Essay on Giselle: A romantic Ballet

Title: Childhood Obesity
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Giselle: A romantic Ballet
Giselle is a ballet that has been developed in two parts that is carried out through acts. It is based on love triangle that has been developed between Giselle, Albrecht and Hilarion. Giselle and Albrecht were in love with each other. Hilarion was in love with Giselle. Albrecht was a noblemen. But, for Giselle, he had transformed and disguised as a humble villager named Loys. He then met Giselle and expressed his feelings to Giselle. He had won the hearts of Giselle. But, there is a twist in their love story, when Hilarion who was in love with Giselle had suspicion on Loys being a humble villager. He even tried to tell Giselle that Albrecht was not the right choice for her. But, Giselle being so blindfolded in the love of Loys (Albrecht) did not consider Hilarion’s warnings and she even opposed her mother Berthe, who did not like her bonding and relationship with Loys (Alderson, 1986).
Albrecht, who was disguised as Loys enjoyed his stay in the village where he left all the accessories like swords and clothes of a noblemen and stayed in the village while loving Giselle. The story has been made very interesting through thrilling suspense and twists in between when there are few scenes where the audience is left into ambiguity. One of such scenes was when the noblemen came to the village for resting and having some refreshments when they were hunting. Albrecht saw them and he left right away to hide himself before the noblemen could recognize him. He was successful in hiding himself. The scene took a turn when Hilarion came with the sword that was made finely and it displayed that Albrecht was not a common villager, but he was a noblemen. He also disclosed that Albrecht was engaged to Bathilde, who was the daughter of the Duke of Courtland. On realizing the truth of Albrecht, Giselle’s heart was broken into pieces. When she realized that she and Albrecht cannot live together, she started dancing violently and as she was very delicate and having a weak heart, she fainted and her heart gave up. It could not bear the immense pain that Giselle had witnessed. This is the end of the first part which fills the eyes of the viewers with tears when Berthe cries on the death of her daughter Giselle. It is a very emotional scene. We enjoyed the first act thoroughly as it is a mix of romance as well as thrill that persists throughout the act. It can be stated as a true romantic act that shows boundless love between Giselle and Albrecht.
The second act starts on the same note, when Giselle dies. During the night when Giselle died, Hilarion went to her grave to mourn for her. But, to his shock he found Willis, that were the ghosts of the ladies and unmarried women had observed betrayal in their love. Myrtha was the queen of the ghosts. They took the life of Hilarion and then they also tried to kill Albrecht, but Giselle, still loved despite of the betrayal that she got from him. The plea of Giselle was turned down by Myrtha and they force Albrecht to dance till he dies. However, it was the love of Giselle that reduced the magical powers of Myrtha and Albrecht’s life was saved. Giselle was able to break the chains of hatred that was developed by Wilis and Myrtha and they were released. Thus, the second act was a mere display of magical powers and symbolized the triumph of true love against it where Giselle even after dying and getting betrayed by Albrecht, saved his life through her intense and true love.
In this way, the two acts very well represent the different stages of love that include caring for each other, getting betrayed, forgiving the loved one and then fighting for the love. It is a complete combination of love and hatred that is displayed in a tyrannical manner. We liked it because it touched our hearts through an emotional narration of romance.
Alderson, E. (1986). Ballet as Ideology: Giselle Act. Dance Chronicle, 290-304.

Thesis on Gender Stereotyping

Gender stereotyping
Gender stereotype is the term which refers to developing of particular type of behaviour, attitude, mind set and belief regarding the individuals on the basis of the difference in gender between them. It is very much common since ages where the society always thinks and portrays men as superior over women and they are also treated similarly. It has been an age old tradition across the world where the male section of the society dominated over the female section considering them as the weaker section of the society. But, the term women empowerment has now revolutionized the world and has helped in gaining support for the liberalization of women across the world and has also been successful in gaining respect for them too. The thinking and belief of the people plays an important role in developing stereotypes on the basis of gender (Hoffman & Hurst, 1990).
It has been observed that the products as well as the services that are developed and branded across the globe have gender stereotyping in some of them. It can be seen in the movies too where it has been a universal phenomenon where men saves women from the evils and other such critical situations. It has been portrayed in such a way that it has an everlasting effect on the people in the society. The cases of violence against women occurs mainly because men try to impose their supremacy over women by violent means as it has crept into their minds that they are superior to women (Heilman, 2001).
The marketing of the products in the form of commercials is also carried out in such way that it develops gender stereotypes where they portray men to be masculine and tough and women to be soft and gentle who cannot handle tough conditions specially the physical ones. However, it is the time to change mentalities regarding women and considering the mas equals.
I would be discussing the role of gender stereotyping in the society, that is, is it negative or positive. The thesis lies on the very idea of developing the amount of gender stereotyping in the society and its effects.
Role of Gender stereotyping in the society: Is it positive or negative?
There is gender stereotyping observed in the society in various forms ranging from the physical side to the economic as well as logical side. People find it very common when an advertisement of men driving an SUV or a sports bike is shown on the television. However, when there is a women shown in the advertisement who is driving an SUV or sports bike or performing stunts then it surprises people. In the similar manner there are few areas and situations where gender stereotyping is widely observed and they are described below (Jost & Kay, 2005).
Colour bias
Since ages, it has almost strived as a tradition that pink colour symbolizes feminism and blue colour symbolizes manhood. Due to this, pink colour is always related to the girls and products related to girls like toys, clothing and accessories whereas blue colour has always been connected to the products used by men. However, it is just a mind-set of the people and a tradition that has developed such thinking among the people because it is just a matter of colours. It is also observed in case of new born babies where if the baby is girl than all of her room would be surrounded with pink things and if the baby is a boy then it would be of blue colour for him. This shows that the gender stereotyping of colours has been introduced into our minds since the very childhood. So, the colour bias on the basis of gender stereotyping should not be followed so religiously. It should be taken moreover as a personal choice of an individuals to select the product of their choice irrespective of the gender stereotyping among the colours (Jost & Kay, 2005).
The conceptualization of colours should also be reduced in the media in the form of commercials and movies. The belief of the colour specification on the basis of gender has to be uprooted from among the adults so that they do not transfer it to their next generation.
Reservation for women:
This is the area where the concept of gender stereotyping has actually generated many positive effects. The reservation that has been provided to the women in different fields ranging from the education field to political field as also in the transport system. This kind of reservation helps them to get their rights and provides allowances for the women to get equal status with men and compete with them in each and every field. There is a reservation of women in politics so as to ensure that their voices are heard and that they have an adequate amount of representation in the running of the nation. This type of reservation on the basis of gender stereotyping is very much responsible in providing the women with the power to run parallel with the men in terms of economic and social field. The reservation has a positive effect on the families which actually prefer men children or are ready to spend more on the education of men, thereby providing less chances to women for development and personal progress (Jost & Kay, 2005).
This kind of mentality has been almost eradicated through various reservations for women in higher education and low cost or free education for the women in universities and other educational institutions across the globe. It can be observed that in UAE, the condition of women with regards to the education and higher education has transformed largely with more and more women getting top most positions in education, politics and other such prestigious government positions in the country.
Emotional and physical factor:
The most common stenotype that is developed on the basis of gender is on the emotional context. It has been found since old days that women are showed to be more emotional and soft hearted whereas men are always shown to be hard, tough and the ones that almost never cry. However, this phenomenon is largely a myth and does not have scientific support to it. It depends on the individual that how he reacts during a specific situation. But, since, the society has developed such a tradition that men who actually cry are either coward or less masculine or do not possess strength has forced men to hide their emotional context and always stay as the hard and tough guy in the society even though he may be suffering from within (Hoffman & Hurst, 1990).
In terms of physical strength too, women are considered to be way weaker than men. Even though the women can bear the extreme pain of giving the birth to a child which is one of the most painful act in the history of human life, they are considered to be physically weak. This should be eradicated from the society so as to provide equal opportunity to all the individuals living in the society.
Thus, it can be seen that it is more of a myth and misconception that has resulted in gender stereotyping of the people in the society. There should be more attention paid on the facts and scientific studies rather than the blindly following the traditions that have been followed since ages. There should be rational thinking before discriminating or relating any individual with anything. There are positive as well as negative effects of gender stereotyping which we have discussed above. It justifies the phrase there “Every coin has two sides”. There should be rationality and equality observed in the society for overall development as women tend to occupy significant part of the society (Stewart & McDermott, 2004).
The role of media in stereotyping of the people’s mind set is large and hence they should focus more on advertisements that portray the mas equal.
The traditions which also create a rift between the two genders needs to be replaced by a more conventional form of thinking.

Heilman, M. E. (2001). Description and prescription: How gender stereotypes prevent women’s ascent up the organizational ladder. Journal of social issues 57.4 , 657-674.
Hoffman, C., & Hurst, N. (1990). Gender stereotypes: Perception or rationalization?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 197.
Jost, J. T., & Kay, A. C. (2005). Exposure to benevolent sexism and complementary gender stereotypes: consequences for specific and diffuse forms of system justification. . Journal of personality and social psychology , 498.
Stewart, A. J., & McDermott, C. (2004). . “Gender in psychology.” . Annu. Rev. Psychol, 519-544.

Essay on Ethnography

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Ethnography Essay
Ethnography is termed as the science and art where the people and their cultures are described on the basis of their customs, traditions, habitual differences and other such factors. In the book “In An Antique Land”, the author, Amitav Ghosh, who tends to be a young anthropologist from the Oxford University has described the exposure of cross-cultural experiences where firstly, he has been carrying an ethnographic research and fieldwork in an Egyptian village and secondly, he has been describing the culture prevailing in the 12th century with respect to the concept of slavery and human trade in Egypt and in India. He has described the customs and traditions which were prevalent in the society across the two different countries, India and Russia during the 12th century.
While describing the customs and traditions, he has also described the relations between India and Egypt during those times. He has very well established the synopsis of this relationship and through it, he has established a post-colonial study of the two cultures and practices in these two countries. He has emphasized that there were many similarities in the trade and goods exchange policies and methods adopted by Egypt and India. On the contrary, he has also observed that the customs and traditions are totally different in these countries. They had customized culture which was based on the hiring of people for their work in the form of slaves. This was observed in both the cultures.
The author has maintained a historiographic approach throughout the book and he has developed an image of the slaves and their treatment during the 12th century. His work clearly specifies the fragmented sections of the society in India as well as in Egypt. He has obtained the details of the slave and his life in the writings derived from the Egyptian synagogue. It has been helping him in developing the structure and framework existing in the society during that time. The concepts of slavery and humanity from the church’s point of view and the practices followed in the form of traditions during the 12th century has been described in his book.

Main body
The author Amitav Ghosh, has described that the rights and the perks were enjoyed mostly by the literates during the 12th century. Their stories developed the base for historiography and at the same time, it helped in understanding the various concepts based on their experiences. They were the ones who were considered for all the customs and traditions in their culture. However, the author strikes a chord on the topic of discussing and understanding the stories and lives of the other sections of the society like the slaves and other such classes in the society. The historiography has been considering the stories of the literates which serves to be the tip of the iceberg of the human beings. On the contrary, he stresses to focus and emphasize on the other parts of the icebergs in terms of historiography while considering the lives and stories of other class in the society.
These sections of the society have been deprived of their rights and they have not been provided with any pf the privileges which are enjoyed only by the literates. However, a fair contribution can be obtained from their lives, in terms of the historiographic stories. These stories would be describing the lives of the people in the society which would be prevailing during the 12th century. The historiographic stories which have been developed by the author helps in obtaining the relationship between the existing slavery practices in India as well as Egypt and the experiences of these slaves which have left a remarkable image on their lives.
The author has described the theories of historiography for explaining the functioning of the culture that has been prevailing in the society since those days in the earlier 12th century. The limits of the historiographic work has been under the shadows of the literates where it has been restricted to their lives and their traditions. This has to be understood with the various practices and customs which were prevalent in the society during that time. It has been highly linked with the partiality of the historiographic stories where there is an excessive emphasis on the literate people in the society. This has been observed through the different works and historiographies developed during the 12th century or on the practices, customs and traditions in the 12th century.

The author has described the life of a slave, whose name was Bomma. He had been hired to work for the Jewish trader and merchant, Abraham Ben Yiju. The trader had different set of customs and practices for carrying the daily works with the help of the save. The lives of the literates were the ones which were highly considered and described in the work of the historiographics and this can be seen in the society too, where, Ben Yiju, being a learned trader and merchant was provided with exclusive privileges by the people in the society. However, the author has described the lives of the slaves existing during those times and the struggles and atrocities which were faced by them. He has described the network that has been developed between the Egypt and India along with the other east countries. There has been considerable similarities as mentioned by him in their styles of trade and their trading policies. However, Ghosh has also described the major differences between the societies in these two countries, where the difference lies in the culture, ethnography, historiographical works and other such cultural works of the people and civilization.
The author Ghosh, has described the importance of considering the lives, stories and experiences of the people belonging to other classes in the society and those who are not so literate. The over emphasis on the customs and traditions of the literates has deeply rooted in the society and this has to be removed and evicted from its roots through a proper understanding of the customs and traditions of other tribes and sections of the society. This involves developing an ethnographic and proper understanding of their rituals and life styles. These sections of the society has been experiencing courageous and challenging experiences throughout their lives, in their work as well as in their living. They have seen many tough times and experienced the cultures across the globe throughout their life.
The story has a touch of fiction which has been developed by Amitav Ghosh, in his minds and this has helped him in portraying such an image of the slaves. However, he has witnessed the cross-cultural practices across the globe and this has helped him in having a better understanding of the customs, traditions, practices, religious rituals and other such activities to be performed by the literates only and that the other sections of the society which were very less literate or illiterate were considered to be insignificant in developing the historiography. The customs and traditions have been focusing on the literate and high profile sections of the society.

On the other side, the author also argues that the experiences as well as the stories of the people from the backward class of the society or those who are not literates have to be considered as they, indeed, have a great story which has been developed over a period of rigorous Hardwork and amazing experiences which would never had been faced by the literates in their lives. The stories from the lives of these people would add an additional touch of excellence and clarity to the history that has been developed over a period of years. People of these sections has been described with the help of the main events which occur in their lives like the customs and traditions that are to be followed at the time of birth, deaths and marriages among the people of these class in the society. There has been a considerable contribution of the historiographic demographics which has helped Ghosh to develop the relation between the culture and the lives of the people prevailing in the 12th century among the people.
The ethnographic description of the culture has been through the description of historical events which the slave in the story, named Bomma, had witnessed while his work in the Middle- East and other countries. These people have been enslaved by different cultures and civilizations of the world and the have been travelling through times. Bomma has an exposure to different cultures of the world as he had been working as a slave and serving different masters belonging to different cultures in the world. The description and understanding of cultures from his point of view has helped in developing a fair ethnographic study to the author.
In this way, it can be seen that the author has very well linked the practices in the society to the culture prevailing among the people in the society. It has also helped in obtaining an ethnographic approach and study of the various customs and traditions which were existing during the 12th century in the contemporary society of India and Egypt. The people which have been studied are a Jewish trader named, Abraham Ben Yiju and a slave, named Bomma which was hired by him to help and assist him during his stay in India. The interactions between the two sections of the society has been described through the historiographics and this has been obtained by the author by obtaining a proper understanding of the customs and traditions which hare prevalent in these historiographics.
The character that has been described by Ghosh has a touch of fiction and it is observed to be developed from his imagination which has been led to the development of such an image portrayed for the slaves and illiterate sections of the society. Hence, there are many chances of the actual conditions getting manipulated or ignored by the author, where he has developed an ethnographic study of the prevailing conditions in the society. The description of the culture has been very specific where the significance of the daily customs and traditions has been obtained through the lives of the slave and the Jewish merchant. This has helped in having a proper understanding of the cross cultural exposures. The culture has been witnessed through the eyes of the literates in the society and they were given the highest preference and were considered as the only eligible section of the society on the basis of which historiography would be developed. The author has very well described the various activities which are happening in the lives of the other sections and class of the society. These activities are in the form of different events which occur in the lives of these people and are in the form of births, deaths and marriage as well as having children.
The author has been successful in achieving the feat of describing and evaluating the importance of the stories and experiences through the ethnographic approach regarding the people who were slaves or belonged to the backward sections of the society. He has shown that irrespective of their illiteracy, they have been witnessing large number of incidences and experiences and this would have helped them in achieving great heights in their personal life and also improve their knowledge and skills.
Thus, the ethnographic approach of the author Amitav Ghosh has helped in contextualizing the people, that is, the slaves and the merchant, who have been studied in his works. The author has used the theory of humanity and utilitarianism which has helped him in observing the fulfillment of the virtues and values of these people. The description of culture has been very vivid, where the author has connected the working of the culture to the conditions prevailing in the society. The culture and the customs as well as traditions existing in the 12th century in India and Egypt has been linked with the cross cultural experiences and practices of the people belonging to different class in the society.

Essay Chaucer and French Tradition

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Chaucer and the French tradition
Geoffrey Chaucer, has written the very famous stories of the “Canterbury Tales”, in 1389, in which he has provided a collection of about 24 stories. These stories have described the critical times of the English literature which was existing during his time. There are stories of twenty nine pilgrims and their journey while they were travelling from London and their destination was the shrine of St. Thomas Becket, which is located at the Canterbury Cathedral. He had developed a prize when they would return. He had accompanied the pilgrims and on his way he wrote these tales where he described the situations, circumstances and the social position in terms of ranking of each of these pilgrims (Chaucer and Hopper).
The first description is of the Knight. He has been described as a “worthy man” that possesses high status in the society. Chaucer has described the tension which existed in the Knight’s life when he went to the war. In few places, he was providing with overwhelming response and respect, whereas in few places, he was in the wanted list for his killings which was a part of his knighthood. He had been wearing a fustian cloth that had stained of the rust that it carried over the coat in the form of a chainmail (Chaucer).
The second description is of the knight’s son, “The Squire”. He had been described as a lovable young bachelor. The bachelor shared the literary interest with Chaucer as he used to play the flute. He was wearing clothes that had designs of red and white flowers in it. Chaucer has described the Squire’s ambitions through the lines,”koude songes make and wel endite”.
There was a “Yeoman”, which refers to a “freeborn servant”. He was the caretaker as well as the protector of the Knight and his son and this was justified by the huge number of weapons that he carried like the sword, arm guard, arrows as well as a dagger. He was wearing a coat and a green colored hood. He had an image of St. Christopher on his coat. The character of “The Monk” has been described to be one of the most handsome men among the pilgrims. He is very rational and believes in developing modern reasoning instead of following the age old traditions and customs. The monk that has been described by Chaucer is not of the contemporary type which possess only bookish knowledge, instead he described this monk as the modern society monk of those times who believed in travelling and exploring the world. His eyes are described to be very bright and shining looking similar to a furnace.
He has described the character of a Miller. The Miller very strong and had won many prizes in wrestling. Chaucer has raised the quality of honesty in a mailer and stated that there were no millers who were honest. He had been carrying a sword as well as a buckler with him. Then comes the character of the Franklin. The character of Franklin has been described in the Franklin’s Tale by Chaucer. He describes him to have a beard which would be of bright white color and he would be very big foodie. He has been described as the person who only has prime interest in food like meat, bread and wine. He has described this through the lines, “snewed in his hous of mete and drynke” (Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales Summary and Analysis of General Prologue).
Joseph Glaser, in his book, “The Canterbury Tales in Modern Verse”, praised the works of Chaucer and the concepts shown in his stories. He discussed the above statements of Charles Muscatine. He has provided with firm researches that the time when Chaucer had written the stories was the beginning of a revolution and he stated that Chaucer was able to recognize this in his stories (Chaucer and Glaser).
“The rooms were good, the food was fine,
The fires were warm, the wine went round.”
The counter argument provided by Charles Muscatine states that the characters which were used in the Chaucer’s tales were carrying a degree of tension which was related to their designations and positions in the society. He also described that the conventional standards and the details about the characters has been very much influenced by the thinking and belief of Chaucer (Muscatine).
However, it can be seen that the first part of the book, which is, “The General Prologue”, has been the base for the development of characters in the other parts. Chaucer has described the tales of the pilgrims in his own words using his own ideologies and this tales have been considered as the words of the pilgrims themselves.

Chaucer, Geoffrey and Joseph Glaser. The Canterbury Tales in Modern Verse. . Hackett Publishing, 2005. Print.
Chaucer, Geoffrey and Vincent Foster Hopper. Canterbury Tales selected. Barron’s Educational Series, 1970. Print.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. “The Canterbury Tales Summary and Analysis of General Prologue.” The Canterbury Tales (2015): 1-8. Print.
Muscatine, Charles. Chaucer and the French Tradition: A Study in Style and Meaning. . University of California Press, 1957. Print.

Informative Essay on Embroidery Bayeux

Embroidery Bayeux

The term “embroidery Bayeux” comes from the technique of “Bayeux Tapestry” which refers to a cloth which is designed and embroidered in a very artistic manner that depicts the chain of events that occurred in the ancient history of England. (Wilson, 2004).
It is an amazing form of art where the events are very uniquely represented on the cloth and they are made so elegantly and expertly that they tend to provide detail in formation and understanding of the events. It displayed various events like the William Duke conquering England right from the Norman Empire and the battle of Hastings involving the King of England Harold Earl.
The first ever mention of the history of this kind of art was from the year of 1476 and this was mentioned on the treasures that were present at the Bayeux Cathedral. The next instance or reference of the design is in 1724 where Antoine Lancelot had sent a report which involved mentioning about the King William in the form of tapestry (Zhuang, 2001).
Later, it was in 1729 as well as 1730 that these art in the form of drawings were published by a Benedictine scholar with the name Bernard de Montfaucon. These drawings were claimed to be one of the best draughtsmen that was present at that time. In England, it was first mentioned and briefly discussed by William Stukeley, in his “Palaeographia Britannica”. This article had not been published till 1767.
In the year of 1792 which had observed French revolution, this kind of art was used to send message as well as cover military armaments like the wagons.
“Society of Antiquaries of London” sent one of their expert draughtsmen in 1816 to visit the Cathedral of Bayeux and develop an analysis and understanding of the art. It was specially displayed in the “Bibliothèque Publique” in 1842. It then had to be protected from various invasions that were made during 1870 as well as the time from 1939 to 1944. It made its way back to the Bayeux in 1945 where it has been displayed in the public form of arts since then (Zhuang, 2001).

It is a very unique and special kind of art which involves formation of the design in the form of different kinds of scenes on the Linen canvas. This kind of canvas was obtained from the fibres that were obtained in the stem of the plant which is known as flax plant. This canvas was exposed to sun for a long time to get the required texture and colour that is required to make the tapestry on the woollen surface. This threads were displaying their texture and colour on the canvas. The length of these cloth is about 70 metres and the width is 50 centimetres
This kind of design refers to the entire story of the time when the England was conquered by the Normans. The example of a tapestry involving the Battle of Hastings is given in the below figure.
Tapestry design showing battle of Hastings:

(Brilliant, 1991)

“Bishop of Bayeux rallying Duke William’s troops during the Battle of Hastings in 1066”

(Brilliant, 1991)
The use of colours also requires a huge amount of expertise and knowledge that provides the correct effect to the scene and can be best used on the canvas. It involves different kind of stitches in the form of straight stitches, bars and picots which are made on the canvas. In the design, there are four kind of stitches that are used while developing the tapestry and they are: Stem stitch, chain stitch, split stitch that has two threads and couching work, or “Bayeux stitch”. The outline is done with the stem stitch and the design is made by the other stitches.
The entire structure is set across the linen canvas with the cloth having length around 70m. It involves portraying the chain of events in continuity and hence had to be ensured that there are no breaks while designing the tapestry on a single canvas. The canvas gets the required colour by soaking in the sunlight and the texture is obtained by the woollen threads that are used in its design.
It spread the history of the Norman Empire established in England with the paintings estimated to be made in 1066. The design is very important as it is one of the only means of spreading the information through painting the chain of events on the canvas as shown in the figure below:
“Entire piece of the chronic painting, the story of a campaign and a display of the events showing the victory”

(BTS Audiovisual (DLA, History of Art), 2012)

Tapestry Bayeux is one of the most precious gift in the form of art to the world from the Norman invasion in England. The various scenes that are depicted through it provide an in depth understanding of the events and scenes that were prevalent during that time (Zhuang, 2001). This helps the artist’s to explore their art on a woollen canvas that was developed initially on the tapering Bayeux kind of style. This style has helped artists to use their art and experiment different forms of drawings on this kind of canvas.

Brilliant, R. (1991). The Bayeux Tapestry: a stripped narrative for their eyes and ears. Word & Image: A Journal of Verbal/Visual Enquiry, 98-126.
BTS Audiovisual (DLA, History of Art). (2012, November 27 ). Retrieved from
Wilson, D. M. (2004). The Bayeux Tapestry. Ebooks.
Zhuang, S. Q. (2001). Bayeux: an architecture for scalable and fault-tolerant wide-area data dissemination. NOSSDAV ’01 Proceedings of the 11th international workshop on Network and operating systems support for digital audio and video, (pp. 11-20). New York.