Project Report on Designing of A Highway


Table of Contents
 Task name 1
 Reviewing & comparison of distresses 2
 Repair Details 3
 Causes of pavement damage: 3
Quality of material used: 4
Improper maintenance: 4
Chemical reaction: 4
Climate: 4
 Describing the failure 4
• Alligator Cracks 4
• Longitudinal Cracks 5
• Potholes 5
 Investigating the causes 6
Constant load 6
Joint damage: 6
Asphalt pavement inappropriateness: 6
 Alternative treatments recommendations 7
Detection through Anisotropy equipment: 7
Automatic Road Pavement assessment: 7
Automatic Road Crack Detection 7
 Comparison & contrast with local and international codes 7
 Conclusion 8
 References 8

Task name

We are going to design the surface of a highway road. This will be carried out on a distressed road in UAE. We have to choose any of the road in Dubai and analyse the structure of its surface and develop a design to identify the failures and provide remedies for them. We have to identify the stresses that were present on the surface and then evaluate its causes and effects.
For the research and analysis, we have selected road at 66B street, Mirdif, situated in Dubai. We have also created a drawing that supports the alternatives and solution that we have provided and the methods of evaluating the cracks in the road that we have taken into consideration. There are various steps and techniques that are to be studied while developing the design.
Reviewing & comparison of distresses
There are different types of stresses that are observed on the road at 66B street, Mirdif and they are the reasons for the cracks and failures that occur on the surface of the roads. On road at 66B street, Mirdif, which we took under consideration, we found failures in the form of Alligator Cracking, Longitudinal Cracking and Potholes. The distresses involved in this type of cracking are reviewed and discussed below.

There are two major types of distresses that are found on the surface of the road and they are reviewed as under:
a) Surface distresses b) Pavement distresses
The distresses that are caused due to the cracking, failure or other such irregular failure on the surface of the roads is termed as the surface distress. This kind of distress originates due to various reasons which involve poor climate, fatigue, vehicles load, weathering due to sand and water. It also involves the irregularities and problems that has occurred in the construction of the roads and use of poor, inadequate material in its construction also is a major reason of the cracks and failures that are observed in the roads. The distresses that are caused on the surface of the road on the pavement sides are termed as pavement distresses. The pavement distresses are widely observed due to the use of poor quality of materials on the sides or inappropriate filling that is made on the sides of the road in order to save time and cost. These pavement distresses involves rigid and flexible pavement distresses.
These two types of distresses lead to alligator cracks, longitudinal cracks and potholes on the road at 66B street, Mirdif. There are various differences in the types of the failures that cause these cracks. These are compared for these three failures as under:
Alligator cracking involves formation of cracks in the form of networks and hence they are caused due to surface distress, whereas Longitudinal cracking involves formation of a linear crack on the surface of the road and it is also a type of surface distress. On the other hand, Potholes are formed due to the sudden impact and weathering of the surface of the road and they are caused by pavement distresses.
Repair Details
The cracks that are caused on the road at 66B street, Mirdif are due to the different types of distresses which are to be understood and repaired. The damage that is caused in the form of the three failures or cracks can be classified in two types of intensity in cracks and depending on their intensity they are to be repaired.
Low intensity cracks: It involves cracks that are less than ½ inch in width and are less severe as compared to the other cracks. This types of cracks are repaired by sealing the cracks that would prevent any sort of material like water, moisture that may damage the road surface by further widening of the cracks on the road at 66B street, Mirdif.
High intensity cracks: It involves cracks that are more than ½ inch wide and are more severe as compared to the other cracks. This type of cracks are to be worked upon immediately to avoid a major accident that could occur due to it. This type of cracks are repaired by spreading a layer of filings on the surface of the road where cracks are observed. This would ensure that the surface remains undamaged and gets repaired for a long time.
Causes of pavement damage:
The pavement constitutes to be one of the significant part of the road. The damage of the pavement is one of the major reason leading to the repair of the highway roads. There are two types of pavement damages that are most commonly found on the roads and they are functional and structural pavement damage (Mubaraki, 2013).
We have found that the pavements on the road at 66B street, Mirdif that we have taken into consideration were having 3 types of failures in the forms of alligator cracks, longitudinal cracks and potholes. We have developed that there are various causes of these pavement damages and they are given below:
Quality of material used:
The quality of the materials that are used determines the quality and strength of the pavement. The materials that are used for the construction of road should be taken care that they are of standard quality and any sort of adjustment made in the quality would make it vulnerable for damage.
Improper maintenance:
Poor maintenance of pavements and roads leads to increasing chances of failures of the roads at 66B Street, Mirdif and frequency of cracks increases on the surface of the road.
Chemical reaction:
The spilling of powerful gases and other liquids that have the ability of degrading the materials from which roads are made also damages the pavements on a large scale. These reaction may not occur instantly but would hugely damage the surface of the road on a long term basis.
Climate:
When the roads are witnessing excessive heat or cold, it affects the surface of the pavements leaving it susceptible to the damages and various failures that would easily develop due to the weathering and climatic effects on the surface of the road.
Describing the failure
The failure of the design of road at 66B street, Mirdif may lead to the cracking and damage of the surface due to different reasons. These reasons are described on the types of cracks that are observed on the road at 66B street, Mirdif, we found following cracks after evaluating and analysing it and they are listed below (Mubaraki, 2013):
• Alligator Cracks
It is a case of cracking where the cracks are formed in the pattern of network that gets linked to one other which creates a huge crack with respect to time. It is found at the sides of the roads near the pavements are they tend to increase in size if not corrected at the right time.

• Longitudinal Cracks
It is a case of cracking where the cracks are formed in the form of a vertical line near the centreline or towards the side and it flows on the surface of the road. This types of cracks do not form any linkage among them, but they tend to increase in size on the surface of the road with respect to time.

• Potholes
It is a case of failure where holes are formed in the form of a structure on the roads. This holes and uneven structures are found on any side of the road and few of them may be more than few inches in depth.

Investigating the causes
The failures that have been observed on the road at 66B Street, Mirdif involves formation of alligator and longitudinal cracks and also formation of potholes. We have studied the cracks and developed the causes of the failure on this road. This causes involve the failure of the surface of the pavement too and they are found to be as follows (Mubaraki, 2013):
Constant load
It serves to be one of the reasons for the formation of Alligator cracks on the surface of the road at 66B Street, Mirdif. This types of cracks are formed due to the load that is incident on the surface of the road due to high frequency of traffic and heavy loaded vehicles in these regions.
Joint damage:
It is a failure caused due to the poor construction of the joints at the time of filling the roads and the pavements serves to be one of the major reason of longitudinal cracks that are formed on the surface of the road at 66B Street, Mirdif.
Asphalt pavement inappropriateness:
It is a type of failure caused due to the use of improper and inadequate Asphalt during the construction of pavements that may lead to damaging the roads and make the road very much vulnerable for the formation of potholes whenever there is any heavy impact on the surface.
Alternative treatments recommendations
There are various treatments that can be carried out to ensure that the failure in the form of cracks and potholes that are observed on the surface of the road at 66B Street, Mirdif. These are given below:
Detection through Anisotropy equipment:
It is a type of treatment which involves understanding the structure in the form of the pores of the material that the cracks are made up of. In this method, we need to understand the structures of the surface of the road through 2D images that are formed using the Anisotropy device (Miyojim & Cheng, 1998).
Automatic Road Pavement assessment:
It is a type of treatment which involves assessing the structure of the pavements on regular basis using the equipment that would carry a regular scanning the quality of the pavements (Miyojim & Cheng, 1998).
Automatic Road Crack Detection
It is a type of treatment which involves a constant assessment of the cracks or any irregularities that may further lead to formation of cracks on the surface of the roads. This helps to have a constant check on the roads at regular intervals of time.
Along with this there is a special care that has to be taken to ensure that high quality of roads are constructed and its maintenance is carried out regularly (Miyojim & Cheng, 1998).

Comparison & contrast with local and international codes
There are various techniques that are used across the globe to ensure the quality and safety of the roads on the highways. The problem was observed in our case is similar to the one that was observed in the highways in Canada that was observed by department of “National Safety Council (NFC)” and they analysed the failures in designs that led to the cracking of the road surface on the highways. They rectified this problem by filling a layer of Asphalt and other strongly bonded mixtures over the area that were having the cracks on the surface of the road (Road safety, 2014).

In our project on the surface of the road at 66B Street, Mirdif, we developed a technique of overlaying the materials over the cracks at high temperature to ensure there is no moisture in the treatment.

Conclusion
I have developed a design of the surface of the road at 66B Street, Mirdif. I have analysed, evaluated and studied the causes of failures that are found on the surface of this road. It has helped me to develop a better understanding of the civil engineering terms that are pertaining to the design of road surface. I have tried to provide remedies through the research and analysis of the causes of the cracks on the surface and expect that it would really be helpful to the department that carries the designing of the road surface.

References
Miyojim, M., & Cheng, H. (1998). Automatic pavement distress detection system. Information Sciences, 219–240.
Mubaraki, M. (2013). Development of Pavement Condition Rating Model and Pavement Roughness Model for Saudi Highways. . AMR, 820-828.
Road safety. (2014). Retrieved from www.bristol.gov.uk: http://www.bristol.gov.uk/page/transport-and-streets/road-safety

Skills

Posted on

March 9, 2018

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