Guide on Construction_technology

a) Basement construction and approaches:
Basement is that part of a building or structure that may be entirely or partly below the ground level. They are mostly used as a space where various systems like the air conditioners, electrical distribution and other electrical equipment like the electric panel, control box. There are various amendments that are made especially for parking in the building while constructing the basement. There are inventories of the shop or a commercial chain that is kept and maintained in the basement. This may also be in the form of store rooms and other specially designed rooms to collect and safely store the required material.
The design of the basement needs to ensure that the soil on which it is made up on will be able to sustain the entire structure and the allocation of the basement. Here, we are going to develop an office tower which will be of 25 storeys and there are going to be two basements to facilitate car parking as well as service rooms. There has to be special precaution taken while constructing the basement because the tower is going to be constructed on a coast that is near to water body and the design has to be sufficient enough to withstand this condition.
There are many methods and approaches that are available for constructing the basements. This involves the top down, bottom up approach and carrying excavation in an open structure.
In the top down approach, there is formation of the actual element and then the sub-elements are developed from it which can be understood from the name itself which means moving from top to bottom. Firstly, the entire project is developed without indulging in accurate details. At the end when they are divided into sub elements, detailed specification comes into the evaluation.
In the bottom up approach, there is formation of sub-elements in the initial phase and then there is a merger of all these elements that is carried out to develop a design which will provide the optimum features as per the requirement.
Excavation in an open structure involves tanking and insulating the inner parts horizontally as well vertically to make the surface water proof below the ground level.
Since the construction which we are going to observe is going to be done over a water front, there has to be special care that should be taken of the water proofing. It can be done by providing exterior as well as interior insulation which is also known as exterior and interior tanking. The coating or the bed for both the cases can be made of concrete or masonry bricks. The concrete or the masonry wall that is created is to be coated by a special kind of Asphalt which is known as Mastic Asphalt. Asphalt is used because it is very impervious to water and helps in protecting the layer of concrete from the reaction with the sulphates in the soil.
Thus, the approach that we have adopted is a combination of the top down and bottom up approach. This will be the most appropriate as we have to design a deep basement which has two storeys below the ground level. The combination that is taken will help to provide the strength that will be required to withstand the hydrostatic pressure that will be existing at such a deep level of two floors below the ground level.

b) Frame structure and Masonry structure for construction:
The building that we are going to construct consists of 25 floors and 2 floors of basements which will be created above a water front. Thus, there has to be special care that has to be take about the water proofing, moisture content and resistance to fire.
There are two kinds of structure that can be used for developing the frame of the building. They are frame structure and masonry structure. The frame structure involves columns and beams to be created whereas, masonry structure involves creating walls externally and internally that would absorb the load.
• Frame structure is more appropriate for our design due to the unique features that it provides to the design along with the economy of the project. The features of frame structure over masonry wall structure is as follows:
• Frame structure consumes less amount of space because of its small area of cross section as compared to the masonry wall structure. In masonry wall structure, the utility of the floor space is greater due to the construction of internal and external walls to provide the tanking or insulation, whereas frame structure involves constructing beams and columns that would consume less floor space. Thus, a great amount of floor space will be saved.
• In the masonry wall structure, there is construction of walls and this restricts carrying long runs on the respective walls and this limits the ability to optimize the floor area. On the other hand, in frame structure, there is more flexibility available to the use of the floor by providing a scope to carry long runs over the surface.
• The construction of a frame structure takes much less time as compared to the masonry wall structure. Since, the use of frame structure saves time, there is a great amount of cost savings that are supported by the saving of time. This will enable the DAMAC properties to develop the tower at optimum cost with maximum amount of cost savings. However, it ensures that the quality is not kept at stake or neglected.

Thus, frame structure is more appropriate for the construction of the tower as it provides more flexibility in terms of savings in time and cost by ensuring high quality of construction and providing all the requirements of load bearing that is required.

c) Frame structure and its specifications:
A frame structure would be the most appropriate for constructing the office tower for DAMAC properties. It involves developing an ideal type of frame structure that would be the most suitable for the high rise office tower of 25 storeys with 2 floors of basement. The frame structure that we are going to construct involves considering the factor that the tower is going to be built on water front and has to be constructed of high quality construction. There are various factors that involves evaluation of designs that are to be used to develop a frame structure for the office tower.
The frame structure may be created either of concrete or of steel. Depending on the use and altitude of the building that is to be constructed these frame structures are selected. In our case, since we are constructing a high rise tower, the frame structure involving steel frame would be more appropriate. The steel frame will be more flexible to design and assemble since it provides great ease in the construction of columns and beams than that in the concrete frame that involves construction of load bearing walls
There are many advantages of using steel frame structure in our project like reduction in construction time and high quality and accuracy of the project obtained. Both of the above features are obtained due to large number of products that are casted and created in the factory. This also provides great accuracy in the assembly of the components. It ensures that great amount of time that is involved in assembling the components and erecting the structure is saved. The construction of the tower will be least affected by the weather during the development of the structure and design. The structure that will be created will be able to withstand all the loads straight from the time it is erected. Curing time is not required in this type of frame structure.
However, using a steel frame structure involves two factors that are to be taken care of and they are Fire and corrosion. The fire problem can be solved by providing any of the casings over the steel frame from concrete, brick, plasterboard to sprayed vermiculite as the casing. This method is to be selected on the basis of the availability and feasibility of the material required. The problem of corrosion can be easily solved by using galvanized or painted steel that would create a protective layer over the steel and prevent it from corrosion.
While developing the layout of the steel frame structure, there has to be special evaluation on the location of columns and number of spans between the beams. This provides greater flexibility when the span of beams is increased and at the same time increases the cost. On the other hand, it will be economic when span of beam is kept short and this reduces the flexibility due to the requirement of a large number of beams. Thus a proper calculation and evaluation of the spans between the beams and number of columns has to be obtained in the development of the design. This beams and columns are supported by providing upper floors in between them. This ensures that the strength of beams and columns is retained.


Posted on

March 10, 2018

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