Essay on Methods of Business Research


Introduction 2
Research designs 2
Case Study 2
Issues in Case study: 3
Longitudinal Design: 4
Issues in Longitudinal Design: 4
Quantitative research 5
Issues related to Quantitative research: 5
Qualitative Research 6
Issues related to Qualitative research: 6
Conclusion 6
References 7


Validity is the degree to which a measurement, a statement or an idea is said to be well-figured and maps to the real system or world. It tends to measure the efficient reading and it measures what it is supposed to measure. It encapsulates all the experimental projects.
An argument would be valid if it is considered true under everyone’s perception (Knight, 1997).
Reliability is an ability of a system that consistently performs a program or a function according to its specifications. It is productive. Its performance doesn’t have a sign of failure. It is an attribute. This is also taken into consideration as one of the three important factors while making, buying or using some product or electronic items (Knight, 1997).

Validity and reliability are very important in the research to measure the effectiveness as well as lastingness of the research method that we are going to use for a particular research. These are the terms that help in the estimation of the correct research method that is to be adopted for the product in a business.
Research designs
Research design basically provides information about the structure in which we are going to present the research. A research design would essentially create an outline in which the entire process of research will be presented. Defining a research design is important so that the reader would understand what kind of information to expect from the research that is carried out and whether the subject has been structured in a way that does justice to the information that has been portrayed in the paper (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009).
There are two major types of research designs which we are going to be discussed further:

Case Study
Case study is one of the research method that helps to analyse the situation. We are going to observe the issues that are observed in adopting this method of research. (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009).
Issues in Case study:
The case study refers to the group of people that are observed and analysed on a particular scale. This also states that the group of people needs to be evaluated accurately. Hence, it can be termed as reliability of the work that has been obtained through this method is more because of the critical evaluation of the people’s opinion and views. It may not possess higher validity due to the execution of the interview or observation for a specific time that is it is limited to the time when the analysis is made (Kahn, 2005). However, there might be changes in the business in the recent days and case study does not consider the scope of that.
The concept of validity is lacking in the case study design as the subject is under observation for a limited time which can be once or twice and if the subject matter changes then the validity fails to remain in a case study. The analysis of people is also done for a short time in which the questionnaire attached is to be made short. This doesn’t let sufficient data on the subject matter get collected and the reliability of the data collected through the case study research decreases. The validity of a case study can be increased by increasing the number of people under observation and the reliability of the research can be obtained by increasing the number of questions which will provide the research with more data. (Elahi & Dehdashti, 2011)
For example, when a particular model of car is surveyed for its reviews that would help in establishing the business for it, it may be found that the results are specific for a particular design. The company should not be stereotyped by the views because the company might have developed different models after that which may have overcame the problems faced in the earlier model. Thus, case study is not that much valid for long time since it does not track the changes that might have occurred in the design.

Longitudinal Design:
It is a type of design that considers a particular sequence or flow while carrying the research. The issues about its reliability and validity are discussed below:

Issues in Longitudinal Design:

The longitudinal design is developed by carrying research over a particular group of individuals and examining or obtaining the updates from them at regular intervals of time. It also refers to understanding the scope of change in the business scenarios. It is carried and tacked from time to time and this ensures that it has more validity than the case study (Kahn, 2005). It is comparatively reliable than the case study because it takes larger amount of data into account and the subjects or devices are under study for a larger amount of time. It has greater validity owing to the development of research over a period of time that inculcates the time factors in the research and a wider range of factors come into account (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009).
It is one of the costlier types of research designs so it is rarely adapted practically unless extremely necessary in certain cases. The validity of the research can be further cultivated by a critical choice of subject and taking the most important factors into account in the research which will make optimum usage of the time provided and resources used in the research. Longitudinal research can be made more reliable by possibly increasing the amount of time of the research or increasing the number of observations in the duration of the research which provides the researcher with more data to analyze and compare thereby increasing the reliability of the research. (Elahi & Dehdashti, 2011)

For example; when a costly medical machine or engineering device is to be designed, there are various levels of performance that are to be evaluated at various levels of development. This is to make sure that the device provides accurate results and performs as per the requirements of the business. (Newman, 1998)

Research methods:
There are two major ways to conduct any research based on the kind of data that would help us in establishing the foundation of the concerned subject. The research method that is chosen has to be based on the kind of data that would help us to put forth our idea in a clear and concise way which would be easily interpreted and understood by the audience that we are targeting through our research. Having said that, it is important to determine the correct research method and the type of data that would justify the research that is being carried out by the researcher. The two types are:
Quantitative research
It is a properly managed and systematic investigation of the processes that can be examined by using mathematical computations and computational methods. Its motive is to make and develop mathematical equations, theories and models. It involves numerical and statistical data into consideration for the research to be undertaken. (Newman, 1998)

Issues related to Quantitative research:

In the execution of quantitative analysis of the business research, there are various statistical analysis and numerical calculations that are to be made on the basis of the data that is obtained (Glass, 1976). This therefore, ensures that the data that is collected and computed provides reliable results due to the calculations involved in it. It helps to provide a correct judgement from the analysis and research carried in it. But, it might sometimes be not that much valid because of the outdated data or date that is not that much relevant in the current scenario.
For example: We carry a research for a particular mobile service company about the number of users and developing their basic data through a form of online questionnaire. The result obtained by this process is reliable since it involves numbers in its evaluation. But, it may not be valid for long because it fails to consider the other factors like the satisfaction of the users and their needs and feedback.

Qualitative Research
It has been designed to show domain of behaviour of a particular group of persons with reference to precise subjects, situations and circumstances. It is a study that is done in depth on groups of people. This research process produces descriptive results about the subject under study. It is a process which investigates two important parameters of decision making which are how and why? (Newman, 1998).
Issues related to Qualitative research:
While observing qualitative analysis, there is a huge amount of focus in the details of the research that is to be carried over a business. It involves considering the factors that are responsible for the particular behaviour of the people about a certain product (Glass, 1976). It involves carrying interviews and hence has greater validity because of the consideration of the details and current scenarios in the business.
For example: We have carried a research for the same mobile company which was taken in quantitative research. But this time we will be considering the number of active users and their level of satisfaction in terms of services and offers provided and this time the research will be carried out through an interview. The result obtained will be more valid than reliable because of the consideration of detailed information from the interviewee and it has less focus on the number of people involved which considers a wider array of factors. (Elahi & Dehdashti, 2011)

Thus, it is to be observed that an ideal business should tend to utilize a mix of the above research methods to ensure that accuracy in terms of reliability as well as validity of research is obtained.
It involves considering the fact that a business has to be reliable as well as valid in most of the cases to develop trust among the people about the business.The business research method that is selected needs to evaluate the factors and develop a customized research methodology.

Elahi, M., & Dehdashti, M. (2011). Classification of Researches and Evolving a Consolidating Typology of Management Studies. Annual Conference on Innovations in Business & Management (pp. 1-15). London: The Center for Innovations in Business and Management Practice .
Glass, G. V. (1976, november). Primary, Secondary, and Meta-Analysis of Research. Educational Researcher, 5, 3-8. Retrieved july 22, 2014, from
Kahn, K. (2005). Research Methodology. In K. Kahn, New Product Development (pp. 43-50). Springer US. Retrieved july 22, 2014, from
Knight, G. A. (1997). Cross-cultural reliability and validity of a scale to measure firm entrepreneurial orientation. Journal of Business Venturing, 213–225.
Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Age International. Retrieved july 22, 2014, from
Newman, I. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative Research Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. SIU Press. Retrieved july 22, 2014, from
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for business students. . Harlow (England): Financial Times/Prentice Hall.


Posted on

March 10, 2018

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