PROJECT TITLE: NANO FLUIDICS
Table of Contents
1. Abstract 2
1.1 Paper statement 3
1.2 Brief description of the overall paper 3
2. Introduction 4
2.1 What is nanomaterials? 4
2.2 Definition of Nano fluidic 4
2.3 Explain thesis statement 5
3. Nano scale forces 6
3.1 Types of the forces 6
3.1.1 Theoretical description 6
3.1.3 Comparison between forces 8
4. Applications of Nano fluidic 10
4.1 “Separation science: size fractionation in regularly structured microarrays“ 10
4.2 “Separation science: ratchets” 13
4.3 “Separation science: entropic principles“ 13
4.4 “Single molecule studies: the benefits of confinement” 14
4.5 Information technology 15
5. Issues 15
5.1 Detectability 15
5.2 Fouling and Stability 17
6. Conclusion 19
7. References 20
7.1 Sources 20
There is an increasing technologies and advancements that are made in the field of nano fluidics. Nano technology promises to be the future of the next generation. In that, nano fluidics play a significant role and they are extremely important for developing scientific inventions that would be based on the development of various liquids that flow through the surface of different substances. It consists of developing the dimensions of the different parameters that are affecting the liquid in its running as well as its stable state. There are different types of forces that are existing in nature depending on its characteristic that it plays in the development of the nano fluidics. It also involves considering the forces that are exerted between the different layers of the nanofluidics that has been taken into consideration.
The theories related to the development of these forces and its effects has been developed in the paper. It also includes comparing the forces and obtaining a solution for the establishment of processes that are to be carried out in them. Along with it, the applications of the nano fluidic substances has been derived pertaining to the different fields of science that has been known to man. The issues that has been observed in the use of nano fluidics has been described. There are two forms of issues that are observed and they have been described through in-depth analysis of the reason for occurrence of the issues. There is a conclusive statement that has been developed on the basis of the discussion of the applications and the issues of the nanofluidics in the different fields where they are used. These are the main elements that are discussed in the paper.
1.1 Paper statement
What is Nano fluidics and what can we benefit from it?
1.2 Brief description of the overall paper
The different type of forces that are developed in the flow that is observed between the different layers of fluid through the fluid mechanics has been obtained and discussed with detailed explanation. The description of the paper includes the development of the nano materials that would be having the features that are required in the development of various resources that is required in the industry. The forces that are involved in the development of nanofluidics and are possessed by the fluids that are existing in that condition has been discussed in the paper. It includes considering the surface as well as intermolecular forces, electrical forces, van der Waals forces, brush force and capillary force that has been existing in the entire mechanics of the nanofluids that are to be considered.
The different levels of applications of the nanofluidics has been obtained that includes using them for obtaining size fractional flow through the surface that is in the size of few nanometers. It will also provide solutions to the development of various entropic stabilization and the confinement that is required for maintaining the level of flow that is to be maintained across the entire system. It can also be observed that the flow of these layers across the fluidic structure inspires more and more elements to absorb protein throughout the system that consists of developing a nanostructure. There are different levels of applications of the nanofluidics that is carried out across he scientific field for obtaining solutions related to the development of variable resources and establishing the resultant factor that involves considering the nano structure across the entire system.
2.1 What is nanomaterials?
Nano materials are the particles that are extremely small in size and are in the size of 1 to 1000 nanometers in dimension. They are an element that are developed through nano technology and development of the science that is related to it . Nano materials are discovered through the development of nano technology. They help in forming a structure for the flow of nano fluidics across the system . Nanomaterials are the substances that are in its atomic structure and are used for developing successful technologies that would be very compact and small. It will help in ensuring flexibility as well as portability of the devices that are based on it. There is an entire branch of science referred as nanotechnology that is concerned with developing new innovations and advancements related to the development of nanomaterials. It tends to be a potential solution for various problems that require using intricate designs and products for increasing the efficiency of the processes and at the same time increase the exposure that can be provided to its adoption.
2.2 Definition of Nano fluidic
Nanofluidics is a scientific study of the nanomaterials that are in the form of fluids and are in the range between 1 to 1000 meters in size. The fluids that are included in nanofluidics do not show the physical composition and structure that is very commonly observed in large bodies. It can be seen that these nanofluidics are extremely sensitive and they have the potential to control the entire functioning of the object. It tends to be that extremely small part of the object that possesses all the properties of the entire object and the characteristics of the entire object are obtained through the nanofluidics that are used in it . Nanofluidics term involves developing the materials that would be using the fluidics that were in the dimension of nanometers and it provides multiple functionalities through the object. There are many dimensions that can be explored while developing nanofluidics and using it for the development of new devices through technology.
2.3 Explain thesis statement
The thesis statement describes the main ideology of the research paper on the basis of which entire paper is structured.
Is there a need to develop nanofluidics for future implications?
It is connected to the different types of advancements that are observed in the field of nanofluidics. It also includes considering the current status as well as applications of the nanofluidics. It is through this evaluation that the future potential of the nanofluidics would be projected and it can help in obtaining several benefits pertaining to different applications ranging from the medical to engineering to the manufacturing fields. It is a major concern for the scientists and researchers to maximize the outcome that can be developed from the use of nanofluidics in their lives.
3. Nano scale forces
3.1 Types of the forces
There are many forces that are involved in the development and functioning of nanofluidics across the system. It consists of the forces that are exerted between the surfaces and are also known as the intermolecular forces, considering the electrostatic force that can be generated and transferred, the force of van der Waals, developing brush force and then the capillary force for the restructuring of nanofluidics that are existing in the industry. These forces are evaluated, analyzed and studied for ensuring that the base of these forces is developed through different theories that have been developed across the system by the forces exerted through the nano fluidics.
3.1.1 Theoretical description
The theoretical description involves considering the effect of the different forces and the modules that are developed by these forces in the system. It is a framework of the surface model theories and the force structure model that is to be used in the paper. It involves developing the necessary actors that are required for the development of a smooth structure that will be obtained through nanofluidics . It is very relevant that the number of theories that are developed on the topic of nano fluidics has been considerably increasing as its potential is being explored and there are many opportunities that can be developed through using the nanofluidics in the system and devices.
Nano forces are playing huge role in the nano material world. These forces indicate the behavior of the system and show the forces between each atom. Moreover, it is describe the interaction between atoms and give great model illustrating these interactions. Since the size of the nano is very small, it is hard to determine the behavior. In term to do describe the behavior, searchers use continuum theory. This theory gives the average for each interaction individually. There are two types of behavior, static and dynamic .
Molecular dynamics can be termed as “a system that explain the deviation”. There is an example developed by using “model both electro-osmotic and Poiseuille flow in small diameter (2- nm radius down to 0.95-nm radius”) Nano channels. As showing in figure 1, it can be stated that “it is a molecular dynamics simulation of water molecule transport in aquaporin, illustrating the reversal of the orientation of the water molecules halfway down the single file they form inside the channel”. . These forces are mostly exerting their impact on the walls.
A great example of theoretical description used in the in world is in the form of a plasma of the mechanism oobserved. This method is not available for all searchers in the world because the set up for the structure of the fluids. To illustrate this phenomenon, they have been discovered a lot of concepts in the last years and several devises has been created based in this pheromone.
3.1.3 Comparison between forces
The forces that are developed through the study of the nano fluidics involve considering different level consideration of the load that is exerted in the specific dimension that is held by the flow of the nanofluids. There are different ways through which the electric force expresses itself as compared to the surface force that is present between the molecules. There has been different speculations regarding the development of forces that have been supporting the elements through the development of required parameters that should be fulfilled for ensuring that the force stays within the limits. It has been developed through the DLVO theory that the two main forces that are exerted or are existing between the surfaces of the molecules in the nano meter dimension consist of the electrostatic forces as well as the van der Waals forces. It is around this surface that specific amount of load is exerted and a large amount of force is exerted for the same by the different stress points that are developed in the flow of the fluidics across the surface. This tends to be one of the most significant difference in the properties that are displayed by the nanofluidics across the system.
It can be seen from the figure provided below that the approximate spatial extension has been projected differently corresponding to different forces. It involves developing force-distance curves on the basis of it. The curves that are obtained tend to be the farthest for the brush as well as the electric forces, whereas it tends to be the closest for the van der Waals forces.
It is a very common attribute of the nanofluidics that involves developing the structure and taking the shape of the element that it comes in contact with. However, there are many critical elements that are to be studied in the development of nano fluidics across the surface. It also [provides an extension to the spatial difference that has been developed through the surface at the molecular level.
4. Applications of Nano fluidic
There are several application of nano fluidics has been applied around the world. For instance, the development of polymers, deriving membranes for filtration and other such applications. This section will illustrates more application of nanofluidics .
4.1 “Separation science: size fractionation in regularly structured microarrays“
One of the most important areas of nanofluidics applications is separation science. In this area the nanometer sized structured is used widely. For example, nanoporous materials to get DNA separation. Since in this system the separation is random they use a technique called the spatial averaging. This technique open new field for researchers, by using micromachining they are able to create microstructure and nanostructure devises. These devises contain body in the low micrometer range. The concept of these devises is based on a very small scale. According to (Kim and Morris 1995), “these devices are especially suitable for the separation of long (>10 kbp) DNA, where the best classical results are obtained using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)” . In its use, there are many different arrangement of posts that are shifted across the system where there are chances that the particles may fit in the available space that will be going through the device and diagonally flowing through the development of structure that has helped in making the small particles to move across the system in the form of hydrodynamic flow. It also involves developing the structure that is not dependent on the diffusion that is to be carried out by the processes involved. It is more dependent on the effects that are steric as well as hydrodynamic.
The first devise has been created in 1992 using the micro machined and designed with spacing of 2 mm between 1 mm structures. They used PGGF to illustrate the motion of the DNA because it has a regular geometry. Another method to show the DNA is using the two alternating electrical fields’ directions and magnitude.
There is difference between the small and large DNA. Large one can be only go with strong component where the small one has the ability. This devise was pretty good in illustrating the chain of the DNA clearly in fifteen seconds. It shows a flow that can get the maximum advantage of the continuous stream. These analyses can be used in regular structured microarray as showing in figure .
To run this experiment, they placed a regular array where the lines are opposite in post spacing. Due to the different size of the particles, the largest size will move in a diagonal way in the devise while the smallest particles will move in average hydrodynamic flow that mean in straight direction. The separation has direct impact in illustrating the particles which have the largest size 1000 nm and the smallest one has 600 nm. The most interesting feature of these particles is that does not depend on the diffusion, rather than that they depend on the steric and hydrodynamic effects. As a result, the resolution is improved once the speed is increase. These devises can be operated successfully with electrical repulsion and atomic exclusion forces .
4.2 “Separation science: ratchets”
According to Bader and Boxer 1999, there are several applications have applied in the concept of the ratchet separation. There are two types of ratchet. First type is rectifying structure. In this type there are many directions, this phenomena due to the larger force needed for one direction . The input of this type is different than first one, where the input here is the derived elements for it. The entire test for this type was conducted in micrometer scale structure. Besides that, the separation performance was not an applied with classical method like what happened in the DNA separation. The forces here in this type is different where it uses the dielectrophoretic .
There are several improvements. For example, the Brownian ratchets has a nanometer range. There are two applications of nano scale rectification which are the asymmetric for ion and liquid transport. The exception for this devises is that will have the ability to produce it in nano scale.
4.3 “Separation science: entropic principles“
In term to study the separation science, the researchers worked in the principles of entropic. There are two devise used to run the experiment successfully called the entropic trap and the entropic recoil. The entropic trap define as uses of deep channel region with 90 nm. When they place the DNA is move in the devise by electrophoresis, this devise hold the entropy and only start moving if the thermal movement is sufficient enough to move the chain into the shallow region. Due to the length of the DNA, they can move faster. On other hands, the entropic devise can be defined as the channel with different densities and different areas. In this case, the DNA will move faster because it is short .
4.4 “Single molecule studies: the benefits of confinement”
It can be seen in the previous sections, Nano fluidics has very important benefits that catch researchers attention to study and explore the movement of nano fluidics. This can be presented in different ways and technique. It can be done in in 2d and 3D where they can measure the length exactly. Due to the limitation of the DNA size which is 1.5 nm diameter, they can study the movement by pulling to see the hemolysin protein. According to Kasianowicz et al. 1996, “In the latter case, the measured signal is the modulation of the cross-pore DC resistance. The duration of the resistance modulation was shown to contain information on the chain length and the intensity of the modulation information was shown to contain information on the identity of the bases passing through the pore” . There is another method can be use called Coulter counting which is designed specifically with objects with very small size. This technique based on using light source which can study the motion of the DNA with high level of concentrations. The first prototype has been done was 2D slit with optical visual for DNA that showed a lot of features. Another devise called Crucial, offered a visual resolution of the DNA and they were able to study the DNA with length control equal to 20 nm .
4.5 Information technology
In term of information technology, the small liquid volumes can transfer and collect information at varying stages. The initial part is the bulk, which has acidic volume in term of 1 and 0 language. Also, they found the programming language ‘AND’ and ‘OR’ can be used in specific fluidic. These days, even though these logics have very limited speed and control, they can be compared with their electronic level. Each tiny liquid volume consists of many molecules and complex data. For instance, DNA computer solving, can solve many math problems. For example, it can solve combinatorial problems. The main problem is that controlling the ratio is hard, they don’t know how to do using the devises mention in previous sections . The reason for that is a hard to access the information. The most essential step is creating the nanometer sized hole, by pulling the molecules.
There is a certain amount of detection required while using the nano materials in the form of nanofluidics within a system. It consists of developing chemical as well as physical analysis of the subject that is to be discussed across the system. There are many methods that are available for detecting the single molecule that is present in the entire system that is taken into consideration. Micromachining technique can be adopted for obtaining structuring of massive and spatial structures across the nanofluidics. It lead to the high levels of homogeneity of the subject on the basis of which there is a development of flow structures that would be based on continuous flow across the system. There is a formation of metallic nanopore in the form of zero mode wave that guides the detection of the enzyme. It has been shown in the below figure.
Figure 4: “Schematic of a metallic nanopore or zero-mode waveguide containing an isolated DNA polymerase enzyme.”
As shown in the above figure, there are high levels of detectability obtained through the isolated DNA that is developed through the fluorescent structure that excites the presence of the fluid to the nanometer scale. There is a high level of Nano structuring provided through it and it has to be considered for ensuring that the main element of the issues that are related to the nano fluidics is structuring. Another technique that can be used for obtaining good level of decidability involves Near-Field Optical microscopy. The method that involves developing and utilizing nanofluidics has to be carried out by integrating the various elements that are present in it. It also involves developing a structure that is based on the development of factors that would support the presence of the detection methods that are required but are more sensitive in terms of the level of detection that it provides. This has to be ensured by considering the position of the molecules that are taken into consideration for the development and application of nanofluidics. It can be seen that conductometric detection would be able to provide the required level of detection that is to be carried out through the nanofluidics substances that are flowing across the system. It provides the characteristic of permitting the single based DNA to develop through the nanopore and transport the elements accordingly.
5.2 Fouling and Stability
In the nanofluidics that contains a nano channels, there are chances that the part that contains the wall would be absorbing the proteins that are developed in the form of amphiphilic proteins. It involves considering the fact that this should be avoided in order to control and prevent the flow of proteins from the layers. For this purpose, polyethylene glycol is used as it will help in preventing the absorption of proteins across the layers near the walls. It also develops vapors that get deposited in the surface that is to be taken in to consideration. The development of the fouling elements has been very efficiently derived from the DLVO theory that stands for “Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek”. It involves developing a research that consists of evaluating the microstructure that is bigger than the nanomaterial and it will help in providing more clarity about the topic .
There has to be a balance obtained between the two types of forces that consist of the electrostatic forces and the van der Waals attraction force. There are many factors that are to be considered while developing a technology for the establishment of entropic stability that is required to be obtained through the PEG coils that are involved in providing stabilization for the same. There is a high level of hydration that is obtained through the surface of the nano structure of these fluidics. It revolves around developing elements that would be dignifying the need of the denaturation of proteins . There is one such problem that refers to obtaining a two phase flow that would be including the development of the persisting issue that would be occurring at the liquid water interface. It should be observed that the shear rates are maintained as it will help in establishing the stability across the DNA through lower absorption of proteins . Due to the obtained level of two-phase flow that is established through the absorption of proteins and the denaturation process that is exerted at the interface that connects the liquid and the water at one level.
Thus, it can be observed that there is a huge potential that is to be explored in the field of nanofluidics. There are large number of applications where the magnitude of nanofluidics can be increased in order to obtain a better range of technology and overcome the problems that are faced while using other forms of technology for transferring and storing information. It also involves developing elements that help in cross verification of the techniques that has been used in the development of the molecular structure that is to be followed through proper distribution of nano fluidics across the surface of the substance. It can be observed that there is an existence of many elements that are extremely important for the development of structured surfaces that would be based on nano fluidics.
The development of the polyethylene glycol for developing solutions to the problems of excessive protein absorption that was witnessed in the technology developed in nanofluidics. There has to be a proper balance between the flow of these chemicals that have a huge effect on the viscosity as well as intensity of the fluid. The physical parameters under which the nanofluidics would be kept are evolved and derived in such a way that there would be minimum effect on the development of various materials that are based on the nanofluidics structure.
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