong growth in UAE tourism sector. Retrieved from http://www.tradeandexportme.com: http://www.tradeandexportme.com/updates/regional-talk/dc-forecasts-strong-growth-in-uae-tourism-sector/
Ghazinoory, S., Esmail Zadeh, A., & Memariani, A. (2007). Fuzzy SWOT analysis. . Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems: Applications in Engineering and Technology, 99-108.
GOOGLE MAPS. (2015, November 5). Mina Jebel Ali – Dubai – United Arab Emirates. Retrieved from https://www.google.co.in: https://www.google.co.in/maps/place/Mina+Jebel+Ali+-+Dubai+-+United+Arab+Emiratesemail@example.com
Henderson, J. C. (2014). Global Gulf cities and tourism: A review of Abu Dhabi, Doha and Dubai. Tourism Recreation Research, 107-114.
Lamson, Connor. (2015). Passion. Retrieved from http://legacymedia.localworld.co.uk: http://legacymedia.localworld.co.uk/276156/Article/images/17839307/4467884.jpg
MCQUEENEY, K. (2012, May 15). Dubai before the boom: Staggering pictures show how emirate went from desert backwater to the Manhattan of the Middle East in just 50 years. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2144613/Pictures-Dubai-1960s-1970s-city-fishing-settlement.html
Murray-Webster, R., & Simon, P. (2006). Making sense of stakeholder mapping. PM World today, 1 – 5.
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PHIL AND KEITH PHOTOGRAPHY.COM. (2013, August 29). Waiting for customers? Retrieved from http://philandkeithphotography.com: http://philandkeithphotography.com/?tag=market
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TROPICAL ISLAND. DE. (2014). Hatta Heritage Village, Dubai, United Arab Emirates / DXB Hatta Heritage Village – traditional houses with palm-trees and watchtower 5340×3400. Retrieved from http://www.tropicalisland.de: http://www.tropicalisland.de/united_arab_emirates/dubai/hatta_heritage_village/pages/DXB%20Hatta%20Heritage%20Village%20-%20traditional%20houses%20with%20palm-trees%20and%20watchtower%205340×3400.html
Tulsani, m. (2015, January). 13 Reasons Why Living In Dubai will Ruin You for Life. Retrieved from http://blog.raynatours.com: http://blog.raynatours.com/13-reasons-living-dubai-will-ruin-life/
Jebel Ali Heritage village
We are group of a young entrepreneurs studying in Dubai Women’s College and we are planning to develop a culture heritage attraction next to Jebel Ali Beach Hotel. There would be around 5 – 6 minutes required for completing the questionnaire. We would appreciate your thought and opinion on our development idea. We welcome your feedback and your Recommendations Thank you for your participation.
1. What design would you suggest for developing a culture Heritage
2. In your opinion the strategic location of heritage should develop
Inside Jebel Ali beach hotel
Next to the hotel by the beach
3. What sustain practices should in cooperate into our development
Recycling of water
Installing new usable energy by solar panels
4. We are planning to offer the following traditional activity, please indicate the activities that would interest you (tick as many as you can from the schedule)
camel riding Henna art activity Traditional culture dancing Diving for pearl Traditional culture clothing Traditional culture games
5. Which do you prefer to use
Tourist guide services
6. What kind of social media would you like
7. What kind of traditional media would you like
Posters at airport
Below are some other questions:
Questions Strongly Agree
2 Strongly Disagree
8. If we are offering an Emirati style in Heritage site, will it help sustain Emirati culture
9. Jebel Ali is a very good location for Expo 2020
10. Attracting too many tourism in Jebel Ali could be annoying the host community
11. Hiring local employees within the culture heritage to provide the services to tourists, is most suitable because they know much about our culture
We would like to ask some questions about you: (you have to tick the suitable option)
12. Your gender
13. Your age between
18 – 25
26 – 35
36 – 45
46 – 55
14. Your income
10000aed – 20000aed
15. Your nationality
Thank you for taking the time to fill out our survey. We rely on your kind feedback to help us improve our project. Your input is greatly appreciated.
Cultural essay on Russia for a military school.
With the advancement in technology and large number of scientific inventions to develop high tech weapons and warfare strategies, Russia has developed a powerful military and strong defense forces. Russia had been an empire till 1960. During that time, Russia had monarchy type of rule where the culture was male oriented and very aggressive as they believed in sheer physical strength. However, this culture has evolved across these years and there are many scopes of improvement that are being identified and upgraded with effective implementation. Russia has been struggling to retain its culture and values due to the impact of westernization. Military school plays an important role in the establishment of law, defense and security in the nation (Cassidy).
The culture that has been followed since years has to be evaluated and improvised for ensuring that it continues to be a superpower in the world. It is necessary for the government to identify the culture, values and behavior followed by the people in Russia. The advancement in culture is due to the westernization of the operations and activities and this has developed a great impact on the military culture in Russia. Analyzing the culture regarding the military ethics, strategies and other values would be done in this essay and this would be supported with accurate data and discussion (Ermarth).
The essay describes the culture of Russia and it aims at developing and evaluating the thesis that, “Does Russia need to modify or upgrade its military culture”.
Russia has witnessed monarchy rule since a long time till 1960. They were always an empire and from their history, it can be seen that they made constant efforts to overpower the neighboring states and increase their own strength. It has a very rigid behavior towards the development of military. It has always been dominated by males, whereas females never imagined to be a part of the military or even military school. Military training of the male children is done since the time of their childhood and early teenage. The social behavior and principles are achieved through coordinated efforts of the government and its execution of absolute power on the people (Cassidy).
Russia has been following the same structure and design since many decades and it has been a long time since any changes being introduced in the military of Russia. Throughout history, it can be seen that Russia has always tried to expand its physical boundaries and widen its reach. This led to the development of various groups within the country and this adversely affected the sovereignty and peace of Russia. It can be seen that this has led to discontent among the people in Russia as a result of which they always tried to earn their freedom from the government and this has seriously damaged the integrity and harmony of Russia. The mindset of the people has been traumatized due to the excessive control of the government over the people (Ermarth).
The culture of Russia has various ethnic groups which has led to huge variety in the living style of the people. This not only increased the variety of living styles, but also provided them with a large number of religions owing to the presence of several communities in Russia from across the globe. These ethnic groups have a community of their own and they are very firm and rigid regarding their values and traditions. The culture has been influenced by the invasion of the Muslim leaders, impact of the Buddhist ideology, Christian philosophy and dominance of the churches and pope. The ethical behavior and practices by each one of them was different and there was difference of opinion among the culturally different ethnic groups. It was found that the society in Russia was very male oriented and provided meagre chance to the women to work in any of the institution. It was the tradition that men were supposed to do all the work and earning and women were restricted to handling the household work and carry upbringing of the children (Ermarth).
It has strengthened its military power through developing high end technology, extremely advanced warfare strategies, highly trained personnel and state of the art ammunitions. They have been developing their military since the formation of USSR which stands for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics” which is also known as “Soviet Union”. In the adoption of this sovereignty, the sovereign republics that merged together in 1917 are
“ the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR “ where SFSR and SSR stands for “Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and Soviet Socialist Republic” respectively (Adamsky).
During the merger of these countries, there was a tremendous boost observed in the trade and religious celebrations as the policies were friendly for each and every religion. During the reign of Vladimir Lenin, there was liberty and freedom of expression provided to each and every citizen of the soviet. Along with that, he also encouraged the writers and artists and was a part of a communist party. He had a communist thinking and his ideas and actions depicted the same. Later on, Joseph Stalin, came into the rule and he practised socialism which was severely controlled by the government. He did not support the writers and artists and also got them arrested and few of them were also killed. This kind of trend was followed till the latter half of the 20th century until Mikhail Gorbachev came into the rule in 1985. He introduced different reforms for the communist party like the”Perestroika and Glasnost” reforms which provided liberty and freedom to the people especially to the writers and artists. Such practices brought about reforms in the cultural values and ethics thereby encouraging more writers and artist to show and develop their works (Cassidy).
The gradual change in the behavior and culture of the people in Russia got a boost in 1985 after the new leader Mikhail Gorbachev which is discussed above. The military practices and culture related to it also underwent many changes owing to the continuous up gradation of technology and scientific researches to develop high quality ammunitions and provide expertise training. However, the mind-set of the people has somewhat not completely evolved through these times. In the earlier times, there was monarchy rule and so women were not given any chances and during the current situation, women are not given the opportunity to establish a position for themselves in the society. It is due to the dominance of the males in the society. There has been excessive importance given to the male section of the society and this has supressed the other section of the society, that is, the females over a period of years (Adamsky).
At the same time, the culture has evolved tremendously with the acceptance of different religions and increase in tolerance of the people with respect to the government. The government has however continued to hold the activities and supervise all the functions. This shows excessive control of the government over the people. There has been inculcating of core principles of Buddhism and Christianity in the ethical behaviour of the people and the government has been supporting the liberty and freedom of expression among the people (Ermarth).
Training of the military forces has also undergone extreme modifications incorporating innovations and this helps in sustaining the superpower position of Russia in the world. The culture has gone many levels of up gradations and modifications as seen above. Its culture has accepted various elements from different civilisations and religious ideologies and this has been developed over a period of years. The culture has seen a touch of globalisation and urbanization with limited development of the psychology of the people (Cassidy).
It can be seen that the culture of Russia has been glorified through ancient times. Cultural values have seen transformation through various phases as discussed above. It underwent many changes and many revolutionary thinkers and leaders have contributed in the upliftment of the society through flexible cultural ethics and principles. However, the culture fails to identify the importance that has to be given to women and opportunities that they deserve are to be established.
Military tends to be one of the backbone of the Russian economy. Military culture has evolved too with many opportunities been provided to the citizens from different religious backgrounds and having different cultures. Thus, it can be concluded that there is a need to modify its culture in such a way that equality and liberty is available to all the citizens irrespective of their caste, gender, culture and religion and equal opportunities in military.
Adamsky, Dima. The Culture of Military Innovation: The Impact of Cultural Factors on the Revolution in Military Affairs in Russia, the US, and Israel. US: Stanford University Press, 2010. Print.
Cassidy, Robert M. Counterinsurgency and the Global War on Terror: Military Culture and Irregular War. US: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. Print.
Ermarth, Fritz W. RUSSIA’S STRATEGIC CULTURE:PAST, PRESENT, AND… IN TRANSITION. Descriptive. US: Defense Threat Reduction Agency, 2006. Web.
Case: A Police officer from the same office has been accepting bribe as well as products and services from the people without paying them for it.
1. I am a police officer in America. I have seen many cases of misbehaving and unethical behaviors of police officers. The one I remember the most is the one where I acted as the whistleblower. There was a sub-ordinate of mine who was one position below me and had 5 officers reporting to him. The person was the Police officer since last 10 years. During this tenure, he had accepted huge amount of bribes from people for permitting and unseeing illegal activities. He used to buy products and obtain services from different people and did not pay them and threatened them that he would sue their business. This shows that he had improper conduct, illegal collection of funds and money from others and also inappropriate use of his power.
Being a police officer, one has to observe certain code of conduct and follow specific principles and practices that should be ethical. He should be the savior of law and not the one who himself violates it. People have their faith and trust in police and because of that they treat them with respect. Having extensive power also requires observing and fulfilling many responsibilities.
The officer that we are talking about does not have the understanding of the Police Integrity and he continues to violate the law every day. The ethical dilemmas and values that should be observed by a police officer were not followed and the people were kept at the suffering end. The revenue of the government was being absorbed by him through non collection of penalties for illegal activities or for activities that violated the law (Klockars, Ivkovic, & Haberfeld, 2003).
This kind of misconduct was observed by me since last few months. He not only took bribes and violated the law but also asked his juniors that were reporting him to carry the same. Money that should be paid to the government and collected by the officers in the form of fines, penalties or general revenues were not reaching the government because of him as he collected half amount and did not deposit it to the government’s treasure. He also followed illegal practices like he took half amount as prescribed by the government for the vehicle drivers who had broken the traffic rules and those who were reported to be involved in any kind of accidents and did not report it in the department. This not only was causing loss to the government, but also providing the law violators with the support of continuing their activity in the future without any fear of the law. This kind of misconduct has been carried since last few years where there was no one among the seniors who could realize it and no one in the juniors who could go against him despite of knowing the truth about him. This pattern was observed and we collected evidences against him. After that, it was reported to the senior officer and then he was suspended temporarily for a month for his misconduct and he was warned for practicing such behavior and making the juniors below him to follow the same. The juniors who also carried this misconduct due to him were also suspended for 5 days for supporting him and not opposing his misconduct.
2. Whistle blowing refers to informing the higher officials or the authorized person regarding any kind of malpractices or activities that damages the image of the organization are being practiced in the organization by any individual or group of individuals. It is adopted by an individual depending on the person or the group of person who violate the law and the seriousness and effects of it on the welfare of other employees as well as for the growth of the company or organization.
There are various forms of whistle-blowing that can be carried out in an organization. Current and alumni are two different kinds of whistle blowing based on the timing of the whistle blowing. In current whistle blowing, the act of reporting the misconduct is carried out by the employees or employers while the employee is working in the company. While, in alumni whistle blowing, the employee or employer report after the employee has left the company. Both the type of whistle blowing have their own advantages and disadvantages. It should be decided on the basis of the condition and reason of the whistle blowing that which type of whistle blowing should be selected (Klockars, Ivkovic, & Haberfeld, 2003).
It has to be observed that if other employees are concerned and connected with the misconduct or with the effects of misconduct, then resigning from the firm would not be recommendable for the employee as it would lead to continuing of the malpractices on the employees. In such situations, alumni whistle blowing would be the better option for the employee or employers so as to bring the matter into concern and highlight it for bringing changes or removal of malpractices that are being carried out. Alumni whistleblowing would be helpful in inculcating the values and ethical dilemmas among the unethical and illegal behavior of the person or department related with the malpractice. (Klockars, Ivkovic, & Haberfeld, 2003).
If the matter is related personally to the employee and it has no impact on other employees than resigning from the organization or removing the related employee could be done. Resigning should be observed only if the matter has high intensity and is adversely affecting the employee or the employer. At the same time, resigning should not be the ultimate option and it should be observed that it is only in the benefit of the employer when any employee who knows the misconduct done or actually practices it leaves the company. If the employer is involved in these malpractices, then employee should obtain sufficient and strong evidence regarding the matter and then only he should resign.
The reasons for the misconduct has to be studied from the ethical point of view and the circumstances under which it is carried out also has to be evaluated. The values and norm related to the organizational culture has to be achieved and fulfilled for the welfare of the employees as well as the consumers who are using the products or services. Ethical dilemmas involve considering the well-being of all the above mentioned elements.
Through alumni whistle blowing, the organization or the employee can benefit by surviving the consequences that would have occurred after reporting of the misconduct by the employees or by the organization against the employee. The employees won’t be suffering from the falling image of the company if the employee carries misconduct and the employer would not be suffering from the effects if the employee commits the misconduct. But it is applicable in very few cases, whereas in major cases it is not acceptable as the employee or the employer has to lose an employee who has been working efficiently in the organization. There are other threats like use of the confidential information of the company by the employee after getting removed from the organization. So, it cannot be adopted on a wider scale (Klockars, Ivkovic, & Haberfeld, 2003).
Following current whistle-blowing type would be beneficial in most of the cases where it helps in evaluating, analyzing and implementing the changes regarding the eviction of misconduct during the presence of the employee who has reported it or who carried the misconduct. It has also to be observed that the authenticity of the organization is maintained. The confidentiality and other enclosed details of the company would not go out as the employees are retained after warning and charging them with related penalties (Klockars, Ivkovic, & Haberfeld, 2003).
Klockars, C. B., Ivkovic, S. K., & Haberfeld, M. R. (2003). The Contours of Police Integrity. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc .