Cultural essay on Russia for a military school.
With the advancement in technology and large number of scientific inventions to develop high tech weapons and warfare strategies, Russia has developed a powerful military and strong defense forces. Russia had been an empire till 1960. During that time, Russia had monarchy type of rule where the culture was male oriented and very aggressive as they believed in sheer physical strength. However, this culture has evolved across these years and there are many scopes of improvement that are being identified and upgraded with effective implementation. Russia has been struggling to retain its culture and values due to the impact of westernization. Military school plays an important role in the establishment of law, defense and security in the nation (Cassidy).
The culture that has been followed since years has to be evaluated and improvised for ensuring that it continues to be a superpower in the world. It is necessary for the government to identify the culture, values and behavior followed by the people in Russia. The advancement in culture is due to the westernization of the operations and activities and this has developed a great impact on the military culture in Russia. Analyzing the culture regarding the military ethics, strategies and other values would be done in this essay and this would be supported with accurate data and discussion (Ermarth).
The essay describes the culture of Russia and it aims at developing and evaluating the thesis that, “Does Russia need to modify or upgrade its military culture”.
Russia has witnessed monarchy rule since a long time till 1960. They were always an empire and from their history, it can be seen that they made constant efforts to overpower the neighboring states and increase their own strength. It has a very rigid behavior towards the development of military. It has always been dominated by males, whereas females never imagined to be a part of the military or even military school. Military training of the male children is done since the time of their childhood and early teenage. The social behavior and principles are achieved through coordinated efforts of the government and its execution of absolute power on the people (Cassidy).
Russia has been following the same structure and design since many decades and it has been a long time since any changes being introduced in the military of Russia. Throughout history, it can be seen that Russia has always tried to expand its physical boundaries and widen its reach. This led to the development of various groups within the country and this adversely affected the sovereignty and peace of Russia. It can be seen that this has led to discontent among the people in Russia as a result of which they always tried to earn their freedom from the government and this has seriously damaged the integrity and harmony of Russia. The mindset of the people has been traumatized due to the excessive control of the government over the people (Ermarth).
The culture of Russia has various ethnic groups which has led to huge variety in the living style of the people. This not only increased the variety of living styles, but also provided them with a large number of religions owing to the presence of several communities in Russia from across the globe. These ethnic groups have a community of their own and they are very firm and rigid regarding their values and traditions. The culture has been influenced by the invasion of the Muslim leaders, impact of the Buddhist ideology, Christian philosophy and dominance of the churches and pope. The ethical behavior and practices by each one of them was different and there was difference of opinion among the culturally different ethnic groups. It was found that the society in Russia was very male oriented and provided meagre chance to the women to work in any of the institution. It was the tradition that men were supposed to do all the work and earning and women were restricted to handling the household work and carry upbringing of the children (Ermarth).
It has strengthened its military power through developing high end technology, extremely advanced warfare strategies, highly trained personnel and state of the art ammunitions. They have been developing their military since the formation of USSR which stands for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics” which is also known as “Soviet Union”. In the adoption of this sovereignty, the sovereign republics that merged together in 1917 are
“ the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR “ where SFSR and SSR stands for “Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and Soviet Socialist Republic” respectively (Adamsky).
During the merger of these countries, there was a tremendous boost observed in the trade and religious celebrations as the policies were friendly for each and every religion. During the reign of Vladimir Lenin, there was liberty and freedom of expression provided to each and every citizen of the soviet. Along with that, he also encouraged the writers and artists and was a part of a communist party. He had a communist thinking and his ideas and actions depicted the same. Later on, Joseph Stalin, came into the rule and he practised socialism which was severely controlled by the government. He did not support the writers and artists and also got them arrested and few of them were also killed. This kind of trend was followed till the latter half of the 20th century until Mikhail Gorbachev came into the rule in 1985. He introduced different reforms for the communist party like the”Perestroika and Glasnost” reforms which provided liberty and freedom to the people especially to the writers and artists. Such practices brought about reforms in the cultural values and ethics thereby encouraging more writers and artist to show and develop their works (Cassidy).
The gradual change in the behavior and culture of the people in Russia got a boost in 1985 after the new leader Mikhail Gorbachev which is discussed above. The military practices and culture related to it also underwent many changes owing to the continuous up gradation of technology and scientific researches to develop high quality ammunitions and provide expertise training. However, the mind-set of the people has somewhat not completely evolved through these times. In the earlier times, there was monarchy rule and so women were not given any chances and during the current situation, women are not given the opportunity to establish a position for themselves in the society. It is due to the dominance of the males in the society. There has been excessive importance given to the male section of the society and this has supressed the other section of the society, that is, the females over a period of years (Adamsky).
At the same time, the culture has evolved tremendously with the acceptance of different religions and increase in tolerance of the people with respect to the government. The government has however continued to hold the activities and supervise all the functions. This shows excessive control of the government over the people. There has been inculcating of core principles of Buddhism and Christianity in the ethical behaviour of the people and the government has been supporting the liberty and freedom of expression among the people (Ermarth).
Training of the military forces has also undergone extreme modifications incorporating innovations and this helps in sustaining the superpower position of Russia in the world. The culture has gone many levels of up gradations and modifications as seen above. Its culture has accepted various elements from different civilisations and religious ideologies and this has been developed over a period of years. The culture has seen a touch of globalisation and urbanization with limited development of the psychology of the people (Cassidy).
It can be seen that the culture of Russia has been glorified through ancient times. Cultural values have seen transformation through various phases as discussed above. It underwent many changes and many revolutionary thinkers and leaders have contributed in the upliftment of the society through flexible cultural ethics and principles. However, the culture fails to identify the importance that has to be given to women and opportunities that they deserve are to be established.
Military tends to be one of the backbone of the Russian economy. Military culture has evolved too with many opportunities been provided to the citizens from different religious backgrounds and having different cultures. Thus, it can be concluded that there is a need to modify its culture in such a way that equality and liberty is available to all the citizens irrespective of their caste, gender, culture and religion and equal opportunities in military.
Adamsky, Dima. The Culture of Military Innovation: The Impact of Cultural Factors on the Revolution in Military Affairs in Russia, the US, and Israel. US: Stanford University Press, 2010. Print.
Cassidy, Robert M. Counterinsurgency and the Global War on Terror: Military Culture and Irregular War. US: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. Print.
Ermarth, Fritz W. RUSSIA’S STRATEGIC CULTURE:PAST, PRESENT, AND… IN TRANSITION. Descriptive. US: Defense Threat Reduction Agency, 2006. Web.