Project Report on desigining Sanitary Sewer System

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Student’s Name:
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Table of Contents
Project Description 3
Purpose of the project 3
The area covered by the project 4
The extent of the area 5
The project horizon 5
Drainage 5
Topography of the area 5
Type of Sewer 5
General description of the network 6
Total amount of water will be drained (at the end point) 9
Design 13
Design criteria 13
Flow rate criteria 14
Hydraulic criteria (Min and Max Velocities of flow) 14
Pipes’ materials 14
Pipe size 14
Sewer Laterals 17
Manholes (size, spacing, and location) 17
Hydraulic calculation 19
Sewage Flow 19
Pipes size 23
Distribution Profiles 28
Distribution table: 28
Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) curve 29
References 30
Appendices: 31

Project Description
Purpose of the project
The purpose of the project is to design a sewer system for the Narooba area, situated near the Marsh creek, Ohio in America.
Sanitary sewer system refers to the system which is designed and adopted to help manage and drain the used sewage and waste water from the various areas of the city. It may pose a serious threat if it gets accumulated in the streets or gets logged due to the improper or inadequate sewage facility at that place.
This kind of sanitary sewage does not create much problem in the regions which involve natural landscapes like hills and forests as they get absorbed by the thick soil present there along with their absorption by the plants and the trees present there. But, these sewage drain can pose a very serious problem in the urban areas where they do not get enough soil as well as plants and trees to absorb it through the sewage system.
The accumulation of the waste water poses two types of problems for the city. One is the flooding of such water on breakage of pipes or failure of the system and the waste water gets accumulated in large quantities and the other issue is the threat of water pollution that can be created by excessive storage of these untreated sewage water. Accumulation of this water in the streets of the city, sidewalks on the streets, roofs of the houses and throughout the parking lots needs to be managed before it tends to create any of the problems related to an outbreak of diseases and other health hazards. Thereby, it is important to channelize these water before it poses as a threat to the surroundings around it (U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. 5,405,539., 1995 ).
Requirement of water for commercial and consumption purpose is also on the increase in the urban areas due to meagre amount of natural water resources available for that in the cities. There is a huge scarcity of water for using in the household purposes across the locality. However, through proper management and channelization of the water available into the resources can provide a solution to these shortage. These involves executing proper treatment of the water that is led into the water resources like lakes, rivers and other such pure water resources.
These sewer system will help to channelize the sewage water that gets collected in these localities and poses various threats to the community in terms of various health hazards. This sewer system will tend to provide drainage in order to prevent floating of water which leads to various problems like damaging and cracking of the streets, water pollution due to the accumulation and contamination of such water and a huge amount of traffic jams. These system will target to channelize the sewage water that gets collected and accumulated in the parking lots, city lanes and other such areas (Kawamura, 2000).
Water management is required in these communities to ensure the smooth flow of operations, vehicles and people across the road within the community that will be achieved by this system of sewer water treatment. This area is densely populated by the people and is also significant from the commercial point of view due to the Marsh Creek Park. Hence, a proper drainage system will ensure the cleanliness of the region and will help to increase the commercial value of the region.
The area covered by the project
The area covered by the project is the Narooba area Lake Blvd, which extends to about 0.5 miles towards the west direction right across the harbour drive and reaching the harbour creek drive on the other side in the west. The area which is covered in the project would be around 1.1 sq. miles as shown between the two points with blue dotted line.

The extent of the area
The Narooba area is situated near the Marsh creek lake region. Towards the east direction, it has Marsh Creek across its border. It has harbor creek drive towards its west and there are many residential avenues in between this area.
The project horizon
The area is designed for approximately 12 – 15 years and in the future if the horizon is needed to be enlarged or developed for commercial purposes it will require further modifications and maintenance. The area is mostly residential and it is divided to 8 major blocks on the basis of the streets present there, as we can see in the picture. The community has human habitation spread in large numbers over a small area which can be observed from the density of this region and this provides a limited opportunity to utilize more and more space for the construction of the system (Shannon & Smets, 2010). There is a selected area which is to be considered while analysing the community and developing the sewer system for them. The area which is to be considered is shown in the image. The direction of the Sewer system that I am going to develop is ranges from the elevation in the east towards the lower areas that the slope gradually follows in the west.
Drainage
Topography of the area
The area which we have selected a slope from 75-80. This will depend on the gravity and the direction of the water that flows in through the surface. This, therefore, will support the flow of water starting from the point shown in the map from the right extreme corner. There are different lanes and street observed in the area that is selected. The topography of the area has exactly 4 contour lines and the first top contour line has an elevation of 80 m and the last one on the left side has an elevation of 75 m (U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. 5,405,539., 1995 ).
Type of Sewer
The path which is selected for the sewer system is such that it will provide enough scope for the water to flow across the surface by virtue of its gravity from an elevation to a reduced height. The flow of the sewer would be obtained according to the slope of the area. (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems., 2004). This type of drainage helps to use the force of gravity to ensure smooth flow of the sewage water to the disposal or other resources through the city roads without much external pressure or pumps required. The sewer would be using the gravity force of the earth for the flow of the sewer water and hence, this sewer is known as gravity sewer.
The drainage system takes the advantage of the geographical slopes that are observed in these region to be considered (VanWoert, Rowe, Andresen, Rugh, & Fernandez, 2005). The west side gradually is at a lower height and hence is very easily sufficient enough from the flow of the sewage water point of view along the slope.
General description of the network
The route which is to be created for the sewage water to flow through the road is executed along the 8 streets. It will be designed in such a way that the junctions would not witness logging of the wastes by using filters near the junctions where the lines are changed. (Shannon & Smets, 2010).Kerbs and pavements are also developed accordingly to accumulate and facilitate the smoothness of the functions.
The drainage system is designed to take in any rate of flow in the area starting from the east towards the west throughout the 8 blocks along the 4 streets. The lines that go from east to west collect the sewage water from the 2 blocks in the east direction that are forming a square over there and the drainage system can collect water from the whole 2 blocks in this area. This water is then graduated towards the inclination in the west direction. It is also observed that proper track and path of this water is specified so as to avoid the jamming on the roads and places which are having high value from commercial point of view (VanWoert, Rowe, Andresen, Rugh, & Fernandez, 2005).
Mapping of the location:

Figure 2: Satellite view

Figure 3: Street view

Figure 4: Piping system

The design and the channelizing of the pipes through the sewer system is made such that they tend to face least number of obstacles under the surface while carrying the sewage water to its disposal or desired place. There has also been terms that are to be taken care of while developing the design of the sewer system so as to make sure that it does not affect the working and flow of operations in this region. The lines that are to be provided are designed and developed after considering the topography of the region as discussed earlier. The points that are at a greater height from the sea level, that is, which are at an elevation are first determined. It is then followed by deriving its course for the flow of the water through the pipes. It involves considering the points that are gradually towards the west and are comparatively at a lower height from the sea level as compared to the points in the east (VanWoert, Rowe, Andresen, Rugh, & Fernandez, 2005).
The construction of kerbs along the pavements is also to be made in such a way that it provides sufficient space for the utilization of roads and the lanes for other purposes. Thus, it must be made sure that optimum utilization of space is carried out. This will not only help in saving space but also provide a scope and setup for infrastructural facilities and other recreational activities. The recreational and commercial points can also be worked upon for the saved region and contribute towards its increase that would ultimately benefit the people as well as the government (U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. 5,405,539., 1995 ).
Total amount of water will be drained (at the end point)
The total amount of water which would be drained across the end point would be determined through calculating the flow of waste water through the pipes. For, this the flow through the pipes is calculated. The quantity of water that is collected depends on the blockage due to various objects in the sewage lines resulting in the blocking of the lines due to logging of sewage in the lines. There are many other factors that reduce the amount of water that drains from the sewage pipes and this factors are considered to directly measure the flow or the amount of water at the endpoint.

Subarea number Type of establishment Number of establishments in the subarea Litre per person per day Population in subarea Litre per day
Single family dwellings 4 300 30 9000
Single family dwellings 3 300 40 12000
Single family dwellings 5 300 35 10500
Church 1 30 25 7500
Single family dwellings 8 300 77 23100
Single family dwellings 4 300 44 13200
Church 1 25 20 500
Single family dwellings 5 300 80 24000
Single family dwellings 9 300 72 21600
Single family dwellings 8 300 48 14400
Single family dwellings 11 300 80 24000
Picnic park(toilet waste only) 1 25 25 625
Church 1 30 15 450
Day school with cafeteria (without gymnasium and showers) 1 100 80 8000
Single family dwellings 5 300 40 12000
Single family dwellings 9 300 95 28500
Single family dwellings 8 300 70 21000
Church 4 30 45 1350
Single family dwellings 3 300 60 18000
Single family dwellings 5 300 50 15000
Single family dwellings 9 300 90 27000
Church 1 25 20 500
Single family dwellings 5 300 45 1350
Single family dwellings 9 300 60 18000
Single family dwellings 8 300 50 15000
Church 1 300 30 9000
Single family dwellings 3 300 90 27000
Single family dwellings 5 300 70 21000
Single family dwellings 9 300 45 1350
Single family dwellings 11 300 60 18000
Single family dwellings 10 300 50 15000
Church 1 30 40 1200
Single family dwellings 12 300 100 30000
Single family dwellings 7 300 80 24000
Single family dwellings 8 300 82 24600
Single family dwellings 9 300 94 28200
Single family dwellings 13 300 120 36000
Church 1 30 28 840
Single family dwellings 7 300 64 19200
Single family dwellings 5 300 95 28500
Single family dwellings 6 300 74 22200
Single family dwellings 4 300 45 13
500
Single family dwellings 5 300 54 16200
Single family dwellings 9 300 92 27600
Single family dwellings 8 300 76 22800
Day school with cafeteria (without gymnasium and showers) 4 300 40 12000
Single family dwellings 3 300 33 9900
Single family dwellings 5 300 48 14400
Single family dwellings 9 300 88 26400
Single family dwellings 8 300 65 19500
Picnic park(toilet waste only) 1 25 30 750
Church 1 30 35 1050
Single family dwellings 5 300 54 16200
Single family dwellings 9 300 78 23400
Single family dwellings 8 300 90 27000
Total amount of water will be drained at the end point (L/day) 896450
Design
Design criteria
The design of the sewer system is to be made by considering various parameters and elements that tend to affect the development of the project. Designing elements are to be defined and at the same time determined for a specific set of variables (VanWoert, Rowe, Andresen, Rugh, & Fernandez, 2005). These parameters are explained and derived below:
Flow rate criteria
Hydraulic criteria (Min and Max Velocities of flow)
The most affectively factor in the project is the velocity of water in the pipes that depend mostly in the slope of the pipe used. The minimum range is 1.65m/s and the maximum is 2.60m/s. The hydraulic design of the structure tends to provide with the strength and reliability of the design and calculation in terms of the life of the pipes. The hydraulic design helps in better understanding of the features that are to be considered while designing the sewer drain. It also involves developing elements and parameters that will help to ensure that the project will be able to sustain the different hurdles and obstacles that are offered by the nature (Harremoves & Rauch, 1996). The effectiveness of the hydraulic design will provide the confirmation of the life and safety of the project and thereby, of the people in contact with it. The characteristic feature of the hydraulic design id the strength which the material will offer when it is performing a task (U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. 5,405,539., 1995 ).

Pipes’ materials
There are various materials from which pipes can be made. It must be resistant to corrosion on being exposed to sewage water and other impurities present in it. This serves to be a major concern for selecting the pipe for the sewage lines. The material that is selected has to be cheap due to its requirement in large quantities. The pipes would remain in a good condition if they are cleaned at regular intervals of time and they are maintained through regular checking and inspection. The material is mostly iron and there is a coating on the inner side which is called as galvanising iron and this helps the iron from rusting in the sewage and waste water conditions.
Pipe size
The diameter of the pipe through which the sewage water is going to flow is to be determined and this is done by the following formula which is obtained from the manning’s equation (Elimam, Charalambous, & Ghobrial, 1989):
D=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^(0.5) ))〗^(3/8)

D=Diameter in (m) n=coeffiecient of roughness
S=Slope (m/m) Q=water flow (m^3/s)

Diameter of the pipe in Line 1A:
Q_1= 0.075m^3/s n = 0.028 S_1= 0.007
D_1=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.075 × 4 × 0.028 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.007〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.331m

Selected pipe size=0.35m=350mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 2A:

Q_2= 0.198m^3/s n = 0.028 S_2= 0.007
D_2=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.198 × 4 × 0.028 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.007〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.481m

Selected pipe size=0.5m=500mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 4A:

Q_4=(0.325m^3)/s n = 0.014 S_4= 0.0023
D_4=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.325 × 4 × 0.014 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0023〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.68m

Selected pipe size=0.70m=700mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 7A:

Q_7= 0.70m^3/s n = 0.013 S_7= 0.0025
D_7=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((070 × 4 × 0.013 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0025〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.93m
Selected pipe size=0.95m=950mm
Here, to avoid any kind of error we will be calculating diameter of the pipe twice.
Diameter of the pipe in Line 1B:
Q_1= 0080m^3/s n = 0.028 S_1= 0.007
D_1=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.080 × 4 × 0.028 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.007〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.340m

Selected pipe size=0.35m=350mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 2B:

Q_2= 0.200m^3/s n = 0.028 S_2= 0.007
D_2=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.200 × 4 × 0.028 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.007〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.470m

Selected pipe size=0.50m=500mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 4B:

Q_4= 0.4m^3/s n = 0.014 S_4= 0.023
D_4=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.4 × 4 × 0.014 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.023〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.694m

Selected pipe size=0.700m=700mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 7B:

Q_7=0.712m^3/s n = 0.013 S_7= 0.0025
D_7=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.712 × 4 × 0.013 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0025〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.945m

Selected pipe size=0.95m=950mm

Here, we have calculated the diameter of the pipes that are used as per the flow and other dimensions. On the basis of that, we are going to select the diameter of the pipes for the drain project. We have obtained the diameters and flow across all the 8 pipes that we are going to use across the 4 streets and they are tabulated below:

Sewer Laterals
The laterals of the sewers refers to the design provided in the sewer system regarding the flow of sewage through the man holes and across the pipes. It includes provision of kerbs and gutters along the pavements of the road to drain off all the sewage accumulated on the surface. The kerbs are gutter like structures made along the pavements of the road at the corner along its surface. The construction of the kerbs along the corners of the roads should be made such that it can take sufficient amount of water through it and this would thereby reduce the load on the sewer pipe. The alignment of the pavements should be made such that it is in the direction of the slope that is existing in the region. Hence, hardly, any force or external device will be required to drain the water along the surface.
Manholes (size, spacing, and location)
It is observed that approximately minimum value of a manhole spacing is of 240mm to 310mm and the maximum is around 1050mm. The manhole space varies depending on the slope from north to south and from west to east. The selection of the sites and location for construction of man holes needs to be made by considering parameters that are related to the area, locality, density and design of the road pavements above the surface of the drainage system (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems, 2004). It also helps to determine the path through which the pipelines will be crossing across the man holes and serve as a guide to provide them the course. The design of the man holes should utilize optimum availability of free surface on its side and this will ensure that timely drain of water along the roadside is done. In the below figure, manholes are represented by M.
Figure 6: Manhole system

Hydraulic calculation
Sewage Flow
Sewage flow Calculations
Discharge time t_d:
It refers to the time that is required by the flow to get across the pipe through different point of time. The estimation and the figures that are used here are taken as per the Municipality specifications and the norms that are mentioned and followed by them (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems, 2004). The number of years that is to be considered is ranging from 2 years to 50 years considering the feasibility of the project with respect to the flow and the rate of flow (U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. 5,405,539., 1995 ). In the table shown below, we have obtained the relationship between the rates of flow of sewage water at different Return period (T) for a given discharge time duration given by t_d.
The results that are obtained from the table show that the flow rate depends on the area and intensity of the sewage water that is flowing through it. The duration or the Return period (T) is independent of the material of the pipe but depends on the area of the pipe through which it flows. This can be obtained by calculating the discharge across the pipes for a specific amount of time. The flow of the pipes is measured and obtained at an interval of few years. The amount of the flow that gets fluctuated is to be observed from the table. The table also provides guidelines on the discharge that will be obtained by a specific dimension of pipe over a period of years. The run- off coefficients of these pipes are to be taken into consideration to develop the pipes design in details (Elimam, Charalambous, & Ghobrial, 1989).
Flow in (lines 1, 3, 5 and 7)
The measure of the flow of water or any other liquid while it is running or flowing is termed as the run off flow. The run off is measured in terms of m^3/hr and the unit it is same as that of any other kind of flow of liquid along a surface. The run off is measured by the following way (Elimam, Charalambous, & Ghobrial, 1989):
The method which is used is shown below:
Q=CiA
Where;
Q=The water flow rate (m^3/hr) C=Runoff coefficient
I=Rainfall intensity (mm/hr) A=Drainage area (m^2)

The area is divided into 8 blocks and the flow through the lines 1, 2, 4 and 8 are calculated. The areas of the pipes A is determined and taken accordingly.
Runoff across the Line 1A:

C_1=0.39 I_1=0.060m/hr A_1=15100m^2

Q_1=0.39×0.060×15100=370.2m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 2A:

C_2=0.39 I_2=0.067m/hr A_2=15300m^2

Q_2=0.39×0.067×15300+348.2=689.4m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 4A:

C_4=0.39 I_4=0.068m/hr A_4=5800m^2

Q_4=0.39×0.068×5800+1035.6=1120m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 8A:

C_8=0.39 I_8=0.070m/hr A_8=7100m^2

Q_8=0.39×0.070×7100+1190+1037.4=2631 m^3/hr
Here, in our case, in order to ensure proper and precise estimation of the run off, we are going to measure it twice for the same pipes to ensure that any kind of error is not made in making the dimension of the pipe.
Runoff across the Line 1B:

C_1=0.39 I_1=0.07m/hr A_1=15100m^2

Q_1=0.39×0.07×15100=365.6m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 2B:

C_2=0.39 I_2=0.071m/hr A_2=15200m^2

Q_2=0.39×0.71×15200+372.6=705.2m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 4B:

C_4=0.39 I_4=0.074m/hr A_4=5800m^2

Q_4=0.39×0.074×5800+1218.8=1392m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 8B:

C_8=0.39 I_8=0.068m/hr A_8=6800m^2

Q_8=0.39×0.068×6800+1260+1217.2=2678.8m^3/hr.
Here, we have obtained the discharge, that is, the run off across the 4 pipes along the streets.

Table (flow in each line)
Line
No. Flow (Q)
(m3/hr)
1 370
2 705
3 1190
4 1392
5 2035
6 2275
7 2571
8 2628

Pipes size
Manning equation
The diameter of the pipe through which the sewage water is going to flow is to be determined and this is done by the following formula which is obtained from the manning’s equation:
D=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^(0.5) ))〗^(3/8)

D=Diameter in (m) n=coeffiecient of roughness
S=Slope (m/m) Q=water flow (m^3/s)
Diameter of the pipe in Line 1A:
Q_1= 0.080m^3/s n = 0.031 S_1= 0.009
D_1=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.080 × 4 × 0.031 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.009〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.351m

Selected pipe size=0.35m=350mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 2A:

Q_2= 0.208m^3/s n = 0.035 S_2= 0.009
D_2=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.208 × 4 × 0.035 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.009〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.501m

Selected pipe size=0.5m=500mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 4A:

Q_4=(0.325m^3)/s n = 0.021 S_4= 0.0033
D_4=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.325 × 4 × 0.021 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0033〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.695m

Selected pipe size=0.70m=700mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 8A:

Q_8= 0.75m^3/s n = 0.023 S_8= 0.0032
D_8=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.75 × 4 × 0.023 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0032〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.93m
Selected pipe size=0.95m=950mm
Here, to avoid any kind of error we will be calculating diameter of the pipe twice.
Diameter of the pipe in Line 1B:
Q_1= 00801/s n = 0.031 S_1= 0.007
D_1=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.080 × 4 × 0.028 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.007〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.348m

Selected pipe size=0.35m=350mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 2B:

Q_2= 0.200m^3/s n = 0.028 S_2= 0.007
D_2=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.200 × 4 × 0.028 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.007〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.470m

Selected pipe size=0.50m=500mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 4B:

Q_4= 0.4m^3/s n = 0.014 S_4= 0.023
D_4=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.4 × 4 × 0.014 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.023〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.694m

Selected pipe size=0.700m=700mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 7B:

Q_8=0.712m^3/s n = 0.013 S_8= 0.0025
D_8=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.712 × 4 × 0.013 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0025〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.945m

Selected pipe size=0.95m=950mm

Here, we have calculated the diameter of the pipes that are used as per the flow and other dimensions. On the basis of that, we are going to select the diameter of the pipes for the drain project.
Pipes Materials and Manning Coefficient
Runoff coefficients:
It refers to the surface friction factors that the different material possess. The co – efficient of the run off tends to determine the intensity and smoothness of the flow of the water across it.
The run off coefficients also tend to help to make an estimation of the life of the pipe that would be able to sustain the flow of sewer across it for a particular period of time (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems, 2004). The coefficients help to understand the friction that the pipes will undergo when the sewer water drain flows through it (Elimam, Charalambous, & Ghobrial, 1989):
The runoff coefficients are also termed as manning’s coefficients as the have been used in the Manning’s equation for measuring the diameter of the pipes and establishing the flow through the pipes. The coefficients value also tend to provide the calculation with an edge to carry the necessary steps and analysis to design the pipe for the project purpose on the basis of the strength of the materials that are shown in the table below:

Pipes Size (lines 1, 2, 4, 8)
There is calculated diameter of the pipes and then on the basis of that actual diameter is taken. Pipe sizes of the pipes 1, 2, 4, 8 are mentioned in the table below.

Line
No. Pipe Size
Calculated (mm) Pipe size
Selected (mm)
1 331 350
2 470 500
4 694 700
8 972 950

This are the values which are taken into consideration in the measurement of flow. Manning’s equation also uses the same values for measuring the diameter of the pipe on the basis of the flow through it.
We have obtained the diameters and flow across all the 8 pipes that we are going to use across the 4 streets and they are tabulated below:

Line
No. Flow (Q)
(m3/hr) Pipe Size
Calculated (mm) Pipe size
Selected (mm)
1 370 331 350
2 705 470 500
3 1190 539 550
4 1392 694 700
5 2035 742 750
6 2275 872 900
7 2571 945 950
8 2628 972 950

Distribution Profiles
Figure 7: Square map of the area

(GETTYIMAGES.IN, 2015)
Distribution table:
The run offs that is the flow of the waste water and the estimated sizes of the pipes along with the selected sizes of the pipes are calculated for all the 4 streets that we have considered.
The calculations are tabulated as shown below:
Line
No. Name of the site Flow (Q)
(m3/hr) Pipe Size
Calculated (mm) Pipe size
Selected (mm)
1 Washington Avenue 352.2 331 350
2 Anaconda avenue 690.4 470 500
3 Green Oak Avenue 1219 539 550
4 Orchid avenue 1390 694 700
5 Orchid avenue 2580 742 750
6 Green Oak Avenue 2652 872 900
7 Anaconda avenue 2771 945 950
8 Washington Avenue 2980 972 950

Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) curve
This is the frequency intensity that is measured against the duration of the rainfall and is observed for a period of 15 years. The main focus of this relationship is to observe the intensity of rainfall within a particular region and at the same time also focus on the side effects that it produces on the sewer water drain system. It is shown in figure 8.

References
AUSTINTEXAS.GOV. (2015, November). PRIVATE LATERAL PROGRAM. Retrieved from https://austintexas.gov: https://austintexas.gov/department/private-lateral-program
Elimam, A. A., Charalambous, C., & Ghobrial, F. H. (1989). Optimum design of large sewer networks. . Journal of Environmental Engineering, 115(6), , 1171-1190.
GETTYIMAGES.IN. (2015). OHIO. Retrieved from http://www.gettyimages.in: http://www.gettyimages.in/detail/illustration/ohio-vector-map-royalty-free-illustration/483785327
GOOGLE.CO.IN. (2015). Marsh Creek, Ohio. Retrieved from https://www.google.co.in: https://www.google.co.in/maps/place/Marsh+Creek+Ln,+Rootstown,+OH+44272,+USA/@41.0972303,-81.2192096,17z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x8831377af4d5f175:0x68f20e5507b1d042
Harremoves, P., & Rauch, W. (1996). Integrated design and analysis of drainage systems, including sewers, treatment plant and receiving waters. Journal Of Hydraulic Research, 815–826.
Kawamura, S. (2000). Integrated design and operation of water treatment facilities. . John Wiley & Sons.
Schmitt, T., Thomas, M., & Ettrich, N. (2004). Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems. Journal Of Hydrology,, 300–311.
Schmitt, T., Thomas, M., & Ettrich, N. (2004). Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems. Journal Of Hydrology, 300–311.
Schneider, T. W. (1995 ). U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. 5,405,539.
Shannon, K., & Smets, M. (2010). The landscape of contemporary infrastructure. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers.
VanWoert, N., Rowe, D., Andresen, J., Rugh, C., & Fernandez, R. X. (2005). Green roof stormwater retention. Journal Of Environmental Quality, , 1036–1044.

Appendices:
Figure1: Topography of the area

Figure 5: Sewer Laterals structure

(AUSTINTEXAS.GOV, 2015)

Figure 8: Intensity Distribution Frequency Curve

Skills

Posted on

March 9, 2018

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