Report on Group and Organizational Dynamics in Decision Making

Table of Contents
1. Introduction 2
2. Group vs Individual Decision making 2
2.1. Group decision making: 2
2.2. Individual Decision making: 4
2.3. Advantages of Group Decision making over Individual Decision making 5
2.4. Disadvantages of Group Decision making over Individual Decision making 6
3. Motivational patterns in group dynamics 8
3.1. Development of common goals: 8
3.2. Conflict 8
3.3. Task Functions 9
3.4. Maintenance functions 9
4. Strength Deployment Inventory (SDI): 9
4.1. Blue: Altruistic and Nurturing 10
4.2. Red: Assertive and directing 10
4.3. Green: Analytic and Autotomizing 10
5. References 12


The trainer has now asked you to enter a problem-solving scenario. You are on the
management team for a failing hotel chain. The source of the problem is poor staff motivation.
Staff are turning up late and underperforming at the job, leading to poor customer service. A
board meeting has been called to discuss how the company can improve the profitability of the
company and the motivation of its staff. You must bring recommendations to the meeting and
discuss these suggestions with other members of the board. You will make recommendations
on the following points:
• How to increase staff motivation
• How to increase profitability at the hotel chain
• How you are going to implement changes
• How you are going to monitor results of these changes
After discussing these points, you should conclude this meeting by making recommendations
to the company management, which are well justified. Keep clear records of your discussions
in the meeting.
Following the meeting, you will write a short report of 500-750 words. Make sure that your
report contains the following sections: Cover Page, Contents Page, Introduction, Conclusion,
Bibliography (Harvard Citation Style). It should contain the following sections:
j. Introduction explaining the purpose of the meeting
k. A summary of how you would demonstrate leadership and motivation skills in the scenario
of the failing hotel chain (LO 3.1). Merit level reports are analytical and demonstrate your
leadership and motivation skills well. (M1)
l. A summary of the key points in the discussion of the meeting in your own words.
m. Justification of your recommendations for the management (LO 3.2). A merit level
justification clearly shows how these decisions support the goals and objectives of the
hotel. (M1) Distinction level justifications are supported by additional evidence and
n. Conclusion summarising your recommendations. A distinction level conclusion is welljustified
and includes critical evaluation (D1).
o. Self-evaluation of your role in the meeting, focussing particularly on your leadership and
motivation skills. (LO3.1) A merit level evaluation considers the strengths and weaknesses
of your contributions and skills. (M2) A distinction level evaluation is in-depth (D3).
p. References List using the correct Harvard Citation style which matches your in-text
q. An appendix containing a copy of the “minutes” (business terminology for a summary of the
discussion) of the meeting detailing everyone’s suggestions. This will be provided by the
class ‘secretaries’. (LO3.1)
Extra guidance for Merit and Distinction:
For M1 there is evidence that you have considered a range of inter-related factors.
For M2 there is clear evidence of your leadership and management skills.
For M3 the report is well structured, written in impersonal academic language without errors.
Citations are clearly present and the bibliography is in the Harvard referencing format.
For D1 the conclusion is in depth, well justified, demonstrates independent thinking and
comes directly from your own analysis.
For D2 the whole task has been well managed and completed to a high standard.
For D3 the self-evaluation is in-depth evaluation, considering both what you have learnt and
how you have learnt it, both individually and working as a group.
Decision making is a process in which there is a selection of appropriate path or ideology through various available and evaluated paths. It involves developing specific course of actions on the basis of the discussion and analysis carried out by an individual or a group of individuals. There are many elements which are to be evaluated, procrastinated and modified for the decision making process. This has to be done considering the effects of the decision making process and its results on the different sections of the society. There are different forms of decision making depending on the number of persons involved, the type of decisions taken. The departments involved in making of decisions. The concepts of group and individual decision making process has been evaluated in the paper including the advantages and disadvantages of both the forms of decision making for execution in a specific organization (Tubbs, 1978).
Group vs Individual Decision making
Group decision making and Individual decision making are the two kinds of decision making process which are based on the number of individual involved in the decision making process.
Group decision making:
Group decision making is a process of decision making in which there is involvement of a specific group of individuals which would be considering and developing various alternatives and then evaluating them for implementing the best possible alternative in the organization.
A group decision making process carried over a small group within an organization involves the following steps (Poole, 1983):

In this process, the consensus achieved shown in green color indicates that the alternative developed can be finalized for obtaining the course of actions. On the other hand, the red section showing block, indicates stopping the discussion over a specific alternative and developing other alternative for discussion until an appropriate alternative is achieved through the consensus (Whyte, 1993).
Individual Decision making:
Individual decision making is a process where there would be development of alternatives and selection of one alternative after evaluation and analysis carried out by a single individual.

There is hardly any scope of feedback in an individual decision making process as shown in the figure above (Whyte, 1993).
Advantages of Group Decision making over Individual Decision making
• Group decision making involves the opinions of a group of people which are gathered for a specific decision making process in an organization. This ensures that there would not be any personal bias involved in the decision making process. This is not observed in individual decision making process where, an individual may take decisions on the basis of personal views and bias. This would affect the effectiveness of the decision that are incorporated in an organization (Tubbs, 1978).
• With group decision making process, there are large and wide number of different alternatives available due to the number of people involved in the process of decision making. This features is not achieved by individual decision making process as there would be very limited number of alternatives developed by an individual.
• A group would be able to see both the sides of the alternatives, that is, they could develop the pros and cons of many alternatives. This is not possible in individual decision making process because, decisions taken by an individual may either be considering the positive or the negative side of the alternative. An individual will not be able to consider both the sides of the options and alternatives available.
• Implementing the decisions taken through group decision making process would be much easy and smooth as compared to the decisions which are taken by individual decision making process. This is because, the decisions which are to be taken largely affect the members of the organization and they would help in its successful implementation across the organization. If the members upon which the decisions are to be implemented, themselves take part in the decision making process, then, they would be helping in development of decisions that would considering the good of all the members of the organization. This would lead to the cooperation and satisfaction among the members in the organization regarding the decisions which are taken through group decision making process.
• Developing decisions through participative style group decision making process would help in developing a base for the future employees and members that would be involving in developing similar kind of decisions in the organization. Hence, group decision making would help in providing an efficient training to them which would not be provided if the decision is taken using the individual decision making process.

• A group decision making process would be little more time consuming then the individual type. The result of the implemented decision through individual decision making process may develop content or result in dissatisfaction among the members of the organization. The decision has then to be reframed and redeveloped. This would ultimately lead to increase in cost, wastage of time and development of discontent among the people in the organization. Thus, implementing group decision process would save time on long term basis and also result in increasing loyalty and satisfaction among the members of the small group (Whyte, 1993).

Disadvantages of Group Decision making over Individual Decision making
• The selection of groups from the organization consumes large amount of time of the employees as the participants of the group have to wait for each other and then get together at a specific location. This would consume time and incur high costs in the decision making process. So, if the decisions taken are not affecting the larger concerns of the organization or the people in it, then, individual decision making practice would be more effective.
• There are possibilities of mutual conflicts and disagreement which would be due to personal relationship issues and bias among the members of the group. In such situation, individual decision making process carried by a senior and experienced management staff would be the best alternative to the above problem.
• While carrying group decision making process, there are chances that the members would create unnecessary and irrelevant issues regarding the social influence and moral context of the alternatives which is to be developed. This would not be observed in individual decision making process, where a single participant would carry the entire process of decision making.
• There is a large possibility of escaping of responsibilities by specific members of the group and this may lead to emphasis on the remaining number of people and this would create a huge burden on them. In such situations, individual decision making process comes to the rescue of the organization.
• In individual decision making process, the results and alternatives developed would not have influence of specific grouping, whereas, in group decision making process, there are possibilities of development of sub groups within the original group. These sub-groups may oppose each other’s views and opinions leading to wastage of time and development of mutual conflicts among the members (Tubbs, 1978).

Motivational patterns in group dynamics
Group dynamics refers to the development and practice of specific behaviors and attitudes among the people in a group while developing strategies and alternatives for taking of important decisions and implementing them in the organization. Motivation plays a very important role in developing a successful and positive group dynamics within an organization. It helps in achieving prosperity within an organization through satisfaction and content among the members of the organization (Littman-Ovadia & Steger, 2010).
There are various motivational patterns which can be observed in group dynamics and they are:
Development of common goals:
It is very important to ensure that all the members of the small group who are involved in decision making process are on the same page and have thinking and ideologies towards the goal oriented decisions. This is done by clarifying the goals to each and every member at the beginning of the group discussion and it has to be observed that all the discussion is pertaining to the goal. If there is any irrelevant or unnecessary discussion, which does not focus on the goals, then it has to be stopped and the discussion has to be directed towards the goal.
It is very important to see the level of conflict developed during the discussion in a small group as there would be differences in opinion which would lead to contradicting decisions. The conflicts are to be maintained by motivating the members of the small group to discuss during the decision making process, rather than argue during the process.
Task Functions
This refers to the development of the tasks and their priorities for the members of the group in order to develop decisions for the organization. A proper understanding of the tasks and functions of the members would help them to develop effective decisions considering the importance and effect of each and every task. The discussion involves having a firm leader or motivator in the form of supervisor that would help in focusing the discussion on the specified goals and tasks allotted to each of the members.
Maintenance functions
This are the functions which improve the efficiency of the discussion through introducing icebreakers and other techniques that would help the members to know each other well within a short time. This would help in bringing all the members of the small group together and there would be prevention of mutual conflicts among them. It involves handling the emotional context of the discussion and motivate to develop results that would be for the overall growth and learning of the involved members.
Strength Deployment Inventory (SDI):
It serves to be a very significant tool for managing the above mentioned conflicts, tasks, maintenance functions and ensuring attainment of common goals.
It helps in developing the motivation that is required for specific behaviors in the organization. This has to be achieved through different models provided by the SDI tool. This tool helps in developing the value style and motivation pattern among the members of the small discussion group. It is based on following three models (Schraw, Horn, Thorndike-Christ, & Bruning, 1995):
Blue: Altruistic and Nurturing
It involves the motivational pattern where the discussion would be open and it would be considering he needs of the people. The main motive behind the discussion in this model is to bring progress and development in the society. It is more supportive and it does not emphasize on personal performance and encourage materialistic competition.
Red: Assertive and directing
It is the model of motivating in which the terms, policies and efforts of the management is to achieve extremely successful results through excellent performance by inculcating competition among the employees and members of the organization. It involves taking of risks and measures for growth of the organization.
Green: Analytic and Autotomizing
It is the model of SDI which focuses on being right and appropriate in the process of decision making through small groups. It ensures that the decisions that are developed through the small groups is on the basis the developed common goals, are objective, are fair, are practical and involves evaluation of the effects of the actions that would be developed on the basis of the decisions taken by the small group for the organziation.
All the three models are combined in a flexible cohering model, which is a combination of the blue, red and green model. It provides the advantages of all the three models ensuring that required level of motivation for group decision making process is achieved in the discussion carried by the memebrs of the group.

Figure: Combination of different models for group decision making


Littman-Ovadia, H., & Steger, M. (2010). Character strengths and well-being among volunteers and employees: Toward an integrative model. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(6), , 419-430.
PERSONAL STRENGTHS PUBLISHING. (2015, February 28). The Power of the SDI. Retrieved from
Poole, M. S. (1983). Decision development in small groups II: A study of multiple sequences in decision making 1. Communications Monographs 50.3 , 206-232.
Schraw, G., Horn, C., Thorndike-Christ, T., & Bruning, R. (1995). Academic goal orientations and student classroom achievement. . Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20(3), , 359-368.
Tubbs, S. L. (1978). A Systems Approach to Small Group Interaction.
Whyte, G. (1993). Escalating commitment in individual and group decision making: A prospect theory approach. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 54(3), , 430-455.


Posted on

March 9, 2018

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