Literature Review on EIDA TQM CHALLENGES

Introduction 2
New strategy of Emirates Identity Authority 3
Literature Review 5
Customer Satisfaction 6
Division of Power 6
Leadership 7
Rules, Procedures and Policies 7
Financial Performance and Cost Factors 8
Benefits of TQM 8
Disadvantages of TQM (Failure Scenario) 9
Challenges of TQM Adaptation in Emirates Identification Authority 10
Customer 10
People over Systems 11
Continuous Improvement 11
Division of Power 11
Orthodox Nature of TQM 12
Competitors 12
Conclusion 13
Bibliography 13


Today’s world has stepped up to a new age with new dimensions as the way we live right now has changed vastly compared to the style of life even a 100 or 200 years back. The civilizations and nations of today have developed exponentially and due to globalization and connectivity, people of the world are registered and connected with the countries and the countries can efficiently track and take care of the citizens through modern registration techniques so that countries can serve people better and take a perfect note of other demographic, cultural and economic factors for the security of the people and the nation along with a better functioning government that can flourish and provide amply for its people.
The development of the public sector hasn’t been observed as faster than the corporate sector. The factors that cause this difference are that the procedures of the government aren’t studied with extensive minuteness as much as the processes of a business are reviewed. The most developed countries of the world have specific measures for registration processes like United States of America has a system of social security numbers for people where identification and welfare of people is made possible and convenient. Even the formation and the development part of the procedures is either stagnant in most cases or does not develop despite flaws and public uproar. A change is only possible after a massive public appeal or the responsible and caring nature of the government to look out for its people and adhere to their needs for collective development of the country along with all its people. This has been observed also in UAE where the government has been striving towards continuous development of public identification procedures for the benefit of the people and for maintaining futuristic security measures to preserve the national security of the country (Swiss, 1992).
The Emirates Identity Authority (EIDA) is a public sector organization in UAE which was established as a part of the federal strategy of UAE to create a centralized data base which takes a detailed account of the population of all the emirates. The database created by the Emirates ID system stores sophisticated form of biometric and biographic data for accurate identification of citizens and residents of UAE. The newly enhanced system of Emirates Identity authority system provides smart identity cards with value added features to the people included in the database. It is a well-developed and invested organization as it contributes in data integration with the various ministries in charge of taking decisions regarding their background. The ministry of health, education, labor and justice are integrated with the database formed by identity authority (Al-Khouri, 2007). The database generated by the EIDA also helps the government in performing an accurate economic analysis. EIDA has been able to play a leading and vital role in the long term development and growth at an economic and cultural level by accurately registering the details of the population of the country. Assignment of a unique personal number through an identification system in the country is similar to the American approach of assigning social security numbers and this approach would make UAE attain progress to the level of the developed countries through an accurate population register (Emirates Identiry Authority, 2015).
Even though the current condition of the identification system of UAE is positive and has been improved vastly compared to the old procedures, there is still a need to improve the procedures and the identification system further by looking at the quality aspects of the procedure with the minuteness observed in the analysis of a business enterprise viewing organization’s processes with a similar view of a factory’s manufacturing processes in order to make the procedure of producing the identity cards of the people of UAE in an optimized manner, taking as minimal time as possible. But there are certain factors which should be taken into account before applying such a sophisticated process on an organization it should be observed that what kind of challenges would lie ahead if such a quality focused procedure is applied and if it would be ideal to follow through with the notion.
New strategy of Emirates Identity Authority

The Emirates Identity Authority initiated its operations in 2004 and worked to cultivate and enhance the infrastructure oriented to identity management in the organization. The strategy employed by EIDA in 2004 led them to add the population of 1.1 million people of UAE in the database. This amount of addition was done in a period of 4 years. Due to this, the process of registration was termed problematic, straining and complex. The processes and procedures at EIDA started facing problems like drawbacks in performance, increment and cost incurred by the department, reporting of complexity in the registration procedures, extended waiting times and increased rate of turnover. This array of problems led to the formation of a new strategy in order to analyze the initial problems and develop a new procedure for registration in EIDA. The initiation of a business process re-engineering began in 2009 which led to an evaluation of factors like workforce performance, registration time, production cycle capacities, and the adoption of a system wide approach to the organizational process was taken assuming the processes as one of a production factory and the identity card was assumed as goods. This re-engineering produced extra-ordinary results in the organization. The process re-engineering led to increased efficiency, improvement in costing, increment in the capacity to generate cards and it led the satisfaction of customers of the organization which were the people of UAE (Al-Khouri, 2007).
The re-engineering requires an observation of the core processes and operations in an organization. Assurance of quality in a product also becomes a factor while re-engineering a process for the production of an identification card. In this case, EIDA put in place a series of benchmarks and standards for factors such as internet security, card design, and the overall infrastructure of the system. Key area of operations considered in this strategy were the registration process, production method of the card, and the biometric function services for accuracy. The card was made with such features attached that the card cam be extremely difficult to forge the card. The enrolment process was one of the first hurdle in the registration process which was improved by automating some of the steps in the process. This made the 17 minute long process of enrolling, into 5 minutes (Al-Khouri, 2008). The enrolment process contains two components namely the biometric data utilized in the system and the registration which is filled by people at the start of the process. The registration form was modified to make it less lengthy and less complicated by integrating the information generated for the form into the ministries of labor, education, health, justice, interior, and higher education and making the card a required item in formal government procedures. The data integration of the data entered in the registration form was connected with a data warehousing. The biometric component required prints of slaps, palm prints, and rolled prints out of which one some prints were actually used and this allowed a subtraction in the processes. The initial system did not have a specific standard of the requirements and they were not followed through keeping the factor of operational efficiency into mind (Al-Khouri, 2011).
Literature Review

It is important to note what information is currently available regarding the application of TQM in a public sector organization and on a general level, it is important to observe literature regarding what kind of factors are essential in an organization for adopting TQM in the organization. A rigorous analysis of literature will provide us with a sound information regarding what is applicable in the TQM application of Emirates Identification Authority.
Total Quality management is an approach an approach an organization applies on itself in order to observe that quality in the organization is always a priority and even if the services and products follow quality standards, the organization will strive towards achieving a level beyond the quality standards and provide products and service with even higher quality standards. (Crosby, 1996)
There are several factors which an organization has to consider before adapting TQM as they are essential for a successful implementation of TQM and without the acceptance of and proper adherence to these factors, the application of TQM might not bring desired results. The factors that are required in TQM application belong to not one but many areas of processes in an organization. The objective behind the observation of these factors is that if an organization does not possess these factors, then the organization must work towards a scenario that these factors are present in the organization or that the organization must observe these factors as hurdles required to cross if it wants to adapt TQM in the organization. The correlation of these factor measure the level of success of TQM adaptation in the organization.
Customer Satisfaction

The focus on customer satisfaction in one of the most essential factors in the adaptation of TQM as the objective behind the enhancement of quality is that the customers should be satisfied with the quality of given products. The importance of customer satisfaction comes first and foremost according to the tenets of TQM and this aspect denotes the vitality of customer satisfaction in the operations and objective of the organization.
Even in a public sector organization, customer satisfaction factor is imminent as government exists ideally for serving its people. So in a public sector organization, if the areas related to the product in question are tweaked in order to aim for customer satisfaction, the results will bring satisfaction to the customers, which in this case are the people of the country or state which the public sector organization serves. Public sector quality management has been observed in a hospital scenario where quality is quintessential and after that, other services started adapting quality management but the public sector production areas have not been researched in detail. The factor of customer satisfaction can also be assumed as a yardstick of measurement for quality. Customer satisfaction also takes into account the behavior that is practiced with the customer. In case of Emirates ID, the concepts of both a production and service scenario have to be taken into account for enhancement of quality. So in order to preserve and enhance quality in this aspect, the organization also has to practice a helpful nature with the customers in order to increase the quality. (Crosby, 1996)
Division of Power

As the factor of quality measurement cannot be observed only by the upper class officials alone and even if there is a special department created for quality, there are high level of chances that there will be slippages in the aspect of quality in any department of the organization. So to achieve a superior level of quality maintenance, the power to observe slippages and downfalls in quality is to be divided among all the employees of the organization and the power to take initiative regarding the quality issue is also to be divided vastly among all departments. This is just not limited to the process of manufacture on a delivery of service but also of the surrounding atmosphere. (Black & Porter, 1996)
The cleanliness and accessibility of products and service inside the organization should be vigilantly observed by all the members of the organization and it should be reported as soon as possible to the person who has the power to take initiative about it. A quality observation and maintenance program cannot work when the power in the organization is in the hands of one or few people. If the responsibility regarding quality is divided in the organization, smooth operations are possible with the quality observation aspect. Essentially, TQM needs appropriate division of power in the organization in order to function properly.

The aspect of leadership is a very critical step in the ladder towards the application of TQM in the organization. The adaptation of TQM is an acceptance of a philosophy or a mindset and in order to apply the philosophy to the whole organization it is necessary to accept the philosophy of TQM in the mind of the organization which it the top level, which in this case will be the top level officials or the government itself as a controlling entity. The top level in the organization has to perceive the philosophy of TQM and understand its vitality. The leader of the organization is liable to commit to this philosophy in order to transmit the philosophy of TQM and its ideas on to the other employees of the organization. The leaders are vital in this process as they possess the vision to make changes in the organization and the power to change the rules and instill philosophy in the employees of the organization. This in a necessary step in the successful achievement of high quality production of goods. After all, TQM is not a clear instrument for the firm to attain the advantage of high quality in the organization, but it helps to a large extent in gaining a high advantage to quality (Dilber, Bayyurt, Zaim, & Tarim, 2005).
Rules, Procedures and Policies

When looking at a firm doing business there are certain policies applied in the firm which are applicable to its employees and to the departments and regarding public sector organization, there are rules regarding the procedures in the organization. There is a specific weightage on the term “organization” as the public sector organizations are not made with the objective to make money but for the products and services provided, they do take certain amount of money and if the organization runs smoothly, the operations can be profitable. The TQM fundamentals play a role in this scenario by the application of the fundamentals in the organizational rules and policies in order to successfully attain high quality in the production. The application of TQM begins at the top level of the organization and the qualities of TQM have to be instilled in the organization by the top level through the modification of the rules in order to include the tenets of Total Quality Management. It is through the changes in the rules how the application of the division in the power to take initiative is possible (Portera & Parker, 1993).
Financial Performance and Cost Factors

The application of TQM in the organization has a considerable impact on the costing of the organizational processes. In certain cases, the costs will decrease but in other cases, costs related to certain aspects can actually increase and it is the job the organization to select the preference regarding which processes need to go through the TQM procedure before the others which have a cost increasing impact on the company. These processes can be executed once the other processes have been modified and the cost factor has been decreased and profits have increased. The cost incurred in this scenario is known as quality cost which was discussed at length by Laszlo (Laszlo, 1988).
Benefits of TQM

One of the unique quality which TQM bestows on the firm is the quality of making easy inter-organizational collaboration. There is in-depth study of the soft factors of TQM and how it can benefit various aspects of the organization. TQM brings the aspect of improvement in the end product of the production process as well as sizable improvements in the production process itself keeping the aspect of quality into consideration improving quality of production and the product at the end of the process. As service aspects are also to be considered, TQM improves how the service is delivered and the quality of the service itself like customer relations, customer engagement, reduction in waiting time as well as cleanliness of the facility. TQM brings the quality of initiative and leadership in the lower level employees as they have to take initiative regarding quality management in the firm. The improved awareness of quality procedure enhances the impact of the TQM application in the organization causing further improvement of quality. Continuous enhancement of quality and service aspects of an organization can help in bringing perfection and the TQM philosophy helps the organization sustaining perfection. The successful implementation of TQM can bring higher profits and decrease in the cost factor of the organization on a long term (SEETHARAMAN, SREENIVASAN, & BOON, 2006).
Disadvantages of TQM (Failure Scenario)

The most vital fact to understand in a failure scenario of TQM is that not taking care of the critical factors of TQM fundamentals can result in a failure of TQM implementation in the organization. The lack of commitment displayed by a leader after adoption of TQM philosophy will result in the organization not getting a clear idea of TQM and not taking the role of TQM seriously in the success of the organization. This brings into the picture a lack of division of power that is caused by the lack of commitment in a leader. The lack of division of power in the organization causes pitfalls in quality management and a failure in the achievement of high quality procedures.
If the TQM philosophy does not have a higher place in the mind of the leader, then a possible of change of rules in alignment with TQM might not occur which decreases the impact of TQM in the organization. If an accurate quality measurement tool is not put in place in the organization, a correct picture of the quality standards in the organization is not possible. If the customers are not considered in the quality management scenario, the TQM implementation is going to be a definite failure (Black & Porter, 1996).
Challenges of TQM Adaptation in Emirates Identification Authority

Taking into consideration Emirates Organization Authority, A scenario of TQM implementation can be created which will shed a light on the challenges and hurdles that can come in the path to adapting TQM in the organization. The initial factors to consider is that EIDA is a public sector organization controlled by the government of UAE. It has already implemented several quality consideration standards which have helped in the business process re-engineering of EIDA. As any other departments do not provide the same service, and the identification provided by supersedes other identification forms for the required purposes, it can be safely said that EIDA is running a monopoly (Emirates Identiry Authority, 2015).
Considering these factors, the following factors can be a challenge in the successful adaptation of TQM in the organization.

The concept of customer in a business is a predefined area which facilitates a convenient selection of the target customer segment. Due to this factor, businesses have been conveniently applying TQM as the most important element of the TQM philosophy, the customer is a limited group which has limited requirements that are supposed to be fulfilled. But in case of EIDA, the customer is the complete population of UAE which is a very extensive group that includes its citizens as well as the residents of UAE. There is a difficulty in choosing the customer as well as giving preference to the customer type which can raise issues. The question that can be raised is “which group of people are the preferred customers? The residents, who are more in quantity? Or the citizens of UAE?” This question cannot be answered so the customer segment for EIDA remains bloated creating a huge challenge in the face of the tenets of TQM. The businesses can usually assume a niche in the market but the same aspect becomes of out of question in case of EIDA, a public sector organization (Swiss, 1992).
People over Systems

According to the principles of TQM, the quality can be managed in a proper manner if the work is being done with systems and not with people. The area of dilemma in EIDA is that some of the work is done by machines (i.e. scanning and photography devices attached to computers and card generating devices) and some of it is done by the staff (I.e. maintaining order, customer care services and operating the devices). Due to this, quality slips occur mainly in the areas where people are involved in the process. Determining slips in quality becomes difficult when both the elements are to be analyzed separately for quality and performance measurement (Swiss, 1992).
Continuous Improvement

The aspect of continuous improvement require the assignment of new goals or targets after the achievement of a benchmark. It is possible that setting a new benchmark might require a change in systems, procedures or policies which is not possible to do at such a frequent basis as it is a government organization and changes in rules and policies take time as they have to be done in an extremely formal manner. Similarly, change in systems and procedures cause inconvenience to both customers as well as the employees in the organization. This principle of TQM cannot actively be applied in EIDA due to the factor that change is not always welcome unless absolutely necessary (Stringham, 2004).
Division of Power

As EIDA is a public sector organization controlled by the government, the power which the government holds over its people cannot be distributed and due to a strong hierarchical structure of public sector organizations, the duties that are assigned to an individual have to be performed by the individual himself and the duties cannot be divided freely. According to TQM principles a worker needs to work without boundaries in order to excel but due to a formal organization structure in EIDA, this is not possible (SEETHARAMAN, SREENIVASAN, & BOON, 2006).
Orthodox Nature of TQM

The TQM set of principles is ideally made for manufacturing processes rather than services or manufacturing processes where the product is to be supplied just after it is created which makes it a fusion of product and service. In EIDA, the identity cards are provided to the applicants on the location after processing which puts it out of the ideal process area. This process also makes the production labor intensive and due to dependability on labor, the output does not stay uniform (Stringham, 2004). This non-uniform nature of output makes it difficult to effectively evaluate the output. Similarly, the measures for enhancing qualities are even more difficult to apply in services in comparison to production processes. Observing this scenario, the principle regarding reducing variation becomes difficult in case of EIDA raising a critical challenge.

As EIDA is a public sector organization which has assumed a role which cannot and is not fulfilled by any other institution, the organization can be considered a monopoly in business terms (considering TQM), which means that it has no competitors. The benefit of TQM is that it can provide a competitive advantage and also considering that performance and quality of the product cannot be compared with a suitable competitor, making the advantage provided by TQM very limited in nature. Absence of competitors also has an impact on the performance of the organization along with its employees and affects the factor of creating a benchmark of achievement for TQM. This also suggests that sizable or noticeable improvement will not be possible due to a lack of measurement yardstick and the fact that the current progress achieved with the help of standards cannot be surpassed marginally with TQM adoption (Singla, Khanduja, & Singh, 2011).

Emirates Identity Authority as a public sector organization has been progressing recently due to its application of standards and business process re-engineering techniques and achieved a comparatively optimized process. After observing the background of the organization it can be known that EIDA has a progressive history which can further benefit through quality management procedures. After analyzing the critical success factors of Total Quality Management, it can be observed which aspects are marked for changes and improvement in an organization and which factors need change. The advantages of TQM show a brighter picture of further development while the scenario of failure sheds light on what can go wrong in the adoption of TQM in the organization. The series of challenges in the path of TQM implementation after analysis of the tenets of TQM philosophy present a grim picture of hurdles that can come in the way of implementing TQM in EIDA. The drawbacks of the system for TQM implementation and the low margin of improvement through TQM is a recommendation of avoiding TQM implementation in case of quality management in EIDA.
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Posted on

March 7, 2018

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