Report on Eco-Audit of a Jet Engine bracket

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction 4
2. Method 5
2.1. Design: How and where it is made. 5
2.2. Original Design 5
2.3. Proposed design by the winner 7
2.4. Final reinforced design for production 10
3. Eco- Audit of the process: 11
3.1. Passive energy use during the parts life and the options at end of life. 12
4. Results and analysis: 13
5. Discussion 15
6. Conclusion 15
7. References 16

List of Figures
Figure 1: Load Considerations in the original bracket 5
Figure 2: Original Design of the bracket 6
Figure 3: Layout of the proposed bracket design 7
Figure 4 :3 D modelling of the proposed bracket 8
Figure 5: Final look of the proposed bracket 9
Figure 6: Finalized reinforced bracket design 9
Figure 7: Eco-Audit technology in Granta 12
Figure 8: Stress calculation in the finalized bracket 14

Introduction
Due to the advancement in technology and invention of better methods of production of aerospace parts, there has been a huge demand for developing cost effective and power as well as fuel efficient parts. The performance of the aircraft engines is very much depended on the parts it is made up of. These parts contribute to the overall weight of the aircraft and these reduces the efficiency by increasing the consumption of fuel (Mattingly, 2002). At the same time, it is also very important to maintain the high quality in terms of robustness, stiffness, toughness and other such physical aspects of the parts. This has to be achieved through effective designing using multiple engineering tools to optimize the size and structure of these parts without compromising in its strength and durability (Rawal, Brantley, & Karabudak, 2013).
For designing and developing such parts, additive manufacturing is a very useful solution. It is also known as 3D printing and provides a unique as well as exclusive feature to develop parts of any shapes and test the various parameters related to the strength and durability of the parts through 3D modelling. It makes the practical testing of the design possible through accurate and precise dimensioning of the part in the design modules. It helps in developing components which would be lighter in weight and would also provide the required levels of strength and performance (Dehoff, Peter, Yamamoto, Chen, & Blue, 2013).
GE Corporation has been carrying production of the aerospace and other engineering components for over years and is a very trusted name across the globe. It has been striving to develop product s and designs that would help in minimizing the weight of the components and at the same time provide the required performance. It has been encouraging engineers across the world to develop designs and structures that would provide the above mentioned characteristics (GRABCAD.COM, 2014).
In one such attempt, it had organized a competition for all the GRABCAD designers to develop brackets for jet engines which would be very cost effective and of high quality. For this competition, the participants would use the original design provided by the company and modify it through additive manufacturing techniques and design for developing a better engine bracket than the current used design. There were many specification in terms of load bearing capacity, weight, dimensions, thermal load bearing capacity, capacity to absorb tension, material, static linear loads, yield strengths as well as the size and diameter of the bracket.
Assumptions:
It is assumed that the development of the product is in the initial stage where the forging and shaping of the loading bracket is carried out. The 3 different methods used in the production of the 3 obtained designs of the load brackets have to be evaluated in terms of additive manufacturing processes. It has been then evaluated through the CES EduPack software. In this software, the data regarding the development of the product would be evaluated. In this evaluation, any other forces or external factors affecting the moment of inertia of the loading fraction has been neglected. The standard readings of the parameters are considered for analyzing the passive energy used by the company in the development of the product, that is, loading brackets.
Method
The method used involves considering the current design specifications, evaluating the best design provided and developing an optimum design for the engineering brackets used in the jet engines (Kalpakjian, 2001). The design and the load as well as other requirements of the designs has been evaluated and determined in the answer developed (Chu, Graf, & Rosen, 2008).
Design: How and where it is made.
Original Design
The design involves following the specific procedure of modelling, printing, testing, simulation, modifying and then finishing for final mass scale production (GE.COM, 2015).
The design of the original bracket developed by GE Corporation and used in the jet engines considers the static and torsional loads as shown in the figure below:
Figure 1: Load Considerations in the original bracket

(GRABCAD.COM, 2014).
The design of the engineering loading bracket which specified the above specifications is shown in the figure below:
Figure 2: Original Design of the bracket

(GRABCAD.COM, 2014).
Proposed design by the winner
The design that was proposed by M. Arie Kurniawan, the winner of the competition used Direct Metal Laser Sintering method of manufacturing (Dutta & Froes, 2015). The weight of the bracket was reduced from the original 2033 grams to 327 grams. In his design, it can be seen that he has used the principle of H-beam and developed a profile of the bracket on the basis of that.
The layout of the fraction that has been developed by M. Arie Kurniawan, involves development of the torsional and static loads that are going to be exerted on the bracket. The layout of his design is shown below:
Figure 3: Layout of the proposed bracket design

(GRABCAD.COM M. KURNIAWAN, 2015)
After developing the design and the layout, there was a 3D model developed by him, where he had used additive manufacturing tool and GRABCAD software fir displaying the model in 3 dimensional form and there

A 3D model of the design was developed by him which is shown in the figure below:

Figure 4 :3 D modelling of the proposed bracket

(GRABCAD.COM M. KURNIAWAN, 2015)
The final look of the design of the bracket that was developed by him is shown in the figure below:
Figure 5: Final look of the proposed bracket

(GRABCAD.COM M. KURNIAWAN, 2015)
Final reinforced design for production
The design proposed by the winner was then reinforced through simulation and modelling by the GRC engineers in its New York plant. They attached every bracket with an MTS servo testing machine which worked on hydraulics. It has been developed through the FDM manufacturing method which refers to Fused Deposition Modelling (Hambali, Smith, & Rennie, 2012). The weight of the final model was about 240 grams which was very less and ensured the compactness in the design and the performance of the bracket was also retained through high strength and durability of the component.
Figure 6: Finalized reinforced bracket design

(GRABCAD.COM M. KURNIAWAN, 2015)
After considering all the designs mentioned above, details of the technical and other specifications of the brackets developed in each stage is tabulated below:
Design Material Weight (g) Manufacturing method Cost (£)
Original (O) Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V 2,033 Milling 150
Proposed by the Competition winner (CW) Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V 327 DMLS 250
Finalized Fibre reinforced (FR) PLA, Basalt fibres, Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V
Epoxy PLA (182)
Basalt (20)
Titanium (33)
Epoxy (5) FDM, autoclave. 50

Eco- Audit of the process:
Eco-Audit of the production process refers to considering, evaluating and analyzing the effects of the manufacturing process on the various elements of the environment (Steger, 2000). “CES EduPack 2015” is a software which provides a complete analysis of the various processes and functions involved in the development of a product. It helps in providing evaluation of the product in terms of its cost, effectiveness of different methods of manufacturing, impact on the environment and evaluation of specific technical terms used in the development of the product. It involves maintaining of data bases regarding the material and the information regarding the various manufacturing and designing processes. The basic principle on which the CES EduPack software works in developing an eco-design of the products involves following of a specific flow of steps and measures which are shown in the following figure:
CES EduPack: Eco-design Tools

This design is followed for the data evaluation and analysis for the various processes which hare carried out in the software. At the same time, there is formulation of the Eco-Audit tool which requires setting up of the various parameters and developing the configurations regarding them.
The eco-auditing tool involves considering the following technology through user interface, Materials and Eco data, dashboards and reports as shown in the figure below (Amacher, Koskela, & Ollikainen, 2004). It provides an example of the Eco-Audit technology developed by Granta.
Figure 7: Eco-Audit technology in Granta

(GRANTDESIGN.COM ECOAUDIT, 2015)
CES EduPack evaluation of passive energy use during the parts life and the options at end of life.
Passive energy use refers to the energy consumed ddurign the production of the parts or components. In our case, for production of loading brackets for the jet engines, the energy that is utilized depends on the design and manufacturing of the part (Collopy & Eames, 2001). There are three designs available. We have carried an ecological audit considering the energy used by the three designs for different processes involved.
This would include considering the usage of passive energy during the development of the loading bracket. This has been carried out using the CES EduPack software and the result of the analysis is shown below. The parameters regarding the evaluation data have been collected though the energy used in the manufacturing, transporting, matrial collection, usage, disposal and End of Life potential for the brackets developed by the three designs considered above. It is shown as follows (Radford & Rennick, 2000):

Results and analysis:
The proposed model by M. Arie Kurniawan, result into development of the below design. The design that was developed by him was very effective in reducing the weight. It reduced the weight by about 85%. Axial loads of the range of 8000 to 9500 pounds was exerted on the bracket. It was observed in their testing, that there was only one bracket which failed in these extreme conditions, whereas all the other brackets met the requirement. There was torsional load of about 5000 pounds per inch (Johnson, 2001).
Eco-Auditing of the manufacturing process involves considering the stress faced by the loading bracket during its operation (Cerdan, Gazulla, Raugei, Martinez, & Fullana-i-Palmer, 2009). It is discussed and shown in the following figure:
Figure 8: Stress calculation in the finalized bracket

(Dehoff, Peter, Yamamoto, Chen, & Blue, 2013).

Discussion
The model that has been developed by the M. Arie Kurniawan, has reduced the weight of the original design of the loading fraction by a considerable amount. However, the material used is also the same and the process suggested by him for manufacturing of the fraction is DMLS which is suitable for metals and it is the best practice for such kind of production (Roy, Caird, & Potter, 2007).
However, using of FDM by the GRC engineers has helped increase in reduction of the weight. The method of FDM would be appropriate as it would be cost effective and at the same time, it would be very accurate for the production of loading brackets (Kyprianidis, 2010).
Conclusion
From the above analysis and eco-audit carried of the three designs, it can be seen that reducing the weightage of the loading fraction would help in reduction of fuel consumption in jet planes, thereby, increasing the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the process.

References
Amacher, G. S., Koskela, E., & Ollikainen, M. (2004). Environmental quality competition and eco-labeling. . Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 47(2),, 284-306.
Cerdan, C., Gazulla, C., Raugei, M., Martinez, E., & Fullana-i-Palmer, P. (2009). Proposal for new quantitative eco-design indicators: a first case study. . Journal of Cleaner Production, 17(18), , 1638-1643.
Chu, C., Graf, G., & Rosen, D. W. (2008). Design for additive manufacturing of cellular structures. Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 5(5), , 686-696.
Collopy, P. D., & Eames, D. J. (2001). Aerospace manufacturing cost prediction from a measure of part definition information (No. 2001-01-3004). . SAE Technical Paper.
Dehoff, R., Peter, W., Yamamoto, Y., Chen, W., & Blue, C. (2013). Case Study: Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Brackets. ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES, 19-22.
Dutta, B., & Froes, F. H. (2015). The additive manufacturing (AM) of titanium alloys. . Titanium Powder Metallurgy: Science, Technology and Applications, , 447.
GE.COM. (2015). ADVANCED MANUFACTURING IS REINVENTING THE WAY WE WORK. Retrieved from http://www.ge.com: http://www.ge.com/stories/advanced-manufacturing
GRABCAD.COM. (2014). GE jet engine bracket challenge. Retrieved from https://grabcad.com: https://grabcad.com/challenges/ge-jet-engine-bracket-challenge
GRABCAD.COM M. KURNIAWAN. (2015). M. KURNIAWAN BRACKET DESIGN. Retrieved from https://grabcad.com: https://grabcad.com/library/m-kurniawan-ge-jet-engine-bracket-version-1-2-1
GRANTADESIGN.COM ECODESIGN. (2015). Granta’s Guide: Five Steps to Eco Design. Retrieved from http://www.grantadesign.com: http://www.grantadesign.com/eco/ecodesign.htm
GRANTDESIGN.COM ECOAUDIT. (2015). Granta’s Eco Audit Methodology. Retrieved from http://www.grantadesign.com: http://www.grantadesign.com/eco/audit.htm
Hambali, R. H., Smith, P., & Rennie, A. E. (2012). Determination of the effect of part orientation to the strength value on additive manufacturing FDM for end-use parts by physical testing and validation via three-dimensional finite element analysis. International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation, 3(3-4), , 269-281.
Johnson, R. B. (2001). Jet Engine Metallurgy (No. 530038). . SAE Technical Paper.
Kalpakjian, S. (2001). Manufacturing engineering and technology. . Pearson Education India.
Kyprianidis, K. G. (2010). Multi-disciplinary conceptual design of future jet engine systems.
Mattingly, J. D. (2002). Aircraft engine design. . Aiaa.
Radford, D. W., & Rennick, T. S. (2000). Separating sources of manufacturing distortion in laminated composites. . Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 19(8), , 621-641.
Rawal, S., Brantley, J., & Karabudak, N. (2013). Additive manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy components for spacecraft applications. 6th International Conference on IEEE. (pp. 5-11). Recent Advances in Space Technologies (RAST), .
Roy, R., Caird, S., & Potter, S. (2007). People Centred Eco-design: Consumer adoption and use of low and zero carbon products and systems. . Governing technology for sustainability, , 41.
Steger, U. (2000). Environmental management systems: empirical evidence and further perspectives. European Management Journal, 18(1),, 23-37.

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March 10, 2018

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