Project Report on Designing of A Highway


Table of Contents
 Task name 1
 Reviewing & comparison of distresses 2
 Repair Details 3
 Causes of pavement damage: 3
Quality of material used: 4
Improper maintenance: 4
Chemical reaction: 4
Climate: 4
 Describing the failure 4
• Alligator Cracks 4
• Longitudinal Cracks 5
• Potholes 5
 Investigating the causes 6
Constant load 6
Joint damage: 6
Asphalt pavement inappropriateness: 6
 Alternative treatments recommendations 7
Detection through Anisotropy equipment: 7
Automatic Road Pavement assessment: 7
Automatic Road Crack Detection 7
 Comparison & contrast with local and international codes 7
 Conclusion 8
 References 8

Task name

We are going to design the surface of a highway road. This will be carried out on a distressed road in UAE. We have to choose any of the road in Dubai and analyse the structure of its surface and develop a design to identify the failures and provide remedies for them. We have to identify the stresses that were present on the surface and then evaluate its causes and effects.
For the research and analysis, we have selected road at 66B street, Mirdif, situated in Dubai. We have also created a drawing that supports the alternatives and solution that we have provided and the methods of evaluating the cracks in the road that we have taken into consideration. There are various steps and techniques that are to be studied while developing the design.
Reviewing & comparison of distresses
There are different types of stresses that are observed on the road at 66B street, Mirdif and they are the reasons for the cracks and failures that occur on the surface of the roads. On road at 66B street, Mirdif, which we took under consideration, we found failures in the form of Alligator Cracking, Longitudinal Cracking and Potholes. The distresses involved in this type of cracking are reviewed and discussed below.

There are two major types of distresses that are found on the surface of the road and they are reviewed as under:
a) Surface distresses b) Pavement distresses
The distresses that are caused due to the cracking, failure or other such irregular failure on the surface of the roads is termed as the surface distress. This kind of distress originates due to various reasons which involve poor climate, fatigue, vehicles load, weathering due to sand and water. It also involves the irregularities and problems that has occurred in the construction of the roads and use of poor, inadequate material in its construction also is a major reason of the cracks and failures that are observed in the roads. The distresses that are caused on the surface of the road on the pavement sides are termed as pavement distresses. The pavement distresses are widely observed due to the use of poor quality of materials on the sides or inappropriate filling that is made on the sides of the road in order to save time and cost. These pavement distresses involves rigid and flexible pavement distresses.
These two types of distresses lead to alligator cracks, longitudinal cracks and potholes on the road at 66B street, Mirdif. There are various differences in the types of the failures that cause these cracks. These are compared for these three failures as under:
Alligator cracking involves formation of cracks in the form of networks and hence they are caused due to surface distress, whereas Longitudinal cracking involves formation of a linear crack on the surface of the road and it is also a type of surface distress. On the other hand, Potholes are formed due to the sudden impact and weathering of the surface of the road and they are caused by pavement distresses.
Repair Details
The cracks that are caused on the road at 66B street, Mirdif are due to the different types of distresses which are to be understood and repaired. The damage that is caused in the form of the three failures or cracks can be classified in two types of intensity in cracks and depending on their intensity they are to be repaired.
Low intensity cracks: It involves cracks that are less than ½ inch in width and are less severe as compared to the other cracks. This types of cracks are repaired by sealing the cracks that would prevent any sort of material like water, moisture that may damage the road surface by further widening of the cracks on the road at 66B street, Mirdif.
High intensity cracks: It involves cracks that are more than ½ inch wide and are more severe as compared to the other cracks. This type of cracks are to be worked upon immediately to avoid a major accident that could occur due to it. This type of cracks are repaired by spreading a layer of filings on the surface of the road where cracks are observed. This would ensure that the surface remains undamaged and gets repaired for a long time.
Causes of pavement damage:
The pavement constitutes to be one of the significant part of the road. The damage of the pavement is one of the major reason leading to the repair of the highway roads. There are two types of pavement damages that are most commonly found on the roads and they are functional and structural pavement damage (Mubaraki, 2013).
We have found that the pavements on the road at 66B street, Mirdif that we have taken into consideration were having 3 types of failures in the forms of alligator cracks, longitudinal cracks and potholes. We have developed that there are various causes of these pavement damages and they are given below:
Quality of material used:
The quality of the materials that are used determines the quality and strength of the pavement. The materials that are used for the construction of road should be taken care that they are of standard quality and any sort of adjustment made in the quality would make it vulnerable for damage.
Improper maintenance:
Poor maintenance of pavements and roads leads to increasing chances of failures of the roads at 66B Street, Mirdif and frequency of cracks increases on the surface of the road.
Chemical reaction:
The spilling of powerful gases and other liquids that have the ability of degrading the materials from which roads are made also damages the pavements on a large scale. These reaction may not occur instantly but would hugely damage the surface of the road on a long term basis.
Climate:
When the roads are witnessing excessive heat or cold, it affects the surface of the pavements leaving it susceptible to the damages and various failures that would easily develop due to the weathering and climatic effects on the surface of the road.
Describing the failure
The failure of the design of road at 66B street, Mirdif may lead to the cracking and damage of the surface due to different reasons. These reasons are described on the types of cracks that are observed on the road at 66B street, Mirdif, we found following cracks after evaluating and analysing it and they are listed below (Mubaraki, 2013):
• Alligator Cracks
It is a case of cracking where the cracks are formed in the pattern of network that gets linked to one other which creates a huge crack with respect to time. It is found at the sides of the roads near the pavements are they tend to increase in size if not corrected at the right time.

• Longitudinal Cracks
It is a case of cracking where the cracks are formed in the form of a vertical line near the centreline or towards the side and it flows on the surface of the road. This types of cracks do not form any linkage among them, but they tend to increase in size on the surface of the road with respect to time.

• Potholes
It is a case of failure where holes are formed in the form of a structure on the roads. This holes and uneven structures are found on any side of the road and few of them may be more than few inches in depth.

Investigating the causes
The failures that have been observed on the road at 66B Street, Mirdif involves formation of alligator and longitudinal cracks and also formation of potholes. We have studied the cracks and developed the causes of the failure on this road. This causes involve the failure of the surface of the pavement too and they are found to be as follows (Mubaraki, 2013):
Constant load
It serves to be one of the reasons for the formation of Alligator cracks on the surface of the road at 66B Street, Mirdif. This types of cracks are formed due to the load that is incident on the surface of the road due to high frequency of traffic and heavy loaded vehicles in these regions.
Joint damage:
It is a failure caused due to the poor construction of the joints at the time of filling the roads and the pavements serves to be one of the major reason of longitudinal cracks that are formed on the surface of the road at 66B Street, Mirdif.
Asphalt pavement inappropriateness:
It is a type of failure caused due to the use of improper and inadequate Asphalt during the construction of pavements that may lead to damaging the roads and make the road very much vulnerable for the formation of potholes whenever there is any heavy impact on the surface.
Alternative treatments recommendations
There are various treatments that can be carried out to ensure that the failure in the form of cracks and potholes that are observed on the surface of the road at 66B Street, Mirdif. These are given below:
Detection through Anisotropy equipment:
It is a type of treatment which involves understanding the structure in the form of the pores of the material that the cracks are made up of. In this method, we need to understand the structures of the surface of the road through 2D images that are formed using the Anisotropy device (Miyojim & Cheng, 1998).
Automatic Road Pavement assessment:
It is a type of treatment which involves assessing the structure of the pavements on regular basis using the equipment that would carry a regular scanning the quality of the pavements (Miyojim & Cheng, 1998).
Automatic Road Crack Detection
It is a type of treatment which involves a constant assessment of the cracks or any irregularities that may further lead to formation of cracks on the surface of the roads. This helps to have a constant check on the roads at regular intervals of time.
Along with this there is a special care that has to be taken to ensure that high quality of roads are constructed and its maintenance is carried out regularly (Miyojim & Cheng, 1998).

Comparison & contrast with local and international codes
There are various techniques that are used across the globe to ensure the quality and safety of the roads on the highways. The problem was observed in our case is similar to the one that was observed in the highways in Canada that was observed by department of “National Safety Council (NFC)” and they analysed the failures in designs that led to the cracking of the road surface on the highways. They rectified this problem by filling a layer of Asphalt and other strongly bonded mixtures over the area that were having the cracks on the surface of the road (Road safety, 2014).

In our project on the surface of the road at 66B Street, Mirdif, we developed a technique of overlaying the materials over the cracks at high temperature to ensure there is no moisture in the treatment.

Conclusion
I have developed a design of the surface of the road at 66B Street, Mirdif. I have analysed, evaluated and studied the causes of failures that are found on the surface of this road. It has helped me to develop a better understanding of the civil engineering terms that are pertaining to the design of road surface. I have tried to provide remedies through the research and analysis of the causes of the cracks on the surface and expect that it would really be helpful to the department that carries the designing of the road surface.

References
Miyojim, M., & Cheng, H. (1998). Automatic pavement distress detection system. Information Sciences, 219–240.
Mubaraki, M. (2013). Development of Pavement Condition Rating Model and Pavement Roughness Model for Saudi Highways. . AMR, 820-828.
Road safety. (2014). Retrieved from www.bristol.gov.uk: http://www.bristol.gov.uk/page/transport-and-streets/road-safety

Report on Road Design and Construction

ROAD DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION


Table of Contents
 Introduction 2
 General Causes to Pavement Damage 2
 Functional pavement damage: 2
 Structural pavement damage: 2
 Maintenance of the road surface: 3
 Poor quality of material used: 3
 Heavy Usage of the road: 3
 Climatic conditions: 3
 Failures and their Causes 3
 Alligator Cracking 4
 Pot holes 4
 Surface texture loss: 5
 List of Alternative Treatments 5
 Remedy for Alligator cracking: 5
 Remedy for Potholes: 6
 Remedy for Surface texture loss 6
 Maintenance/Rehabilitation Plan 6
 Comparison and Contrast with International Cases 7
 Recommendations 7
 Conclusion 8
 References 8

Introduction
In this report, we are going to study about the design of a road which would be preceding the earlier coursework which was about design of a highway. We have selected a specific road in UAE where we have studied and analysed the properties and structure of the road with the help of photos that were taken to detect and analyse the cracks. There were three failures that were observed on the road that is taken into consideration in Al Khawaneej and the size of the failures was about 300m. We have also included the AutoCAD drawings of the roads which will help to show different types of stresses on the road. This is done in order to establish an accurate understanding and analysis of the road failures.
There is a small research which was carried out for identifying the causes of stresses. After the end of the AutoCad tasks, we produced a drawing of the alternatives or the detour capable of providing simple and less disturbing motion to vehicles during the road maintenance. During the analysis, two drawings which were depicting the road alternatives were developed during the research work and analysis.
General Causes to Pavement Damage
There are many reasons due to which the pavement gets damaged and the most significant two types of damages that are most commonly found in most of the roads are described below (Fukuhara, Terada, & Nagao, 1990):
Functional pavement damage:
Functional pavement damage is the damage which is due to the faults in the functions of the pavement. It happens when the road does not fulfil the standard specifications and standards that are set by the governing bodies to ensure the quality and safety of roads.
Structural pavement damage:
Structural pavement damage is the damage due to the external factors which occurs due to excessive vehicular movement, climate adversities, fatigue of the materials used and failure of the road design. It is one of the most frequent type of stress that can be seen on the road that has been taken into consideration by us.
There are various causes that are responsible for the generation of the pavement damages and they are described as follows:
Maintenance of the road surface:
The pavements on the sides of the roads require maintenance at regular interval of time. Poor maintenance leads to increase in the chances of failure and cracks on the surface of the roads.
Poor quality of material used:
The quality of materials that are used helps to ensure the quality and strength of the pavement. The materials which are used should be of high strength and durability so as to ensure that the roads are constructed as per the standard requirements. (Oliveira & Correia, 2008)
Heavy Usage of the road:
This occurs due to the overloading on road by heavy trucks that are being frequently transported over the road surface and this imparts huge stresses on the road surface.
Climatic conditions:
Due to unfavourable climatic condition and extreme conditions created due to it serve to increase the wear and tear of the road and as a result the surface of the road becomes very much prone to failures and damages.
Failures and their Causes
It can be seen that the failure of the road design which leads to the cracking and damage of the roads is due to various reasons which contribute as the cause of the failure and then serve to be damaging the surface on a long run.
The road that we have taken into consideration is a road along the Al Khawaneej area which has few failures that we have described below. There are different type of failures caused due to the distresses formed on the surface of this road. The failures that are existing on the road is mainly divided into three types and they are: Alligator cracking, Pot Holes and Surface texture loss. For proper understanding of the road, a location map is provided below taken from the Google Maps. These causes are described below with their effects and impact on the road surface.
Alligator Cracking
Alligator cracking are the cracks that are formed in the pattern of networks that are linked to each other to form a huge crack slowly and gradually. This type of cracks are found along the surface near the pavements. This type of cracks do not involve formation of random lines but follow a certain pattern.

Pot holes
Pot holes refers to the failure that are created in the form of holes on the roads. This potholes are found on any side of the road and it is observed that they may be more than few inches in depth.

Surface texture loss:
Surface texture loss occurs due to the use of less or poor asphalt in the construction of the road and the effects of this failure is largely seen to be found on the surface where the mixture of binder that is used for the road is inappropriate. It is mainly caused because of poor and inappropriate mixture of the aggregate that is used and blended with asphalt.

List of Alternative Treatments
There are various procedures and remedies that are adopted for the removal of failure and reduce its effects on the surface of the road. These remedies are to be evaluated and analysed on the basis of the budget and resources available for the management of the failures over the road surface. There should be a flexibility of treatments that are made for the failure so that it does not affect the people living in the premises and at the same time they have to face a minimum amount of inconvenience during the entire project of treatment of the road (Yaxiong & Bugao, 2006).
The solution of different types of failures found in the case taken into consideration are as follows:
Remedy for Alligator cracking:
Alligator cracks are to be solved and removed by using either of the two following solutions. First solution involves filing of the cracks through the use of machines and the second one involves entirely reconstructing the surface of the road where failure is observed. Alligator cracking can also be treated by getting the surface either partially or completely repaired.
Remedy for Potholes:
It is solved by using a mixture of patches in the blending of different substances. There are provisions like the use of hot mix during the summer time and cold mix to be used during the winter time. They are mostly observed where there is leakage or over exposure to leaked fluids and this get accumulated at such times and also lead to spreading of diseases in the locality.
Remedy for Surface texture loss
This is a type of failure where the texture of the surface can be treated by applying a thin layer which is the cleaning layer that helps in overcoming the irregularities in the pattern which are formed on the surface of the road. It is majorly in the form of grinding where the damaged surface is treated through grinding of the surface (Yaxiong & Bugao, 2006).
Maintenance/Rehabilitation Plan
For the problems that are observed on the road in the Al-Khawaneej area, there are various treatment procedures which are to be executed to overcome the failures of road design. This has to be informed to the people living in the vicinity about the importance of getting the road repaired. This has to be done by providing an apology letter to the people in general where the repair work is carried. Along with that there has to be appropriate diversions to be made so as to facilitate the movement of people and vehicles across the area. There would be use of sign boards and other modes of information that would be required for keeping the people intact about the work that is being carried out in the area. One of the relaxing features about the road is that it has wider space on the road side which provides it good alternative road width. Along with that, the method of treatment has to be selected after going through the resources and its optimum utilization for the benefit of the people (Pynn, Wright, & Lodge, 1999).

Comparison and Contrast with International Cases
Similar to the failures observed in the area that is taken into consideration by us, there is a problem which was observed in Marseille which is one of the most significant city of France. It has few of the busiest roads in the town where the major issue of alligator cracks, longitudinal cracks and surface texture loss was observed. This was analysed by “European Transport Safety Council (ETSC)” and they executed a procedure to overcome the problem over the road surface (Hankach & Lepert, 2013).

They used a thin layer of asbestos and other mixture which are blended in appropriate proportion and they are used so as to obtain the most efficient solution of the road surface failure. The procedure that was observed made sure that it caused minimum inconvenience to the people and also provided a feasible solution to the problem (Hankach & Lepert, 2013).

Recommendations
It has to be ensured that the occurrence of failure on the surface of the road is prevented and it requires maintenance of the road in the following ways:
• It is the responsibility of the people and the authority to ensure that the surface of the road is kept clear without any kind of artificial spillage and damage to the road surface.
• There has to be frequent inspections of the road surface carried at regular interval of time which would help to keep a check on the quality and deterioration of the road surface.
• The road authorities have to install and adopt to various measures with respect to the specific extreme climatic conditions.
• It should be taken care that the use of cold mix should be avoided for potholes.
• To treat the alligator cracks, there has to be complete reconstruction of the road surface.
Conclusion
During the case study, I came across various terms that are involved in the construction and maintenance of the road surface in the Al Khawaneej area. I have carried an extensive evaluation and analysis of the road surface and failure generated on it. After this, I have developed the causes and effective remedies of the respective cracks and failures. During the case study, there is a comparison with a similar case in France where similar type of failure of road surface was observed. On the basis of it, I have developed remedies for the failures found in the road that is taken into consideration. The explanation of the terms in the research is such that it could be easily understood and adapted by the people for the treatment of road surface failures. The research helped me to learn about the terms involved in road construction and maintenance. I hope that my effort serves to be useful to the humanity and helps in developing solution for the problems related to road surfaces.

References

Fukuhara, T., Terada, K., & Nagao, M. (1990). Automatic Pavement‐Distress‐Survey System. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 280-286.
Hankach, P., & Lepert, P. (2013). BUILDING A VIRTUAL ROAD NETWORK TO SIMULATE MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES.
Oliveira, H., & Correia, P. (2008). Identifying and retrieving distress images from road pavement surveys. 15th IEEE International Conference on 12-15 Oct. 2008 (pp. 57 – 60). San Diego, CA: IEEE.
Pynn, J., Wright, A., & Lodge, R. (1999). Automatic identification of cracks in road surfaces. 7th International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications, 671 – 675.
Yaxiong, H., & Bugao, X. (2006). Automatic inspection of pavement cracking distress. Journal of Electronic Imaging:.

Appendix

CASE STUDY PROGRESS REPORT

Student Name:
Items under action this week
• Review & compare distresses
• Repair Details
• AutoCAD
• Completing the forms
• ACAD Cross section drawing
Progress
Item Progress Expected Completion
Review & compare distresses I reviewed and compared the three distresses in my road 100%
Repair Details I wrote the repairing details 100%
AutoCAD Done 100%
Completing the forms Most of the forms is done 85%
ACAD Cross section drawing More than half the cross section is done 60%

Project Report on desigining Sanitary Sewer System

Project:
Student’s name:
Id number:
Attendance number:
Section:

Student’s Name:
ID Number:
Attendance Number:
Section:

Table of Contents
Project Description 3
Purpose of the project 3
The area covered by the project 4
The extent of the area 5
The project horizon 5
Drainage 5
Topography of the area 5
Type of Sewer 5
General description of the network 6
Total amount of water will be drained (at the end point) 9
Design 13
Design criteria 13
Flow rate criteria 14
Hydraulic criteria (Min and Max Velocities of flow) 14
Pipes’ materials 14
Pipe size 14
Sewer Laterals 17
Manholes (size, spacing, and location) 17
Hydraulic calculation 19
Sewage Flow 19
Pipes size 23
Distribution Profiles 28
Distribution table: 28
Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) curve 29
References 30
Appendices: 31

Project Description
Purpose of the project
The purpose of the project is to design a sewer system for the Narooba area, situated near the Marsh creek, Ohio in America.
Sanitary sewer system refers to the system which is designed and adopted to help manage and drain the used sewage and waste water from the various areas of the city. It may pose a serious threat if it gets accumulated in the streets or gets logged due to the improper or inadequate sewage facility at that place.
This kind of sanitary sewage does not create much problem in the regions which involve natural landscapes like hills and forests as they get absorbed by the thick soil present there along with their absorption by the plants and the trees present there. But, these sewage drain can pose a very serious problem in the urban areas where they do not get enough soil as well as plants and trees to absorb it through the sewage system.
The accumulation of the waste water poses two types of problems for the city. One is the flooding of such water on breakage of pipes or failure of the system and the waste water gets accumulated in large quantities and the other issue is the threat of water pollution that can be created by excessive storage of these untreated sewage water. Accumulation of this water in the streets of the city, sidewalks on the streets, roofs of the houses and throughout the parking lots needs to be managed before it tends to create any of the problems related to an outbreak of diseases and other health hazards. Thereby, it is important to channelize these water before it poses as a threat to the surroundings around it (U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. 5,405,539., 1995 ).
Requirement of water for commercial and consumption purpose is also on the increase in the urban areas due to meagre amount of natural water resources available for that in the cities. There is a huge scarcity of water for using in the household purposes across the locality. However, through proper management and channelization of the water available into the resources can provide a solution to these shortage. These involves executing proper treatment of the water that is led into the water resources like lakes, rivers and other such pure water resources.
These sewer system will help to channelize the sewage water that gets collected in these localities and poses various threats to the community in terms of various health hazards. This sewer system will tend to provide drainage in order to prevent floating of water which leads to various problems like damaging and cracking of the streets, water pollution due to the accumulation and contamination of such water and a huge amount of traffic jams. These system will target to channelize the sewage water that gets collected and accumulated in the parking lots, city lanes and other such areas (Kawamura, 2000).
Water management is required in these communities to ensure the smooth flow of operations, vehicles and people across the road within the community that will be achieved by this system of sewer water treatment. This area is densely populated by the people and is also significant from the commercial point of view due to the Marsh Creek Park. Hence, a proper drainage system will ensure the cleanliness of the region and will help to increase the commercial value of the region.
The area covered by the project
The area covered by the project is the Narooba area Lake Blvd, which extends to about 0.5 miles towards the west direction right across the harbour drive and reaching the harbour creek drive on the other side in the west. The area which is covered in the project would be around 1.1 sq. miles as shown between the two points with blue dotted line.

The extent of the area
The Narooba area is situated near the Marsh creek lake region. Towards the east direction, it has Marsh Creek across its border. It has harbor creek drive towards its west and there are many residential avenues in between this area.
The project horizon
The area is designed for approximately 12 – 15 years and in the future if the horizon is needed to be enlarged or developed for commercial purposes it will require further modifications and maintenance. The area is mostly residential and it is divided to 8 major blocks on the basis of the streets present there, as we can see in the picture. The community has human habitation spread in large numbers over a small area which can be observed from the density of this region and this provides a limited opportunity to utilize more and more space for the construction of the system (Shannon & Smets, 2010). There is a selected area which is to be considered while analysing the community and developing the sewer system for them. The area which is to be considered is shown in the image. The direction of the Sewer system that I am going to develop is ranges from the elevation in the east towards the lower areas that the slope gradually follows in the west.
Drainage
Topography of the area
The area which we have selected a slope from 75-80. This will depend on the gravity and the direction of the water that flows in through the surface. This, therefore, will support the flow of water starting from the point shown in the map from the right extreme corner. There are different lanes and street observed in the area that is selected. The topography of the area has exactly 4 contour lines and the first top contour line has an elevation of 80 m and the last one on the left side has an elevation of 75 m (U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. 5,405,539., 1995 ).
Type of Sewer
The path which is selected for the sewer system is such that it will provide enough scope for the water to flow across the surface by virtue of its gravity from an elevation to a reduced height. The flow of the sewer would be obtained according to the slope of the area. (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems., 2004). This type of drainage helps to use the force of gravity to ensure smooth flow of the sewage water to the disposal or other resources through the city roads without much external pressure or pumps required. The sewer would be using the gravity force of the earth for the flow of the sewer water and hence, this sewer is known as gravity sewer.
The drainage system takes the advantage of the geographical slopes that are observed in these region to be considered (VanWoert, Rowe, Andresen, Rugh, & Fernandez, 2005). The west side gradually is at a lower height and hence is very easily sufficient enough from the flow of the sewage water point of view along the slope.
General description of the network
The route which is to be created for the sewage water to flow through the road is executed along the 8 streets. It will be designed in such a way that the junctions would not witness logging of the wastes by using filters near the junctions where the lines are changed. (Shannon & Smets, 2010).Kerbs and pavements are also developed accordingly to accumulate and facilitate the smoothness of the functions.
The drainage system is designed to take in any rate of flow in the area starting from the east towards the west throughout the 8 blocks along the 4 streets. The lines that go from east to west collect the sewage water from the 2 blocks in the east direction that are forming a square over there and the drainage system can collect water from the whole 2 blocks in this area. This water is then graduated towards the inclination in the west direction. It is also observed that proper track and path of this water is specified so as to avoid the jamming on the roads and places which are having high value from commercial point of view (VanWoert, Rowe, Andresen, Rugh, & Fernandez, 2005).
Mapping of the location:

Figure 2: Satellite view

Figure 3: Street view

Figure 4: Piping system

The design and the channelizing of the pipes through the sewer system is made such that they tend to face least number of obstacles under the surface while carrying the sewage water to its disposal or desired place. There has also been terms that are to be taken care of while developing the design of the sewer system so as to make sure that it does not affect the working and flow of operations in this region. The lines that are to be provided are designed and developed after considering the topography of the region as discussed earlier. The points that are at a greater height from the sea level, that is, which are at an elevation are first determined. It is then followed by deriving its course for the flow of the water through the pipes. It involves considering the points that are gradually towards the west and are comparatively at a lower height from the sea level as compared to the points in the east (VanWoert, Rowe, Andresen, Rugh, & Fernandez, 2005).
The construction of kerbs along the pavements is also to be made in such a way that it provides sufficient space for the utilization of roads and the lanes for other purposes. Thus, it must be made sure that optimum utilization of space is carried out. This will not only help in saving space but also provide a scope and setup for infrastructural facilities and other recreational activities. The recreational and commercial points can also be worked upon for the saved region and contribute towards its increase that would ultimately benefit the people as well as the government (U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. 5,405,539., 1995 ).
Total amount of water will be drained (at the end point)
The total amount of water which would be drained across the end point would be determined through calculating the flow of waste water through the pipes. For, this the flow through the pipes is calculated. The quantity of water that is collected depends on the blockage due to various objects in the sewage lines resulting in the blocking of the lines due to logging of sewage in the lines. There are many other factors that reduce the amount of water that drains from the sewage pipes and this factors are considered to directly measure the flow or the amount of water at the endpoint.

Subarea number Type of establishment Number of establishments in the subarea Litre per person per day Population in subarea Litre per day
Single family dwellings 4 300 30 9000
Single family dwellings 3 300 40 12000
Single family dwellings 5 300 35 10500
Church 1 30 25 7500
Single family dwellings 8 300 77 23100
Single family dwellings 4 300 44 13200
Church 1 25 20 500
Single family dwellings 5 300 80 24000
Single family dwellings 9 300 72 21600
Single family dwellings 8 300 48 14400
Single family dwellings 11 300 80 24000
Picnic park(toilet waste only) 1 25 25 625
Church 1 30 15 450
Day school with cafeteria (without gymnasium and showers) 1 100 80 8000
Single family dwellings 5 300 40 12000
Single family dwellings 9 300 95 28500
Single family dwellings 8 300 70 21000
Church 4 30 45 1350
Single family dwellings 3 300 60 18000
Single family dwellings 5 300 50 15000
Single family dwellings 9 300 90 27000
Church 1 25 20 500
Single family dwellings 5 300 45 1350
Single family dwellings 9 300 60 18000
Single family dwellings 8 300 50 15000
Church 1 300 30 9000
Single family dwellings 3 300 90 27000
Single family dwellings 5 300 70 21000
Single family dwellings 9 300 45 1350
Single family dwellings 11 300 60 18000
Single family dwellings 10 300 50 15000
Church 1 30 40 1200
Single family dwellings 12 300 100 30000
Single family dwellings 7 300 80 24000
Single family dwellings 8 300 82 24600
Single family dwellings 9 300 94 28200
Single family dwellings 13 300 120 36000
Church 1 30 28 840
Single family dwellings 7 300 64 19200
Single family dwellings 5 300 95 28500
Single family dwellings 6 300 74 22200
Single family dwellings 4 300 45 13
500
Single family dwellings 5 300 54 16200
Single family dwellings 9 300 92 27600
Single family dwellings 8 300 76 22800
Day school with cafeteria (without gymnasium and showers) 4 300 40 12000
Single family dwellings 3 300 33 9900
Single family dwellings 5 300 48 14400
Single family dwellings 9 300 88 26400
Single family dwellings 8 300 65 19500
Picnic park(toilet waste only) 1 25 30 750
Church 1 30 35 1050
Single family dwellings 5 300 54 16200
Single family dwellings 9 300 78 23400
Single family dwellings 8 300 90 27000
Total amount of water will be drained at the end point (L/day) 896450
Design
Design criteria
The design of the sewer system is to be made by considering various parameters and elements that tend to affect the development of the project. Designing elements are to be defined and at the same time determined for a specific set of variables (VanWoert, Rowe, Andresen, Rugh, & Fernandez, 2005). These parameters are explained and derived below:
Flow rate criteria
Hydraulic criteria (Min and Max Velocities of flow)
The most affectively factor in the project is the velocity of water in the pipes that depend mostly in the slope of the pipe used. The minimum range is 1.65m/s and the maximum is 2.60m/s. The hydraulic design of the structure tends to provide with the strength and reliability of the design and calculation in terms of the life of the pipes. The hydraulic design helps in better understanding of the features that are to be considered while designing the sewer drain. It also involves developing elements and parameters that will help to ensure that the project will be able to sustain the different hurdles and obstacles that are offered by the nature (Harremoves & Rauch, 1996). The effectiveness of the hydraulic design will provide the confirmation of the life and safety of the project and thereby, of the people in contact with it. The characteristic feature of the hydraulic design id the strength which the material will offer when it is performing a task (U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. 5,405,539., 1995 ).

Pipes’ materials
There are various materials from which pipes can be made. It must be resistant to corrosion on being exposed to sewage water and other impurities present in it. This serves to be a major concern for selecting the pipe for the sewage lines. The material that is selected has to be cheap due to its requirement in large quantities. The pipes would remain in a good condition if they are cleaned at regular intervals of time and they are maintained through regular checking and inspection. The material is mostly iron and there is a coating on the inner side which is called as galvanising iron and this helps the iron from rusting in the sewage and waste water conditions.
Pipe size
The diameter of the pipe through which the sewage water is going to flow is to be determined and this is done by the following formula which is obtained from the manning’s equation (Elimam, Charalambous, & Ghobrial, 1989):
D=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^(0.5) ))〗^(3/8)

D=Diameter in (m) n=coeffiecient of roughness
S=Slope (m/m) Q=water flow (m^3/s)

Diameter of the pipe in Line 1A:
Q_1= 0.075m^3/s n = 0.028 S_1= 0.007
D_1=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.075 × 4 × 0.028 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.007〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.331m

Selected pipe size=0.35m=350mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 2A:

Q_2= 0.198m^3/s n = 0.028 S_2= 0.007
D_2=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.198 × 4 × 0.028 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.007〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.481m

Selected pipe size=0.5m=500mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 4A:

Q_4=(0.325m^3)/s n = 0.014 S_4= 0.0023
D_4=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.325 × 4 × 0.014 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0023〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.68m

Selected pipe size=0.70m=700mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 7A:

Q_7= 0.70m^3/s n = 0.013 S_7= 0.0025
D_7=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((070 × 4 × 0.013 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0025〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.93m
Selected pipe size=0.95m=950mm
Here, to avoid any kind of error we will be calculating diameter of the pipe twice.
Diameter of the pipe in Line 1B:
Q_1= 0080m^3/s n = 0.028 S_1= 0.007
D_1=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.080 × 4 × 0.028 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.007〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.340m

Selected pipe size=0.35m=350mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 2B:

Q_2= 0.200m^3/s n = 0.028 S_2= 0.007
D_2=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.200 × 4 × 0.028 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.007〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.470m

Selected pipe size=0.50m=500mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 4B:

Q_4= 0.4m^3/s n = 0.014 S_4= 0.023
D_4=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.4 × 4 × 0.014 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.023〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.694m

Selected pipe size=0.700m=700mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 7B:

Q_7=0.712m^3/s n = 0.013 S_7= 0.0025
D_7=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.712 × 4 × 0.013 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0025〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.945m

Selected pipe size=0.95m=950mm

Here, we have calculated the diameter of the pipes that are used as per the flow and other dimensions. On the basis of that, we are going to select the diameter of the pipes for the drain project. We have obtained the diameters and flow across all the 8 pipes that we are going to use across the 4 streets and they are tabulated below:

Sewer Laterals
The laterals of the sewers refers to the design provided in the sewer system regarding the flow of sewage through the man holes and across the pipes. It includes provision of kerbs and gutters along the pavements of the road to drain off all the sewage accumulated on the surface. The kerbs are gutter like structures made along the pavements of the road at the corner along its surface. The construction of the kerbs along the corners of the roads should be made such that it can take sufficient amount of water through it and this would thereby reduce the load on the sewer pipe. The alignment of the pavements should be made such that it is in the direction of the slope that is existing in the region. Hence, hardly, any force or external device will be required to drain the water along the surface.
Manholes (size, spacing, and location)
It is observed that approximately minimum value of a manhole spacing is of 240mm to 310mm and the maximum is around 1050mm. The manhole space varies depending on the slope from north to south and from west to east. The selection of the sites and location for construction of man holes needs to be made by considering parameters that are related to the area, locality, density and design of the road pavements above the surface of the drainage system (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems, 2004). It also helps to determine the path through which the pipelines will be crossing across the man holes and serve as a guide to provide them the course. The design of the man holes should utilize optimum availability of free surface on its side and this will ensure that timely drain of water along the roadside is done. In the below figure, manholes are represented by M.
Figure 6: Manhole system

Hydraulic calculation
Sewage Flow
Sewage flow Calculations
Discharge time t_d:
It refers to the time that is required by the flow to get across the pipe through different point of time. The estimation and the figures that are used here are taken as per the Municipality specifications and the norms that are mentioned and followed by them (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems, 2004). The number of years that is to be considered is ranging from 2 years to 50 years considering the feasibility of the project with respect to the flow and the rate of flow (U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. 5,405,539., 1995 ). In the table shown below, we have obtained the relationship between the rates of flow of sewage water at different Return period (T) for a given discharge time duration given by t_d.
The results that are obtained from the table show that the flow rate depends on the area and intensity of the sewage water that is flowing through it. The duration or the Return period (T) is independent of the material of the pipe but depends on the area of the pipe through which it flows. This can be obtained by calculating the discharge across the pipes for a specific amount of time. The flow of the pipes is measured and obtained at an interval of few years. The amount of the flow that gets fluctuated is to be observed from the table. The table also provides guidelines on the discharge that will be obtained by a specific dimension of pipe over a period of years. The run- off coefficients of these pipes are to be taken into consideration to develop the pipes design in details (Elimam, Charalambous, & Ghobrial, 1989).
Flow in (lines 1, 3, 5 and 7)
The measure of the flow of water or any other liquid while it is running or flowing is termed as the run off flow. The run off is measured in terms of m^3/hr and the unit it is same as that of any other kind of flow of liquid along a surface. The run off is measured by the following way (Elimam, Charalambous, & Ghobrial, 1989):
The method which is used is shown below:
Q=CiA
Where;
Q=The water flow rate (m^3/hr) C=Runoff coefficient
I=Rainfall intensity (mm/hr) A=Drainage area (m^2)

The area is divided into 8 blocks and the flow through the lines 1, 2, 4 and 8 are calculated. The areas of the pipes A is determined and taken accordingly.
Runoff across the Line 1A:

C_1=0.39 I_1=0.060m/hr A_1=15100m^2

Q_1=0.39×0.060×15100=370.2m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 2A:

C_2=0.39 I_2=0.067m/hr A_2=15300m^2

Q_2=0.39×0.067×15300+348.2=689.4m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 4A:

C_4=0.39 I_4=0.068m/hr A_4=5800m^2

Q_4=0.39×0.068×5800+1035.6=1120m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 8A:

C_8=0.39 I_8=0.070m/hr A_8=7100m^2

Q_8=0.39×0.070×7100+1190+1037.4=2631 m^3/hr
Here, in our case, in order to ensure proper and precise estimation of the run off, we are going to measure it twice for the same pipes to ensure that any kind of error is not made in making the dimension of the pipe.
Runoff across the Line 1B:

C_1=0.39 I_1=0.07m/hr A_1=15100m^2

Q_1=0.39×0.07×15100=365.6m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 2B:

C_2=0.39 I_2=0.071m/hr A_2=15200m^2

Q_2=0.39×0.71×15200+372.6=705.2m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 4B:

C_4=0.39 I_4=0.074m/hr A_4=5800m^2

Q_4=0.39×0.074×5800+1218.8=1392m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 8B:

C_8=0.39 I_8=0.068m/hr A_8=6800m^2

Q_8=0.39×0.068×6800+1260+1217.2=2678.8m^3/hr.
Here, we have obtained the discharge, that is, the run off across the 4 pipes along the streets.

Table (flow in each line)
Line
No. Flow (Q)
(m3/hr)
1 370
2 705
3 1190
4 1392
5 2035
6 2275
7 2571
8 2628

Pipes size
Manning equation
The diameter of the pipe through which the sewage water is going to flow is to be determined and this is done by the following formula which is obtained from the manning’s equation:
D=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^(0.5) ))〗^(3/8)

D=Diameter in (m) n=coeffiecient of roughness
S=Slope (m/m) Q=water flow (m^3/s)
Diameter of the pipe in Line 1A:
Q_1= 0.080m^3/s n = 0.031 S_1= 0.009
D_1=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.080 × 4 × 0.031 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.009〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.351m

Selected pipe size=0.35m=350mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 2A:

Q_2= 0.208m^3/s n = 0.035 S_2= 0.009
D_2=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.208 × 4 × 0.035 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.009〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.501m

Selected pipe size=0.5m=500mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 4A:

Q_4=(0.325m^3)/s n = 0.021 S_4= 0.0033
D_4=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.325 × 4 × 0.021 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0033〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.695m

Selected pipe size=0.70m=700mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 8A:

Q_8= 0.75m^3/s n = 0.023 S_8= 0.0032
D_8=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.75 × 4 × 0.023 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0032〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.93m
Selected pipe size=0.95m=950mm
Here, to avoid any kind of error we will be calculating diameter of the pipe twice.
Diameter of the pipe in Line 1B:
Q_1= 00801/s n = 0.031 S_1= 0.007
D_1=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.080 × 4 × 0.028 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.007〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.348m

Selected pipe size=0.35m=350mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 2B:

Q_2= 0.200m^3/s n = 0.028 S_2= 0.007
D_2=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.200 × 4 × 0.028 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.007〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.470m

Selected pipe size=0.50m=500mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 4B:

Q_4= 0.4m^3/s n = 0.014 S_4= 0.023
D_4=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.4 × 4 × 0.014 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.023〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.694m

Selected pipe size=0.700m=700mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 7B:

Q_8=0.712m^3/s n = 0.013 S_8= 0.0025
D_8=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.712 × 4 × 0.013 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0025〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.945m

Selected pipe size=0.95m=950mm

Here, we have calculated the diameter of the pipes that are used as per the flow and other dimensions. On the basis of that, we are going to select the diameter of the pipes for the drain project.
Pipes Materials and Manning Coefficient
Runoff coefficients:
It refers to the surface friction factors that the different material possess. The co – efficient of the run off tends to determine the intensity and smoothness of the flow of the water across it.
The run off coefficients also tend to help to make an estimation of the life of the pipe that would be able to sustain the flow of sewer across it for a particular period of time (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems, 2004). The coefficients help to understand the friction that the pipes will undergo when the sewer water drain flows through it (Elimam, Charalambous, & Ghobrial, 1989):
The runoff coefficients are also termed as manning’s coefficients as the have been used in the Manning’s equation for measuring the diameter of the pipes and establishing the flow through the pipes. The coefficients value also tend to provide the calculation with an edge to carry the necessary steps and analysis to design the pipe for the project purpose on the basis of the strength of the materials that are shown in the table below:

Pipes Size (lines 1, 2, 4, 8)
There is calculated diameter of the pipes and then on the basis of that actual diameter is taken. Pipe sizes of the pipes 1, 2, 4, 8 are mentioned in the table below.

Line
No. Pipe Size
Calculated (mm) Pipe size
Selected (mm)
1 331 350
2 470 500
4 694 700
8 972 950

This are the values which are taken into consideration in the measurement of flow. Manning’s equation also uses the same values for measuring the diameter of the pipe on the basis of the flow through it.
We have obtained the diameters and flow across all the 8 pipes that we are going to use across the 4 streets and they are tabulated below:

Line
No. Flow (Q)
(m3/hr) Pipe Size
Calculated (mm) Pipe size
Selected (mm)
1 370 331 350
2 705 470 500
3 1190 539 550
4 1392 694 700
5 2035 742 750
6 2275 872 900
7 2571 945 950
8 2628 972 950

Distribution Profiles
Figure 7: Square map of the area

(GETTYIMAGES.IN, 2015)
Distribution table:
The run offs that is the flow of the waste water and the estimated sizes of the pipes along with the selected sizes of the pipes are calculated for all the 4 streets that we have considered.
The calculations are tabulated as shown below:
Line
No. Name of the site Flow (Q)
(m3/hr) Pipe Size
Calculated (mm) Pipe size
Selected (mm)
1 Washington Avenue 352.2 331 350
2 Anaconda avenue 690.4 470 500
3 Green Oak Avenue 1219 539 550
4 Orchid avenue 1390 694 700
5 Orchid avenue 2580 742 750
6 Green Oak Avenue 2652 872 900
7 Anaconda avenue 2771 945 950
8 Washington Avenue 2980 972 950

Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) curve
This is the frequency intensity that is measured against the duration of the rainfall and is observed for a period of 15 years. The main focus of this relationship is to observe the intensity of rainfall within a particular region and at the same time also focus on the side effects that it produces on the sewer water drain system. It is shown in figure 8.

References
AUSTINTEXAS.GOV. (2015, November). PRIVATE LATERAL PROGRAM. Retrieved from https://austintexas.gov: https://austintexas.gov/department/private-lateral-program
Elimam, A. A., Charalambous, C., & Ghobrial, F. H. (1989). Optimum design of large sewer networks. . Journal of Environmental Engineering, 115(6), , 1171-1190.
GETTYIMAGES.IN. (2015). OHIO. Retrieved from http://www.gettyimages.in: http://www.gettyimages.in/detail/illustration/ohio-vector-map-royalty-free-illustration/483785327
GOOGLE.CO.IN. (2015). Marsh Creek, Ohio. Retrieved from https://www.google.co.in: https://www.google.co.in/maps/place/Marsh+Creek+Ln,+Rootstown,+OH+44272,+USA/@41.0972303,-81.2192096,17z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x8831377af4d5f175:0x68f20e5507b1d042
Harremoves, P., & Rauch, W. (1996). Integrated design and analysis of drainage systems, including sewers, treatment plant and receiving waters. Journal Of Hydraulic Research, 815–826.
Kawamura, S. (2000). Integrated design and operation of water treatment facilities. . John Wiley & Sons.
Schmitt, T., Thomas, M., & Ettrich, N. (2004). Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems. Journal Of Hydrology,, 300–311.
Schmitt, T., Thomas, M., & Ettrich, N. (2004). Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems. Journal Of Hydrology, 300–311.
Schneider, T. W. (1995 ). U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. 5,405,539.
Shannon, K., & Smets, M. (2010). The landscape of contemporary infrastructure. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers.
VanWoert, N., Rowe, D., Andresen, J., Rugh, C., & Fernandez, R. X. (2005). Green roof stormwater retention. Journal Of Environmental Quality, , 1036–1044.

Appendices:
Figure1: Topography of the area

Figure 5: Sewer Laterals structure

(AUSTINTEXAS.GOV, 2015)

Figure 8: Intensity Distribution Frequency Curve

Project Report on Design of Waste Water Drainage System


Table of Contents
Abstract 2
Storm water: Term Introduction 2
Description of the project: 3
Purpose of the project 3
The area covered by the project: 3
The location of the area: 4
The size and population covered by the project: 4
The importance and land-use of the area: 4
Drainage network 5
The Project Horizon: 5
Topography of the area: 5
Flow of drainage (Gravity Drainage): 5
General description of the network: 6
Design Criteria: 7
Discharge time td: 8
Runoff coefficients: 9
Hydraulic Design: 10
Manholes distribution: 10
Kerbs and pavements allotment: 10
Calculations: 11
Runoff Flow: 11
Diameter of the pipe: 13
Distribution profile 16
Distribution table: 16
Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) curve 17
Bibliography 18

Abstract
Storm water is the water which is collected due to the rainfall, snowfall as well as melting of ice. This water gets evaporated or gets absorbed in the ground and may be get carried or flown away to the lakes, rivers, streams and other such water bodies that are nearby.
It should be ensured that there is proper disposal of the storm water that cannot be utilized for consumption. The waste water that cannot be treated or utilized should be disposed of through a sufficient and effective drainage system (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems., 2004). It also refers to handling of the accumulated and storm water in such a way that it does not possess any hazard to the locality in the future. Accumulation of the storm water also poses a huge threat of outbreak of diseases due to the dirt, germs and dangerous insects that may arise in these water. This may lead to a very bad condition and health to the people in these communities and make the entire locality disease prone. Therefore, it has to be ensured that the sewer system that is adopted is sufficient enough to save the locality from such outbreaks and contribute towards the cleanliness of the city. I am going to develop a design that will help to provide a solution to the management of the waste water problem.
Storm water: Term Introduction
Storm water drainage system refers to the system which is designed and adopted to drain the excess water from the various areas of the city and other streets that gets occupied or logged due to the improper drainage facility (Prowell, 2006).
This kind of storm drain does not create much problem in the natural landscapes like hills and forests as they get absorbed by the thick soil present there along with their absorption by the plants and the trees present there. But, these storm drain can pose a very serious problem in the urban areas where they do not get enough soil as well as plants and trees to absorb it.
It poses the two kinds of major problems for the city and they are flooding of such water on being accumulated in large quantities and the other issue is the threat of water pollution that can be created by excessive storage of these unabsorbed storm water. Accumulation of this water in the streets of the city, sidewalks on the streets, roofs of the houses and throughout the parking lots needs to be managed before it tends to create any of the problems to the surroundings and affects the health of the people in the locality. Thereby, it is important to channelize these water before it poses a threat to the environment around it (Prowell, 2006).
The demand of water for commercial and consumption purpose is also on the increase in the urban areas due to meagre amount of natural water resources available in the cities. Thus, it is observed that there is a huge scarcity of water which can be utilized for the household purposes and daily consumption in the cities. However, through proper management and channelization of the available water can provide a solution to these shortage (Walsh, Fletcher, & Ladson, 2005). This also involves proper treatment of the water that is led into the water resources like lakes, rivers and other such pure water resources. It refers to developing a system that carries the waste water out of the city without creating much problems for the people in the locality.
Description of the project:
I am going to prepare a design of a drainage system that will help to dispose the waste water from the locality. There are various things and researches that we are going to cover in our project. They are listed below along with the description of the elements related to it:
Purpose of the project
The purpose of the project is to design a sewer system for the Al Muhaisnah 3 locality in Dubai situated in United Arab Emirates (UAE).These sewer system will help to channelize the storm water that gets collected in the locality and that can generate various threats to the community in terms of their health. Floating of water in the streets and localities leads to various problems like damaging and cracking of the streets, water pollution due to the accumulation and contamination of such water and a huge amount of traffic jams. This sewer system will tend to provide proper drainage of this floating and accumulated water. This system will target to channelize the storm water that gets collected and accumulated in the city lanes, parking lots and other such areas. This will help the community to overcome the problem of water logging which persists due to heavy rainfall or any other potential consequences of water logging (Prowell, 2006). Water management is required in these community to ensure the smooth flow of operations, vehicles and people across the road within the community that will be achieved by this system of sewer water treatment. This area is largely habited by the labourers and other related camps. This labourers contribute mainly in the construction of various projects in the Al Qusais as well as the real estate projects executed to the south of the Dubai creek.
The area covered by the project:
The size of the locality that has been selected comes under Muhaisnah area which is spread around 13 sq. mms or 5 sq. miles. It has the major part of the land used for residential and habitation purposes. With an approx. population of 90000 people, this area serves to be the locality for a community that has been developed and flourished in Dubai since a long time and are involved in the construction projects (Fleming, 2000). This area is a part of the locality that is situated in the Eastern Dubai in Deira region. The region is affected by accumulation of water near the roads due to the design of sewer system that consists mainly of manholes and gutters provided along the sides of the streets in this locality.
The location of the area:
Al Muhaisnah 3 is connected to the west part by route D60 through Al Rashidiya road. It is bordered by Al Qusais, Al Twar, Mirdif and Al Mizhar. This area is a part of the locality that is situated in the Eastern Dubai in Deira region. The locality of the Al Muhaisnah 3 that has been selected comes under Muhaisnah area. Muhaisnah is further divided into four localities and they are: Madinat Muhaisnah (Muhaisnah 1); Muhaisnah 2; Muhaisnah 3and Muhaisnah 4.
The size and population covered by the project:
The community is situated to the east of Dubai and is spread over a region of 13 sq. kms or 5 sq. miles. It has a population of around 90000 people. The density of the people is only around 7000 people/ sq. km which is very large. Hence, there is a lot of space that is available for the storm water to be accumulated if not taken care of at the right time. There is a huge scope for improvement in the infrastructure due to the available land that is largely habited by the people. There is a huge space for the infrastructure amenities like roads and parking lanes that are available that need to be provided with the proper slope or design to ensure that water does not get logged in (Fleming, 2000). This area is mainly habited by the labourers from the South Asian nations that are involved in the construction projects towards the south of Dubai creek. This area was once a very famous burial ground of Dubai.
The importance and land-use of the area:
The area is residential of the working class and hence needs to be taken care of because it poses the threat of improper accumulation of the water resources in the lanes, parking lots and other such areas which are near to the houses where people stay. Hence, it is of utmost importance to channelize this water to avoid the health hazards that may arise due to the pollution created by the storm water (Bryan, 1972). The proper execution of the system developed for the evacuation and management of storm water into the nearby disposal source creates cleanliness on the streets and ensures a healthy environment to live in for the community. It also helps to eradicate the water that has been released or accumulated by the industries that occupy a very small portion of this locality (VanWoert, Rowe, Andresen, Rugh, & Fernandez, 2005). The people living in the area are mostly from the labourers section and hence special measurements and precautions are required to ensure the cleanliness in the locality. It also involves involving them in the process by obtaining the accurate and precise design that would be favourable for them too. These area serves to be extremely dense and hence has to be taken special care.
Drainage network
The Project Horizon:
The area is designed for approximately 35-40 years because in the future if the horizon is needed to be enlarged it will require further modifications and maintenance. The area is mostly residential and it is divided to 8 major blocks on the basis of the streets as we can see in the picture. The community has human habitation spread in large numbers over a small area and hence provides a limited opportunity to utilize the space for the construction of the system (Walsh, Fletcher, & Ladson, 2005). The area which is to be considered is shown in the image. The direction of the Sewer system is taken as ranging from the elevation in the east towards the lower areas in the west. The area is split on the basis of the lanes and the directions are provided as per the streets in the locality. The regions towards the east are to be at higher inclination and hence the network is to be started from the east.
Topography of the area:
This area has a drainage with pumps and has man holes along the pavements with kerbs for the drainage of the water through the surface of the road. It has a slope from 90-85. The flow of the water will depend on the gravity and the direction of the water that flows in through the surface. This, therefore, will support the flow of water starting from the point shown in the map on the right extreme down corner. The area is divided at various places by the changes in the lanes and street and it has man holes created to absorb the surface water that is being accumulated on the surface along these roads. The topography of the area has exactly seven contour lines and the first top contour line has an elevation of 90 m and the last one on the bottom has an elevation of 85 m. Along with the design of the man holes, there has to be proper design which ensures that sufficient number of kerb, that is, stone edging or pavement created at the corner of the roads and parking lanes to ensure that the water level does not rise above a particular level and does gets carried away in a systematic and smooth way (Walsh, Fletcher, & Ladson, 2005). The construction of kerbs and stone pavements should be followed by appropriate gutters and grills at the side of the road to carry the flow from the side of the road that does not get carried in the man holes.
Flow of drainage (Gravity Drainage):
The path which is selected for the sewer system is such that it will provide enough scope for the water to flow across the surface by virtue of its gravity from an elevation to a reduced height. This is obtained by proper channelization of the route through which the storm water will flow. This type of drainage helps to use the force of gravity to ensure smooth flow of the storm water to the disposal or other resources through the city roads without much external pressure or pumps required (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems., 2004). The use of pumps will be limited because the water will seep through the gutters at the corner and the man holes present at the centre. The force of gravity will be utilized by beginning from a point or a junction at the east corner of the locality and gradually moving up in the west direction. It has few changes in the direction which involve moving down the street and going across the lane across the community. The drainage system takes the advantage of the geographical slopes that are observed in these region to be considered (Archdeacon, 2005). The west side gradually opens to the sea coast after a long interval of time.
General description of the network:
The route which is to be created for the storm water to flow through the road is along the 8 streets as shown in the figure. The route consists of specific lines and track that is to be followed as observed in the figure. There are various junction points developed throughout the network. It is at these junctions that the route will take a turn or change its course from the system (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems., 2004). So, special care needs to be taken while designing and developing these junctions as there are maximum chances of water getting logged at such corners or it may also tend to change its direction which is also not desirable. Hence, proper care needs to be taken at this places which have the maximum scope of error or distortion of the storm water (Adams & Papa, 2000).
The drainage system is designed to take in any rate of flow in the area starting from the east towards the west throughout the 8 blocks. This water is then graduated towards the inclination in the west direction. It is also observed that proper track and path of this water is specified so as to avoid the jamming on the roads and places which are having high value from tourist point of view.
The design and the channelizing of the pipes through the sewer system is made such that they tend to face least number of obstacles over the surface while carrying the storm water to its disposal or desired place (Mays, 2001). There has also been terms that are to be taken care of while developing the design of the sewer system so as to make sure that it does not affect the working and flow of operations in this region. The lines that are to be provided are designed and developed after considering the topography of the region as discussed earlier. The points that are at a greater height from the sea level, that is, which are at an elevation are first determined. It is then followed by deriving its course for the flow of the water through the pipes. It involves considering the points that are gradually towards the west and are comparatively at a lower height from the sea level as compared to the points in the east (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems., 2004).
The construction of kerbs along the pavements is also to be made in such a way that it provides sufficient space for the utilization of roads and the lanes for other purposes. Thus, it must be made sure that optimum utilization of space is carried out. This will not only help in saving space but also provide a scope and setup for infrastructural facilities and other recreational activities. The tourism can also be worked upon for the saved region and contribute towards its increase that would ultimately benefit the people living in the locality.

Design Criteria:
The design of the sewer system is to be made by considering various parameters and elements that tend to affect the development of the project. Designing elements are to be defined and at the same time determined for a specific set of variables (Mays, 2001). We are going to observe and go through variables that are essential in the construction of the design of the waste water drainage system. These parameters are explained and derived below:
Discharge time t_d:
It refers to the time that is required by the flow to get across the pipe through different point of time. The estimation and the figures that are used here are taken as per the Municipality specifications and the norms that are mentioned and followed by them. The number of years that is to be considered is ranging from 2 years to 100 years considering the feasibility of the project with respect to the flow and the rate of flow. In the table shown below, we have obtained the relationship between the rates of flow of storm water at different Return period (T) for a given discharge time duration given byt_d.

The results that are obtained from the table show that the flow rate depends on the area and intensity of the storm water that is flowing through it. The duration or the Return period (T) is independent of the material of the pipe but depends on the area of the pipe through which it flows. This can be obtained by calculating the discharge across the pipes for a specific amount of time. The flow of the pipes is measured and obtained at an interval of few years. The amount of the flow that gets fluctuated is to be observed from the table (Adams & Papa, 2000). The table also provides guidelines on the discharge that will be obtained by a specific dimension of pipe over a period of years. The discharge is to be measured at regular intervals of time to ensure that proper drainage from time to time in the locality. The run- off coefficients of these pipes are to be taken into consideration to develop the pipes design in details.

Runoff coefficients:

It refers to the surface friction factors that the different material possess. The co – efficient of the run off tend to determine the intensity and smoothness of the flow of the water across it.
The run off coefficients also tend to help to make an estimation of the life of the pipe that would be able to sustain the flow of sewer across it for a particular period of time. The coefficients help to understand the friction that the pipes will undergo when the sewer water drain flows through it (Schmitt, Thomas, & Ettrich, Analysis and modeling of flooding in urban drainage systems, 2004).
The coefficients value also tend to provide the calculation with an edge to carry the necessary steps and analysis to design the pipe for the project purpose on the basis of the strength of the materials that are shown in the table below. The run off coefficients of various substances are shown in the table and the type of land is also mentioned.

Hydraulic Design:
The most affectively factor in the project is the velocity of water in the pipes that depend mostly in the slope of the pipe used. The minimum range is 1.55m/s and the maximum is 2.95m/s. the hydraulic design of the structure tends to provide with the strength and reliability of the design and calculation in terms of the life of the pipes. The hydraulic design helps in better understanding of the features that are to be considered while designing the sewer drain. It also involves developing elements and parameters that will help to ensure that the project will be able to sustain the different hurdles and obstacles that are offered by the nature (Harremoves & Rauch, 1996). The effectiveness of the hydraulic design will provide the confirmation of the life and safety of the project and thereby, of the people in contact with it. The characteristic feature of the hydraulic design id the strength which the material will offer when it is performing a task.
Manholes distribution:
It is observed that approximately minimum value of a manhole spacing is of 150mm to 200mm and the maximum is around 1300mm. The manhole space varies depending on the slope from north to south and from west to east. The selection of the sites and location for construction of man holes needs to be made by considering parameters that are related to the area, locality, density and design of the road pavements above the surface (Peterson & Wicks, 2006) . It also helps to determine the path through which the pipelines will be crossing across the man holes and serve as a guide to provide them the course. The design of the man holes should utilize optimum availability of free surface on its side and this will ensure that timely drain of water along the roadside is done.
Kerbs and pavements allotment:
The kerbs are gutter like structures made along the pavements of the road at the corner along its surface. The construction of the kerbs along the corners of the roads should be made such that it can take sufficient amount of water through it and this would thereby reduce the load on the sewer pipe. The alignment of the pavements should be made such that it is in the direction of the slope that is existing in the region (Peterson & Wicks, 2006). Hence, hardly, any force or external device will be required to drain the water along the surface. The allocation of space and its utilization on the road surface is made such that it does destroy the look of the infrastructure above and at the same time helps to drain the storm water efficiently throughout the surface. Pavements are also utilized for other purposes like stalls and open shops. Hence, optimum utilization of the pavements is required while developing the design of kerbs along the streets. This also involves developing a design that will ensure maximum flow of water to be carried through the drainage system across the street.
Calculations:
There are various variables that are to be determined during the design and analysis of the storm drain project. They are as follows:
Runoff Flow:
The measure of the flow of water or any other liquid while it is running or flowing is termed as the run off flow. The run off is measured in terms of m^3/hr and the unit is same as that of any other flow of liquid along a surface. The run off is measured by the following way (Peterson & Wicks, 2006):

Rational method is used to calculate the runoff flow; which is
Q=CiA
Where;
Q=The water flow rate (m^3/hr) C=Runoff coefficient
I=Rainfall intensity (mm/hr) A=Drainage area (m^2)

There are eight main blocks through which the flow is carried out. Here, we are going to observe the flow calculations of lines 1, 3, 4 and 7 during the discharge across the surface. The areas of the pipes A is determined and taken accordingly.
Runoff across the Line 1A:

C_1=0.4 I_1=0.045m/hr A_1=14500m^2

Q_1=0.4×0.045×14500=352.2m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 3A:

C_3=0.4 I_3=0.065m/hr A_3=5300m^2

Q_3=0.4×0.065×5300+1105.6=1219m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 4A:

C_4=0.4 I_4=0.063m/hr A_4=5400m^2

Q_4=0.4×0.063×5400+1205.6=1390m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 7A:

C_7=0.4 I_7=0.063m/hr A_7=6800m^2

Q_7=0.4×0.063×6900+1190+1037.4=2771 m^3/hr
Here for the proper and precise estimation of the run off, we are going to measure it twice for the same pipes to ensure that any kind of error is not made in making the dimension of the pipe.
Runoff across the Line 1B:

C_1=0.4 I_1=0.055m/hr A_1=14500m^2

Q_1=0.4×0.045×14500=355.2m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 3B:

C_3=0.4 I_3=0.070m/hr A_3=5300m^2

Q_3=0.4×0.065×5300+1105.6=1229m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 4B:

C_4=0.4 I_4=0.068m/hr A_4=5400m^2

Q_4=0.4×0.063×5400+1210.6=1380m^3/hr.

Runoff across the Line 7B:

C_7=0.4 I_7=0.063m/hr A_7=6800m^2

Q_7=0.4×0.063×6900+1290+1037.4=2781 m^3/hr

From the above calculations, we get the estimation about the flow that is the discharge through the pipes.
Diameter of the pipe:
The diameter of the pipe through which the storm water is going to flow is to be determined and this is done by the following formula (Harremoves & Rauch, 1996):
D=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^(0.5) ))〗^(3/8)

D=Diameter in (m) n=coeffiecient of roughness
S=Slope (m/m) Q=water flow (m^3/s)

Diameter of the pipe in Line 1A:
Q_1= 0.085m^3/s n = 0.023 S_1= 0.006
D_1=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.085 × 4 × 0.023 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.006〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.380m

Selected pipe size=0.40m=400mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 3A:

Q_3=(0.325m^3)/s n = 0.014 S_3= 0.0023
D_3=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.325 × 4 × 0.014 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0023〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.68m

Selected pipe size=0.70m=700mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 4A:

Q_4=(0.325m^3)/s n = 0.014 S_4= 0.0023
D_4=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.325 × 4 × 0.014 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0023〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.68m

Selected pipe size=0.70m=700mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 7A:

Q_7= 0.70m^3/s n = 0.013 S_7= 0.0025
D_7=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((070 × 4 × 0.013 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0025〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.98m
Selected pipe size=1m=1000mm

Here, to avoid any kind of error we will be calculating diameter of the pipe twice.
Diameter of the pipe in Line 1B:
Q_1= 0.102m^3/s n = 0.013 S_1= 0.005
D_1=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.102 × 4 × 0.013 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.005〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.388m

Selected pipe size=0.4m=400mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 3B:

Q_3=(0.325m^3)/s n = 0.018 S_3= 0.0028
D_3=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.325 × 4 × 0.014 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0023〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.67m

Selected pipe size=0.70m=700mm

Diameter of the pipe in Line 4B:

Q_4=(0.325m^3)/s n = 0.015 S_4= 0.0025
D_4=〖((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))〗^(3/8)= 〖((0.325 × 4 × 0.014 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0023〗^0.5 ) )〗^(3/8)=0.69m

Selected pipe size=0.70m=700mm
Diameter of the pipe in Line 7A:

Q_7= 0.70m^3/s n = 0.012 S_7= 0.0026
D_7=((Q×4×n×4^(2/3))/(π×S^0.5 ))^(3/8)= ((070 × 4 × 0.013 × 4^(2/3))/(π × 〖0.0025〗^0.5 ) )^(3/8)=0.975m
Selected pipe size=1m=1000mm

The runoff for the pipes considered and their diameters thus obtained help to provide the estimation and design of the sewer pipe that would be required for the storm drain along the surface following the slope.

Distribution profile

Distribution table:
The run offs that is the flow of the waste water and the estimated sizes of the pipes along with the selected sizes of the pipes are calculated for all the 8 streets that we have considered.
The calculations are tabulated as shown below:

Line
No.

Name of the street Flow (Q)
(m3/hr) Pipe Size
Calculated (mm) Pipe size
Selected (mm)
1 34 B street 352.2 388 400
2 9 B street 690.4 448 450
3 30 A street 1219 680 700
4 5th street 1390 690 700
5 24th street 2580 880 900
6 18th street 2652 935 950
7 9 A street 2771 980 1000
8 A 15 street 2980 995 1000
Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) curve
This is the frequency intensity that is measured against the duration of the rainfall and is observed for a period of 15 years. The main focus of this relationship is to observe the intensity of rainfall within a particular region and at the same time also focus on the side effects that it produces on the storm water drain system.

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