ROAD DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Table of Contents
General Causes to Pavement Damage 2
Functional pavement damage: 2
Structural pavement damage: 2
Maintenance of the road surface: 3
Poor quality of material used: 3
Heavy Usage of the road: 3
Climatic conditions: 3
Failures and their Causes 3
Alligator Cracking 4
Pot holes 4
Surface texture loss: 5
List of Alternative Treatments 5
Remedy for Alligator cracking: 5
Remedy for Potholes: 6
Remedy for Surface texture loss 6
Maintenance/Rehabilitation Plan 6
Comparison and Contrast with International Cases 7
In this report, we are going to study about the design of a road which would be preceding the earlier coursework which was about design of a highway. We have selected a specific road in UAE where we have studied and analysed the properties and structure of the road with the help of photos that were taken to detect and analyse the cracks. There were three failures that were observed on the road that is taken into consideration in Al Khawaneej and the size of the failures was about 300m. We have also included the AutoCAD drawings of the roads which will help to show different types of stresses on the road. This is done in order to establish an accurate understanding and analysis of the road failures.
There is a small research which was carried out for identifying the causes of stresses. After the end of the AutoCad tasks, we produced a drawing of the alternatives or the detour capable of providing simple and less disturbing motion to vehicles during the road maintenance. During the analysis, two drawings which were depicting the road alternatives were developed during the research work and analysis.
General Causes to Pavement Damage
There are many reasons due to which the pavement gets damaged and the most significant two types of damages that are most commonly found in most of the roads are described below (Fukuhara, Terada, & Nagao, 1990):
Functional pavement damage:
Functional pavement damage is the damage which is due to the faults in the functions of the pavement. It happens when the road does not fulfil the standard specifications and standards that are set by the governing bodies to ensure the quality and safety of roads.
Structural pavement damage:
Structural pavement damage is the damage due to the external factors which occurs due to excessive vehicular movement, climate adversities, fatigue of the materials used and failure of the road design. It is one of the most frequent type of stress that can be seen on the road that has been taken into consideration by us.
There are various causes that are responsible for the generation of the pavement damages and they are described as follows:
Maintenance of the road surface:
The pavements on the sides of the roads require maintenance at regular interval of time. Poor maintenance leads to increase in the chances of failure and cracks on the surface of the roads.
Poor quality of material used:
The quality of materials that are used helps to ensure the quality and strength of the pavement. The materials which are used should be of high strength and durability so as to ensure that the roads are constructed as per the standard requirements. (Oliveira & Correia, 2008)
Heavy Usage of the road:
This occurs due to the overloading on road by heavy trucks that are being frequently transported over the road surface and this imparts huge stresses on the road surface.
Due to unfavourable climatic condition and extreme conditions created due to it serve to increase the wear and tear of the road and as a result the surface of the road becomes very much prone to failures and damages.
Failures and their Causes
It can be seen that the failure of the road design which leads to the cracking and damage of the roads is due to various reasons which contribute as the cause of the failure and then serve to be damaging the surface on a long run.
The road that we have taken into consideration is a road along the Al Khawaneej area which has few failures that we have described below. There are different type of failures caused due to the distresses formed on the surface of this road. The failures that are existing on the road is mainly divided into three types and they are: Alligator cracking, Pot Holes and Surface texture loss. For proper understanding of the road, a location map is provided below taken from the Google Maps. These causes are described below with their effects and impact on the road surface.
Alligator cracking are the cracks that are formed in the pattern of networks that are linked to each other to form a huge crack slowly and gradually. This type of cracks are found along the surface near the pavements. This type of cracks do not involve formation of random lines but follow a certain pattern.
Pot holes refers to the failure that are created in the form of holes on the roads. This potholes are found on any side of the road and it is observed that they may be more than few inches in depth.
Surface texture loss:
Surface texture loss occurs due to the use of less or poor asphalt in the construction of the road and the effects of this failure is largely seen to be found on the surface where the mixture of binder that is used for the road is inappropriate. It is mainly caused because of poor and inappropriate mixture of the aggregate that is used and blended with asphalt.
List of Alternative Treatments
There are various procedures and remedies that are adopted for the removal of failure and reduce its effects on the surface of the road. These remedies are to be evaluated and analysed on the basis of the budget and resources available for the management of the failures over the road surface. There should be a flexibility of treatments that are made for the failure so that it does not affect the people living in the premises and at the same time they have to face a minimum amount of inconvenience during the entire project of treatment of the road (Yaxiong & Bugao, 2006).
The solution of different types of failures found in the case taken into consideration are as follows:
Remedy for Alligator cracking:
Alligator cracks are to be solved and removed by using either of the two following solutions. First solution involves filing of the cracks through the use of machines and the second one involves entirely reconstructing the surface of the road where failure is observed. Alligator cracking can also be treated by getting the surface either partially or completely repaired.
Remedy for Potholes:
It is solved by using a mixture of patches in the blending of different substances. There are provisions like the use of hot mix during the summer time and cold mix to be used during the winter time. They are mostly observed where there is leakage or over exposure to leaked fluids and this get accumulated at such times and also lead to spreading of diseases in the locality.
Remedy for Surface texture loss
This is a type of failure where the texture of the surface can be treated by applying a thin layer which is the cleaning layer that helps in overcoming the irregularities in the pattern which are formed on the surface of the road. It is majorly in the form of grinding where the damaged surface is treated through grinding of the surface (Yaxiong & Bugao, 2006).
For the problems that are observed on the road in the Al-Khawaneej area, there are various treatment procedures which are to be executed to overcome the failures of road design. This has to be informed to the people living in the vicinity about the importance of getting the road repaired. This has to be done by providing an apology letter to the people in general where the repair work is carried. Along with that there has to be appropriate diversions to be made so as to facilitate the movement of people and vehicles across the area. There would be use of sign boards and other modes of information that would be required for keeping the people intact about the work that is being carried out in the area. One of the relaxing features about the road is that it has wider space on the road side which provides it good alternative road width. Along with that, the method of treatment has to be selected after going through the resources and its optimum utilization for the benefit of the people (Pynn, Wright, & Lodge, 1999).
Comparison and Contrast with International Cases
Similar to the failures observed in the area that is taken into consideration by us, there is a problem which was observed in Marseille which is one of the most significant city of France. It has few of the busiest roads in the town where the major issue of alligator cracks, longitudinal cracks and surface texture loss was observed. This was analysed by “European Transport Safety Council (ETSC)” and they executed a procedure to overcome the problem over the road surface (Hankach & Lepert, 2013).
They used a thin layer of asbestos and other mixture which are blended in appropriate proportion and they are used so as to obtain the most efficient solution of the road surface failure. The procedure that was observed made sure that it caused minimum inconvenience to the people and also provided a feasible solution to the problem (Hankach & Lepert, 2013).
It has to be ensured that the occurrence of failure on the surface of the road is prevented and it requires maintenance of the road in the following ways:
• It is the responsibility of the people and the authority to ensure that the surface of the road is kept clear without any kind of artificial spillage and damage to the road surface.
• There has to be frequent inspections of the road surface carried at regular interval of time which would help to keep a check on the quality and deterioration of the road surface.
• The road authorities have to install and adopt to various measures with respect to the specific extreme climatic conditions.
• It should be taken care that the use of cold mix should be avoided for potholes.
• To treat the alligator cracks, there has to be complete reconstruction of the road surface.
During the case study, I came across various terms that are involved in the construction and maintenance of the road surface in the Al Khawaneej area. I have carried an extensive evaluation and analysis of the road surface and failure generated on it. After this, I have developed the causes and effective remedies of the respective cracks and failures. During the case study, there is a comparison with a similar case in France where similar type of failure of road surface was observed. On the basis of it, I have developed remedies for the failures found in the road that is taken into consideration. The explanation of the terms in the research is such that it could be easily understood and adapted by the people for the treatment of road surface failures. The research helped me to learn about the terms involved in road construction and maintenance. I hope that my effort serves to be useful to the humanity and helps in developing solution for the problems related to road surfaces.
Fukuhara, T., Terada, K., & Nagao, M. (1990). Automatic Pavement‐Distress‐Survey System. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 280-286.
Hankach, P., & Lepert, P. (2013). BUILDING A VIRTUAL ROAD NETWORK TO SIMULATE MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES.
Oliveira, H., & Correia, P. (2008). Identifying and retrieving distress images from road pavement surveys. 15th IEEE International Conference on 12-15 Oct. 2008 (pp. 57 – 60). San Diego, CA: IEEE.
Pynn, J., Wright, A., & Lodge, R. (1999). Automatic identification of cracks in road surfaces. 7th International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications, 671 – 675.
Yaxiong, H., & Bugao, X. (2006). Automatic inspection of pavement cracking distress. Journal of Electronic Imaging:.
CASE STUDY PROGRESS REPORT
Items under action this week
• Review & compare distresses
• Repair Details
• Completing the forms
• ACAD Cross section drawing
Item Progress Expected Completion
Review & compare distresses I reviewed and compared the three distresses in my road 100%
Repair Details I wrote the repairing details 100%
AutoCAD Done 100%
Completing the forms Most of the forms is done 85%
ACAD Cross section drawing More than half the cross section is done 60%