Case Study on Obesity

LSC 2533 Research Methods
Journal Article Reviews (CLO 5)

Components
Three articles are described with the following for sections each:
Section 1 – Library research description
Section 2 – Article abstracts and references
Section 3 – Research descriptions
Section 4 – Article evaluation

The full evaluation is provided under the top ranked article – Article 2

Article 1

Section 1
Source: HCT Libraries page >DATABASE>Health and Since>ProQuest Family Health
Search terms: Obesity

Section 2

Title: Childhood obesity is associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy

Abstract
Overweight and obesity are major public health issues. Childhood obesity often persists throughout adulthood. Recently a higher prevalence of obesity in adults whose mothers smoked during pregnancy was reported. The aim of this study was to assess whether this association is also detectable in pre-school children in a different setting and to identify the critical period for intrauterine exposure to inhaled smoke products in pregnancy. We analyzed questionnaire data on early feeding and lifestyle factors of 8,765 German children aged 5.00 to 6.99 years. Obesity was defined as a body mass index >97th percentile. The prevalence estimates for obesity were: mother never smoked 2.8% (95% CI 2.4%-3.2%), smoked after pregnancy only 1.6% (95%CI 0.4%-4.1%), smoked throughout pregnancy 6.2% (95% CI 4.5%-8.3%), smoked before pregnancy, but not throughout 4.5% (95%CI 3.6%-5.7%). These associations could not be explained by confounding due to a number of constitutional, socio demographic and lifestyle factors. The unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios were: smoked during pregnancy: 2.32 (95% CI 1.63%-3.30%)/1.92 (95% CI 1.29%-2.86%); smoked before, but not throughout pregnancy: 1.67 (95%CI 1.26%-2.22%)/1.74 (95%CI 1.29%-2.34%). Conclusion: the association of maternal smoking in pregnancy and obesity was also detectable in children at school entry. Since smoking after pregnancy was not associated with childhood obesity, intrauterine exposure rather than family lifestyle factors associated with smoking appears to be instrumental. There appears to be a role for early intrauterine exposure. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Reference
Toschke, A., Koletzko, B., Slikker, W., Hermann, M., & Rüdiger, v. K. (2002). Childhood obesity is associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy. European Journal of Pediatrics, 161(8), 445-8. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-002-0983-z

Section 3

Population

The population that has been considered in this article consists of about 13,345 children who are from the two regions of Bavaria which are, Oberpfalz and Niederbayern, respectively. The parents of these children were made to fill a questionnaire on their views regarding the inception diseases in the children at an early age and there about 8765 parents from the total number, who filled the questionnaires. The information that was collected through these questionnaires was then linked to the information and data that was collected during the time of admission in the school. This information have been collected from February 1997 to August 1997.

Research Approach
The approach is a mix of the qualitative as well as quantitative approach as it considers a large number of participants and at the same time it evaluates various elements and condition of the participants. The article successfully provides the effects of smoking of the mother over the obesity of the child.

Participant selection

The article involves research which includes different types of women. The ones who smoked during the pregnancy, ones of smoked before and after the pregnancy, but not during the pregnancy, one who smoked during the pregnancy, one who never smoked at al.

Main results

About 8765 responses were collected from the mothers. From this, around 5919 women claimed that they had never smoked in their life and there were about 2846 mothers who had been smoking throughout. There were about 400 women who could not provide the exact duration period of smoking. There were about 244 mothers who had started smoking after the birth of the child. There were about 1542 mothers who had not smoked during pregnancy but smoked before it and among these, 1139 women stated that they had returned to smoking after pregnancy. It was found that among these women, the children of those who had been smoking throughout the time, even during their pregnancy were comparatively having children with lesser birth weight. There was also greater risk of overweight and obesity among the children of these women. Thus, it states that there is an adverse effect on the health of the children when the mothers have been smoking throughout the pregnancy as well as through partly before and after the pregnancy

Section 4

Ranking:
Best

The approach that has been adopted considers the quantitative approach of determining the number of kids who were obese due to the smoking habits of their mothers and it also considers the qualitative approach of considering various conditions of smoking that can be evaluated. It helps to identify the effects of different intensities of smoking among the mothers and its relationship with the child’s health and overweight issues are developed. I think that it provides with an in-depth understanding of consuming tobacco through smoking on the health of the children when the children are born to the mothers who smoke. It has considered the impact of different practices carried by the mother where, there are different times in the women’s life when they would smoke and this has been considered with the point of view of pregnancy.

However, I think that there are other significant reasons too for the obesity in the small children other than the smoking of their mother during different stages of her life. For example, leisure and non-active life style, unhealthy food habits and other such life styles adopted by the parents while having the child as well as for the child are also responsible for the obesity in the children. Hence, there should be a proper consideration of various factors and it should be seen that only a portion children at the small age are obese due to the smoking of their mother.

Article 2

Section 1
Source: HCT Libraries page >DATABASE>Health and Since>ProQuest Family Health
Search terms: Obesity

Section 2

Title: Overweight and Obesity: Prediction by Silhouettes in Young Adults

Abstract
The present study analyzes the prevalence of overweight/obesity in a sample of young adults from the University of the Basque Country (Spain), and tests the efficiency of the silhouettes to predict overweight/obesity. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of volunteer university students from the University of the Basque Country (356 men and 745 women, age: 18-33 years), who came to the Physical Anthropology laboratory where a standardized questionnaire was administered and anthropometric measurements were taken by a well-trained anthropometrist. Height and weight were obtained. BMI was calculated as weight/height (2) (kg/m (2)) and it was used as a reference method. Using a questionnaire, based on the standard figural stimuli, subjects were asked to choose the silhouette which was closest to his/her usual appearance (current body size). The accuracy of the Williamson et al.’s silhouettes as an overweight-obesity indicator was analyzed by gender-specific receiver operating curve (ROC). The cutoff figure to distinguish between non-overweight and overweight-obese individuals corresponded to number 7 in men and 6 in women. These cutoff values matched optimal sensitivity and specificity, with few non-overweight subjects selecting silhouettes bigger than 7 in the case of men or 6 for women. In conclusion, the figural stimuli allows the identification of populations at overweight/obesity risk with the simple use of silhouettes, at least in this rank of age, where the overweight and obesity are yet little frequent.

Reference
Muñoz-cachón, M., Salces, I., Arroyo, M., Ansotegui, L., Rocandio, A., & Rebato, E. (2009). Overweight and obesity: Prediction by silhouettes in young adults. Obesity, 17(3), 545-9. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2008.541

Section 3

Population

The population that has been taken into consideration consists of the young adults who belong to the University of the Basque (Spain). It includes volunteering of the students for the research. It involves 356 men and 745 women between the age group of 18 – 33. The participants had to come to the Physical Anthropology laboratory where they had to answer a questionnaire which was following the general standards.

Research Approach

The research is quantitative and considers various variables on the basis of which the results are developed. Research is carried out on the basis of the BMI of the participants. The unit of calculation is weight/ height^2(kg/m^2) and this has been taken as a standard reference for calculation in the research. The objective for the study and the requirements which would be evaluated from the participant’s opinions was explained to the participants in the research.

Participant selection

The participants of the research in this article consists of the young population which would be the volunteer students from the University of the Basque (Spain). The participants were selected through cross-sectional sampling. On the basis of their BMI< the participants were divided into three different sections and they are: Underweight: students with BMI < 18.5; Normal weight students: BMI 18.5 – 24.9 and Overweight/obese students: BMI ≥ 25 Main results The results have been obtained through various analysis. The initial analysis is carried through Kolmogorov – Smirnov tests which would help in assessment of the normal features of the collected data. The results are based on the statistical analysis of various anthropometric variables among the students. There was sexual dimorphism regarding the body size between the two genders. It was seen that very less percentage of men as well as women were underweight. There were about 28.3 % of men and 13.3 % of women who were obese. The silhouettes were selected by the participants and among them, women were accurate as they had selected 21.9 as their BMI which turned out to be 22 while measuring. The values selected by men referred to 17 as their BMI which is much less than their measured BMI which was 22.4. Section 4 Ranking: Bottom Article 3 Section 1 Source: HCT Libraries page >DATABASE>Health and Since>ProQuest Family Health
Search terms: Obesity

Section 2

Title: Childhood Obesity in New York City Elementary School Students

Abstract
Thorpe et al estimated overweight and obesity in New York City elementary school children. Results suggest that the prevalence of overweight was 43%, more than half of which are obese. Overall prevalence of obesity was 24%, with at least 20% obesity in each grade, including kindergarten. Furthermore, Hispanic children had significantly higher levels than Black or White children while Asian children had the lowest level of obesity among all racial/ethnic groups

Reference
Thorpe, L. E., List, D. G., Marx, T., May, L., & al, e. (2004). Childhood obesity in New York City elementary school students. American Journal of Public Health, 94(9), 1496-500. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/215101422?accountid=1215

Section 3

Population
The population which was taken into consideration for the research in the article consists of the New York Public Elementary school. There were 3069 children selected and among these, 2681 were measured for the research. The children were from different ethnic groups like:
Hispanic;
Black;
White and
Asian.

Research Approach

The research is quantitative as it would be providing the number of individuals among the children who have been affected by obesity and overweight issues. The research was carried out on the kids up to the 6th grade. There were public health nurses who collected the required data which would be obtained through appropriate measurements of these children. They were provided with an extensive training of about 2 hours before they could start heir measurement work. The research has been carried out by determining the BMI for the children who have been measured for the researched. BMI is developed on the basis of the weight and height of the children. BMI would be taken as the standard for measurement as it is an ideal anthropometric index which has been provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Participant selection

Participants were selected through a multistage clustered sampling carried in the New York Public Elementary school. Participants were classified on the basis of gender as well as on the basis of their ethnic groups which have been mentioned above. There were about 3069 selected students and from them 2681 children were measured as the parents of other children did not allow the measurement of their kids for the research.

Main results

From the demographic representation of the collected data regarding the height and weight, BMI is calculated. The evaluation of the calculated BMI would be the basis for the research where the different values of BMI among the children would determine that whether they are obese or not. It was found that about 43% of the children were overweight, 24% of the total strength of children were obese; 19 % of the children were overweight but not obese; 4 % of the children were having normal weight. There was higher obesity in boys which was around 26% and that in girls was 22%. The highest obesity was found in the Hispanic children which was about 31% and the lowest obesity was found in the Asian children with above 14%. Thus, the article helped at achieving the relationship between the gender and ethnic groups with the overweight and obesity of the children.

Section 4
Ranking:
Middle

Skills

Posted on

March 9, 2018

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