Project title: Report on nuclear power plant
Date of Submission:
Objectives of the report
The main aim of the report is to evaluate and derive the emergency operating procedures in a nuclear power plant. There are various objectives that would be covered in the report and they are:
• Identifying the different important states that are existing in the nuclear power plant and evaluating the transition of one state to other,
• Develop the significance and methodology for obtaining important emergency operating procedures that are to be followed in the global market.
• Identifying the plant conditions where there is requirement of adapting emergency operating procedures.
Brief description of the plant states and the accident conditions
There are different states through which the material flows in the plant. These states are maintained under controlled conditions and their parameters is also kept under certain values. There are many continuous upgradations and technological advancements carried in the nuclear power plant industry to increase the efficiency of the processes and at the same time, develop various innovative measures to identify the risks involves and develop a framework for its safety accordingly. There are various conditions that may result in the development or occurrence of accidents in the nuclear power plant. It includes the working conditions that consist of extreme mechanical quantities to be carried in the nuclear power plant.
There is a huge adverse effect on the emotional context of the people that are living in the region where the nuclear power plant occurs. It is because the radiations that are spread in the atmosphere due to the accident that occurred at the nuclear power plant and its lasting effects are felt on the land, water as well as air that is used by the people (Bromet, 2014). Thus, the accident conditions that are identified in the plant have to be handled with utmost care and it should be the major concern for the environment and health regulatory bodies across the globe.
Factors prompting the transition from one state to another
There are different factors that are involved in transitioning of states throughout the nuclear power plant. It involves thermodynamic, mechanical and electrical energy mechanisms to lead to the transition of states from one state to another. It is very significant to establish integrity through these mechanisms as it will help in ensuring the required safety to be developed across the nuclear plant (Espinosa-Paredes, Batet, Nunez-Carrera, & Sugimoto, 2012). The factors involve the risk that are posing to the nuclear power plant on account of its location and construction. The geographical location of the plant determines the natural disasters that it has to withstand across its functioning. It involves another significant factor of the maintenance of the plant. The operations should not only be performed, but safety should be established across them in order to avoid the need of an emergency operation to be carried out.
Explanation of the purpose and scope of emergency operating procedures
It is necessary to develop emergency operating procedures in the nuclear power plant owing to the harmful processes and materials that are present in nuclear power plant. The purpose of establishing emergency operating procedures is to identify the steps that should be taken in case of any emergency that may occur in a nuclear power plant like failure or breakdown of any device or process, external impact of other forces on the plant. There are extremely high pressures involved in the development of electrical energy when, the steam runs the turbine connected to a generator. At the same time, the cooling circuit play a vital role in regulating the temperatures in the plant. The temperature and the pressure conditions are the primary elements that are to be maintained within the specific limits throughout the plant.
The main factor that is to be considered while developing the emergency operating procedures consist of the beyond design basis accidents (BDBA) that can hardly be controlled. These accidents are mostly not dependent on the actual design of the plant. It is related to the maintenance of the plant and the operations that are carried in the plants. Emergency operations that are majorly included in the BDBA include the natural unavoidable disasters like earthquake, cyclone, Tsunami and other such geological occurrences that cannot be controlled by man. There are different factors that also include the meteorological characteristics like excessive heat, cold or heavy rainfall that cannot be controlled by man. Hence, there are sufficient and efficient measures to be developed in order to face any such emergency that may be developed in the nuclear power plant.
There are various steps suggested by the “International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)” for ensuring that high standards of safety are established in the nuclear power plants throughout its operations (INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, 2009). It has developed several projects and provisions in collaboration with the “Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)” that is a part of the “Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)”. There was an extensive level of emergency operations and safety provision developed in the countries who were a member of OECD across the globe. There are many accident prevention programs and plans developed by the “European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG)” for ensuring the working conditions to be under the prescribed standards (WORLD-NUCLEAR.ORG, 2015). These standards consist of deriving specific limits for the pressure, temperature and other operating conditions that are carried in the nuclear power plant.
The temperatures and the pressures of the steam has to be kept under strict control and it should be continuously observed for ensuring the fulfillment of the safety standards in the power plant. It has been observed in the accident that occurred at the Chernobyl reactor in 1986, in Ukraine. There was fire developed due to the steam explosion that took lives of about 56 people and it had widespread harmful effects on the flora and fauna of the region for a long period of time. It had large scale adverse effects on the environment over a period of several years (WORLD-NUCLEAR.ORG, 2015). This is the level of impact that an accident occurring in nuclear power plant has on the health of the people as well as the loss of property.
Bromet, E. J. (2014). Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters. . Health physics, 106(2), 206-210.
Espinosa-Paredes, G., Batet, L., Nunez-Carrera, A., & Sugimoto, J. (2012). Severe accident analysis in nuclear power plants. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 1-2.
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY. (2009). Severe Accident Management Programmes for Nuclear Power Plants. Retrieved from http://www-pub.iaea.org: http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1376_web.pdf
WORLD-NUCLEAR.ORG. (2015, August). Safety of Nuclear Power Reactors. Retrieved from http://www.world-nuclear.org: http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/safety-of-plants/safety-of-nuclear-power-reactors.aspx