Report on Emergency Operating procedures in a Nuclear power plant

Report title: Emergency operating procedures in a nuclear power plant
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Report objectives
The report aims at deriving and understanding the activities that are carried in Nuclear power plants and that required to be analyzed for developing safety control in the different operations that are carried out in the nuclear power plant. It involves developing certain emergency operating procedures for the transition between different states in a nuclear power plant. The severe consequences that have to be faced due to the failure or collapse of a nuclear power plant due to any specific reason are to be obtained. Obtaining a straight and simple process that reduces the complexity involved in the reactions carried in the nuclear power plant has to be achieved.
Different plant states and accident conditions
There are different states through which the materials are passing in the nuclear power plant. These states undergo transition from time to time and the rate of transition is generally carried out in a controlled environment with controlled values of different parameters in the transition (Park & Jung, 2007). The different states that are observed in the nuclear power plant are as follows:
• Generation of steam by nuclear fission reaction involving the splitting of a radioactive element like Uranium.
• Converting of water into steam through heating,
• Steam driving the turbines that are connected to generators to produce electricity.
There are several phases in the nuclear power plant that are to be handled with utmost care as the harmful effects of failure, explosion or other sort of accidents in the nuclear power plant would be having its adverse effects on the next generations of the population that exists in that particular area where the nuclear power plant is present.
The different plant states that are observed in the nuclear power plant are as follows:
Design basis accidents:
It refers to the hazards or possibilities of accidents that are due to some faulty design or improper consideration of various stresses, pressure and forces that are going to be developed in the Nuclear power plant.
Transients:
It refers to the temporary state that is not going to be persisting for a long time. There are many processes that come under this state in nuclear power plant like the feedwater temperature, flow of feedwater, Residual heat developed, Steam pressure developed, etc.
Beyond Design basis accidents:
It refers to the occurrences that are neither temporary and nor due to any design base problem. These are the most difficult to handle as they occur suddenly and can hardly be predicted. However, few steps can be taken to avoid them like time to time maintenance of various equipments used in the plant and checking the temperature, pressure and other physical quantities at regular intervals of time in the plant (INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA), 2005).
There are several measures that are developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for handling the situations of accidents that may occur in the nuclear power plant.
Transition from one state to another state
There is a continuous transition of materials in different physical states throughout the nuclear plant. It involves development of steam through the nuclear fission reaction where energy is emitted due to the splitting of Uranium atoms into two parts. It involves using the heat energy derived from it to heat the water and change its state from liquid to gaseous. The steam is then flowed through the turbines where with the help of the generator the kinetic energy of the steam is converted into electrical energy through the turbines that are installed in the plant. The uranium that is used in the nuclear power plant is extracted from the mines under high security and integrity of operations is retained throughout the process. It is then passed through different cycles which consists of enrichment process that is carried on the extracted Uranium and the Uranium that is obtained after enrichment is then purified and cleaned for using it as a fuel in the nuclear power plant (Arkadov, Getman, & Rodionov, 2012). Thus, it is a process in which there is a transition of materials and substances from one state to another. This transition occurs at each and every stage carried in the nuclear power plant which involves conversion of states and there is transfer of energy as well as generation of immense amount of energy during the entire process.
Purpose and scope of emergency operating procedures
The main purpose of developing emergency procedures in a nuclear power plant tends to be the safety of the country as the substances present in the nuclear plant and the reactions that occur in the nuclear power plant may develop very severe consequences in case of any kind of failure or external attacks on it. There is a huge scope of developing and upgrading the emergency operating procedures throughout the nuclear power plant as it is a matter of national as well as International security of the nations across the globe (Arkadov, Getman, & Rodionov, 2012).
There is a very high amount of energy dissipated in the nuclear power plant through the nuclear fission of Uranium. The energy that is released when a Uranium atom splits into two is about 215 MeV. This is a very high amount of energy that is released through nuclear fission of a single Uranium atom. The processes that are carried out in the nuclear power plants have to be carried under severe control and restricted environment that limits the values of energy and temperature generated in the nuclear power plant during the reaction and after it (Park & Jung, 2007).
Example of plant conditions that require the use of emergency operating procedures
There are various procedures that develop critical conditions of functioning in the nuclear power plant. During such cases, it is a matter of great concern to develop the required level of emergency operating procedures in the plant. For example, the feed water temperatures, the rate of energy emitted through the nuclear fission of Uranium and other highly active isotopes of radioactive elements similar to Uranium that are enhanced artificially for obtaining better results like Thorium. There has been strict laws developed by the “Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)” in US for regulating the operating procedures in the nuclear power plants. There are several emergency operations developed by the “Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)”. There are many coordinated plans and programs developed and implemented by coordination among the NRC and FEMA. There have been serious advancements and specifications included in the safety management and emergency operations that are carried in the nuclear power plant after the accident that had occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear energy facility in Japan in the year 2011 (NUCLEAR ENERGY INSTITUTE (NEI), 2015).

References
Arkadov, G. V., Getman, A. F., & Rodionov, A. N. (2012). Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Optimum Nuclear Power Plant Life Management (PLiM). Elsevier.
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA). (2005). Accident Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants with Graphite Moderated Boiling Water RBMK Reactors. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
NUCLEAR ENERGY INSTITUTE (NEI). (2015, February). Emergency Preparedness at Nuclear Energy Facilities. Retrieved from http://www.nei.org: http://www.nei.org/master-document-folder/backgrounders/fact-sheets/emergency-planning-emergency-preparedness-at-nucle
Park, J., & Jung, W. (2007). A study on the development of a task complexity measure for emergency operating procedures of nuclear power plants. . Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 92(8), , 1102-1116.

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March 10, 2018

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