Comparative Report on Dubai Metro Vs Bangkok Metro System

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Table of Contents
1. Design 5
1.1. Structure 5
2. Cost of both metro systems 6
3. Generation of Revenue 7
4. Capacity of both metro systems 8
5. Effectiveness of the systems 9
6. Problems faced by them 9
7. Steps to enhance the system 10
8. Conclusion 11
9. References 12

Abstract
The development of the Metro system in Dubai and BTS system in Bangkok has played a significant role in encouraging the development of metro systems across the globe. There are many differences in these two systems. These differences are considered on the basis of their structure, cost incurred, generation of revenues and the effectiveness of the systems are developed.
The capacity of both the systems has also been identified along with the problems faced by them. After evaluating the above elements and analyzing their impact, steps have been developed to enhance the systems and increase their share in the transport sector of these countries, respectively.

List of Figures
Figure 1: Structure of Dubai’s Metro line 4
Figure 2: Structure of Bangkok’s BTS system 5
Figure 3: Ridership Capacity of the Dubai’s Metro 7

DUBAI METRO VS BANGKOK METRO SYSTEM
Design
Structure
Dubai Metro is completely automatic and it is driven without any driver. It is operated by the Serco Company under the supervision and bond of “Dubai roads and Transport Authority”. It has two operational lines which are currently running and they are, Red Line and Green Line. It has the world’s longest completely automatic metro rail network of around 75 kilometres. These two lines have about 47 stations in their network and this consists of 9 underground stations. It was started on 9th September 2009. The stations of the Dubai metro system are divided into 5 designs namely, type 1, type 2, type 3, U and UT. Out of these, the first three designs includes elevated stations and the other two designs refer to stations which are underground. The structure of the Dubai’s Metro line consisting of Red lines and Green lines is shown in the figure below:
Figure 1: Structure of Dubai’s Metro line

(MYDUBAISTAY.COM, 2015)
Bangkok Metro system is known as “Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS)”. It is develop at an elevation. It is operated by the “Bangkok Mass Transit System Public Company Limited (BTSC)”. It consists of two lines which are, “The Sukhumvit Line” and “The Silom Line”. The total length of these two lines is about 36.5 kilometres and it consists of 34 stations within their routes. It was started on 5th December 1999. The stations of the BTS are developed on the basis of three elevated design levels, where all of them are constructed for each and every station. (TRAINWEB.ORG, 2002)
The structure of the Bangkok’s BTS system consisting of the two lines of “The Sukhumvit Line” and “The Silom Line” is shown in the figure below:
Figure 2: Structure of Bangkok’s BTS system

(TRAINWEB.ORG, 2002)
Cost of both metro systems
The cost of constructing the Dubai metro was proposed to be around AED 15.5 billion/US$4.2 billion. However, it turned out to be around AED 28 billion/US$7.8 billion due to the incorporation of many changes in its design and infrastructure. The ticket prices in the Dubai Metro has been classified into 3 tiers or zones, which are namely Tier 1, tier 2, Tier 3 respectively. The location of the destination of the passengers is considered as the basis in this kind of Tier system for ticketing.
The cost of constructing the first phase of Bangkok’s BTS system was estimated round $1,800m. However, there are no details of construction of other phases of the BTS system. The ticketing system is based on the availability of special cards for aged people, students, regular passengers and this card are called “The Magnetic fare cards”. It was followed by the development of a new value card for ticketing in BTS system, in 2012. It is known as “The Rabbit Card”. It is based on a system where the payment is deducted from the cards electronically (RAILWAY TECHNOLOGY, 2015).
Generation of Revenue
Dubai metro project was projected to generate a revenue of about AED 18 billion/ US$4.9 billion in the coming 10 years, after its full functioning in the two lines. The project would not be carried out with the motive of making profits as there would be subsidies of different investors in the generated revenue. The profit share of the company would be considerably low and hence, it would take a time period of about ten years to get high revenues from the system. They would be capable enough to generate revenues owing to the easy transport facilities and cost effectiveness provided by it. This would shift the regular bus passengers to save time through traveling in Dubai Metro system. People, who used to travel for long hours on their personal vehicles have also shifted to the metro and this has resulted in tremendous increase in the revenue of the metro system (Solt, 2010).
It was observed that BTS would be generating revenues of about 16% of the invested sum, which accounts for around $188 million, that is, $1.8 billion in the first year. This was estimated on the basis of the load on the road transportation systems like the buses, taxis and private vehicles. It was estimated that the usage of about 82% of the transportation, was through the above mentioned systems. It was forecasted in the beginning of the BTS, that it would take a considerable share from the above mentioned transportation systems. However, owing to the expensive fares of the BTS system as compared to the traditional bus system and availability of limited network in BTS, the number of passengers were low. This resulted in low revenue generation from the system (RAILWAY TECHNOLOGY, 2015).
Capacity of both metro systems
It was expected that the Dubai Metro would carry around 1.2 million people on a regular day, when all the lines would be in operating condition. This included carrying of about 27000 people every hour on each line leading to about 355 million passengers annually when the two lines would be functional. It was estimated to provide transportation to around 12% of all the transport facilities in Dubai. However, in the first year, when only one phase of the lines was completed, there were about 1,740,578 passengers and around 60,000 passengers per day. After the completion of the entire phase 1 and development of other stations, the flow of the passengers was raised to about 377,000 passengers per day, combined for both the lines. There are many plans and extensions developed to increase the capacity of Dubai’s Metro Project. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of passengers per day since 2010. The total monthly flow of passengers, that is, the ridership has been shown in the figure below:

Figure 3: Ridership Capacity of the Dubai’s Metro

(Solt, 2010)
In the beginning, the capacity of the BTS was estimated to carry around 200,000 passengers per day. Then, with the completion of other stages of the project including other stations and destinations, the number of passengers gradually increased. This increase in the number of passengers per day increased up to 650,000 passengers on a single regular day. Though, the initial fares were found to be very high by the passengers travelling by bus, they gradually, evaluated its effectiveness in saving time and energy (RAILWAY TECHNOLOGY, 2015).
Effectiveness of the systems
Dubai Metro system has been extremely effective in handling the fleet of the passengers which used to travel by buses, personal vehicles and taxis. Hence, they got a firm share in the transportation of the country as more and more number of people started using it. There has been an increment of more than 132% in the ridership in 2014 as compared to the initial ridership observed in 2009. This is due to the awareness among the people regarding the effective use of user friendly metro system (MYDUBAISTAY.COM, 2015)
The main success of the Bangkok’s BTS system is reduction of the load on other modes of transport like the bus, taxis and private vehicles. As mentioned in the earlier section, more than 82%of the passengers were dependent on these other modes of transport. The use of the BTS system reduced the traffic on roads, where in the initial conditions, the average speed on a busy road would be as low as only 10 km/hr. this problem was very well tackled by the BTS system. There was increasing awareness among the passengers to save their time, efforts and energy, as seen in the case of Dubai’s metro system (Fredrickson, 2013)..
Problems faced by them
One of the most significant problem witnessed in the use of Dubai Metro system is that it does not function on Friday morning. It is because of the assumptions of the “Roads and Transport Authority (RTA)” that very less number of people would be travelling on Friday morning, as it would be holiday for everyone. However, this is not the case actually. There are many passengers who work on Friday morning and they have to face serious consequences of this decision of keeping the Metro closed on Friday morning by the RTA. The use of taxis and buses would be very costly and this would lead to inconvenience among the people (Solt, 2010).
In Dubai’s Metro system, there is unavailability of the internet connection in the form of Wi-Fi which tends to be the need of the day. With the advancement in technology, the needs of the passengers are increasing. There is overcrowding on the red lines between Jebel Ali and Rashidiya during the peak hours.
The early fares of the BTS system were kept quite high and this made it unsuitable for the average person to travel in BTS as the prices were about three times of the bus fares. However, introduction of new lines in the network has led to decrease in the fares and this attracted the average person, too. However, there was a shortage of the number of stations on the network of BTS. Most of the stations were belonging to the center part of the city. Hence, the areas which were far from the center had to be travelled through bus or taxis after reaching any near central station in the BTS. Recently, in 2013, there was a major problem of shutdown of the signalling system in BTS. It was due to the failure in the transmission system which transmitted and received signals and this is a major drawback of the technology. The system being shut down during the peak hours is a matter of concern and big problem for the engineers of the BTS system (Fredrickson, 2013).
Steps to enhance the system
There are many steps which are to be taken to improve the reach and effectiveness of the Dubai Metro System. The introduction of the tier system in the collection of fares from the people on the basis of the distance of their destinations. They have developed an exclusive interior in the stations which is based on five themes and they are, heritage, earth, air, fire and water. These five themes symbolises the human values and also incorporates the natural values in the themes. There are special systems which are utilized to assist the visually impaired people throughout the stations. These systems make use of the “tactical guidance path” for the physically handicapped and disabled people. There is a special provision for the safety of the passengers with the installation of “Platform screen doors”, that would provide responsive flashlights to alert the passengers at all the stations.
This can be done through efficient advertising of products and services in the stations. In the BTS system too, the advertising and promotion of various National events and conferences can be carried out. The rates of the ticket are kept low so that all the people can afford it (Teptong, 2007). They have introduced rapid signalling system which would overcome the breakdown problems which existed in the previous years. They have also developed the interiors of the stations so as to make them more appealing on a global level. The increase in tourism of Bangkok has resulted in the increase in the number of passengers per month in Bangkok.
Conclusion
The steps regarding the safety of the transportation system has to be observed strictly in both the systems. The elements which can influence the breakdown of the system need to be identified. Effective solutions have to be developed to tackle these problems at the earliest. Ensuring a very efficient and safe signalling during the transmission of information through the Metro systems is necessary.

References
Fredrickson, T. (2013, december 24). BTS halts service, reopens. Retrieved from http://www.bangkokpost.com: http://www.bangkokpost.com/learning/easy/386423/bts-halts-service
MYDUBAISTAY.COM. (2015). METRO MAP. Retrieved from http://www.mydubaistay.com: http://www.mydubaistay.com/en/dubai-metro-map.aspx
RAILWAY TECHNOLOGY. (2015). Bangkok Skytrain Transit System, Thailand. Retrieved from http://www.railway-technology.com: http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/bangkok/
Solt, I. (2010, July 10). Dubai Metro ridership hits 23m passengers since Sept ’09: Al Tayer. Retrieved from http://imresolt.blogspot.in: http://imresolt.blogspot.in/2010/07/dubai-metro-ridership-hits-23m.html
Teptong, N. (2007). A STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BTS AND MRT TRANSIT ADVERTISING. Business English for International Communication .
TRAINWEB.ORG. (2002). Railway Technical Web Pages. Retrieved from http://www.trainweb.org: http://www.trainweb.org/railwaytechnical/bangkok_old.html

Project on Design of Road Surface

Contents
Task name 1
Review & comparison of distresses 2
• Longitudinal distress 3
• Alligator distress 3
• Ravelling distress 3
Repair Details 3
Causes of pavement damage: 4
Quality of raw materials: 4
Chemical reaction: 4
Climate: 4
Maintenance: 5
Leakage of water and other liquids from the sewage: 5
Describing the failure 5
• Longitudinal Cracking 5
• Alligator Cracking 6
• Ravelling cracks 6
Investigating the causes 7
Vehicle load 7
Easy damage of the joints 7
In appropriate Asphalt structure 7
Alternative treatments recommendations 7
Identification through Anisotropy equipment: 7
Automatic Road Pavement assessment 8
Automatic Road Crack Detection 8
Comparison & contrast with local and international codes 8
Conclusion 9
References 9

Task name

We are going to develop a case study on the design of a road in Dubai. I am a civil engineering student and I am going to evaluate and observe the surface of a road in Dubai. We have to examine the distresses that would be existing on the surface of the road. We were supposed to pick a road at any random place of the entire UAE while capturing certain photos depicting the failure of the road.
For the research and analysis, we have selected 32A, Um AlRmool, situated in Dubai. The width of the road is 9 m and the width is 4.2 m we have also created a drawing that supports the alternatives and developed alternatives to provide a design of the surface of road that is taken into consideration. There are photos that we have captured while analysing the surface of the road.

Review & comparison of distresses
There are various stresses that are observed on the road and they are the reason for the cracks and failures that are observed in the surface of the roads. On 32A, Um AlRmool, road, Dubai which we took under consideration, we found failures in the foam of Alligator Cracking, Longitudinal Cracking and Ravelling cracks. The distresses involved in this type of cracking are reviewed and discussed below.

There are two major types of stresses that are found on the surface of the road and they are:
Surface distresses
The distresses which are formed due to the cracking, failure or other such irregular failure of the roads is termed as the surface distress. This kind of distress originates due to various reasons which involves poor climate, fatigue, vehicles load, weathering due to sand and water. It also involves the irregularities and problems that has occurred in the construction of the roads and use of poor, inadequate material in its construction also is a major reason of the cracks and failures that are observed in the roads.

Pavement distresses
The distresses that occur on the surface of the road on the pavement sides are termed as pavement distresses. The pavement distresses is widely observed due to the use of poor quality of materials on the sides or inappropriate filling that is made on the sides of the road in order to save time and cost. These pavement distresses involves rigid and flexible pavement distresses.
This types of stresses which are observed in our case on 32A, Um AlRmool, road are:
• Longitudinal distress
• Alligator distress
• Ravelling distress
They are reviewed and compared in the discussion below. The longitudinal distresses are formed on the surface in a linear pattern and tend to damage the surface in a straight line, whereas Alligator cracks tend to form a network of cracks on the surface of the road. The cracks that are formed due to the ravelling distress are observed to have a random pattern on the surface of the road. These distresses are tend to occur on the surface of the road that is taken into consideration by us.
Repair Details
The cracks that are caused on the road 32A, Um AlRmool, are due to the different types of distresses and they need to be understood and repaired.
The cracks that are formed due to the above mentioned 3 distresses that are formed on the surface of 32A, Um AlRmool, road are of two types of intensity- High intensity and low intensity.
Low intensity of cracks refers to the cracks that are less than ½ inch in width and are less frequent as compared to the other cracks. This types of cracks that are observed due to these three distresses are repaired by sealing the crack in order to provide any sort of material like water, moisture that may damage the road surface by further widening of the cracks.
High intensity cracks refers to the type of cracks that are more than ½ inch wide and are more frequent as compared to the other cracks. This type of cracks have to be worked upon immediately to avoid any sort of accident caused due to it. This cracks are repaired and reduced by placing a layer of Asphalt and other mixture in the areas that are affected by these cracks.
Causes of pavement damage:
The pavement constitutes to be one of the significant part of the road. The damage of the pavement is one of the major reason for the repair of the highway roads. These damages tend to make the roads more vulnerable to the cracks and other failures. It is found that there are two types of damage that occur on the pavements (Finn, Nair, & Abdullah, 1977):
Functional pavement damage:
It refers to the damage due to the faults in the functions of the pavement. It is tend to happen when the road does not fulfil the standard specifications and standards that are set by the governing bodies to ensure the quality and safety of roads.
Structural pavement damage:
It refers to the damage due to the external factors. It is caused by excessive vehicular movement, climate adversities, fatigue of the materials used and failure of the road design. This type of damage is majorly observed on the road that has been taken under observation by us.
We have found that the pavements on the 32A, Um AlRmool, road that we have taken in to consideration were having 3 types of failures in the forms of Alligator Cracking, Longitudinal Cracking and Ravelling cracks. We have developed that there are various causes of these pavement damages and they are as follows (Finn, Nair, & Abdullah, 1977):
Quality of raw materials:
The quality and strength of pavement is very much dependent on the quality of the raw materials that are used. The materials that are used for the construction of road should be of standard quality and there should not be efforts to save cost by compromising the quality.
Chemical reaction:
The spilling of strong gases and other liquids that degrades the materials from which roads are made also damages the pavements on a large scale. The reaction might not be immediate but would gradually deteriorate the quality of pavements.
Climate:
The surface of the pavements becomes vulnerable to the damages due to excessive heat or cold affects
Maintenance:
Poor maintenance of roads also contributes to the damage of the pavement on the surface of the road.
Leakage of water and other liquids from the sewage:
There are sewage and other lines carrying water and gases below the pavements. Due to any type of error, the leakage of this fluids damages the foundation of the pavements and this makes it vulnerable for a major damage on a long term basis.
Describing the failure
The failure of the road design that may lead to the cracking and damage of the roads of the highway is due to various reasons. These reasons are divided on the three types of cracks that are observed. On the 32A, Um AlRmool, road we found following cracks after evaluating and analysing it (Pynn, Wright, & Lodge, 1999).

• Longitudinal Cracking
It is a form of cracking where the cracks are formed in the form of a vertical line near the centreline or towards the side and it graduates along the surface of the road. This types of cracks do not tend to form a network but they may increase in size with respect to time. This cracks is 30.53 m long on the road taken by us.

• Alligator Cracking
It is a form of cracking where the cracks are formed in the form of network that are linked to one other which on graduation of time would create a huge crack. It is generally observed that this cracks are found at the sides of the roads near the pavements. This cracks is 67.35 m long on the road taken by us.

• Ravelling cracks
It is a form of cracking where the cracks are formed in random form and they may be very deep on the surface of the road. The ravelling distress leads to this type of cracks on the surface of the road. This cracks is 5.4m in width 25 m in length on the road taken by us.

Investigating the causes
The failures that have been observed on the 32A, Um AlRmool, road involves formation of three types of cracks namely Alligator, Longitudinal and Ravelling cracks. We have studied the cracks and developed the causes of the failure on this road. This causes involve the failure of pavements too and they are found to be as follows (Wirtgen, 1981):
Vehicle load
This serves to be one of the reasons for the formation of the Alligator cracks on the surface of the roads. This types of cracks are formed due to the frequency of traffic and vehicles on a continuous basis and especially on a particular region.
Easy damage of the joints
It refers to poor construction of the joints at the time of filling the roads and the pavements serves to be one of the major reason of longitudinal cracks that are formed on this roads.
In appropriate Asphalt structure
It refers to the use of improper and inadequate Asphalt during the construction of the pavements on the surface of the roads that may cause the scope for damage and make the road very much vulnerable for formation of ravelling cracks on the surface.

Alternative treatments recommendations
The various types of treatments that can be carried out to ensure that the failure in the form of these cracks that are observed on the surface of the roads are as follows:

Identification through Anisotropy equipment:
It refers to the understanding of the structure in the form of pores of the cracks. In this method, we can understand the structure and design of the surface of the road through 2D images that are formed using the Anisotropy device.
Automatic Road Pavement assessment
It refers to the treatment where there is provision of assessing the structure of the pavements on regular basis using the equipment which would continuously check the quality of the pavements (Fukuhara, Terada, & Nagao, 1990).
Automatic Road Crack Detection
It refers to the treatment where there is a constant assessment of the cracks or any irregularities that may further lead to formation of cracks on the surface of the roads (Fukuhara, Terada, & Nagao, 1990).
There are various methods that are to be undertaken to avoid and reduce the cracks that are formed on the surface of the roads.
Comparison & contrast with local and international codes
In the global market there are various such problems that are observed in the correction of road surface. Similar kind of problem was found in the European roads where “European Transport Safety Council (ETSC)” has rectified the cracks in the forms of alligator cracks on their roads through Asphalt filling in the form of layers at a high temperature.

In our case too, we have recommended filling the alligator, longitudinal and ravelling cracks on the surface of the roads through using the fillings and other such material from which the roads are made by an equipment at high temperature.
Conclusion
In this project, I have developed and analysed the design and surface of the 32A, Um AlRmool, road Dubai. I have developed a design that helps to evaluate the cracks that occur on this road. I have also discussed various remedies and treatments that can be used to overcome this problems. I have cleared various concepts in terms of road surface design and have developed an in depth understanding of the subject. I hope the research work and remedies developed by me helps to discuss the elements that causes cracks on the surface of the roads.

References
Finn, F., Nair, K., & Abdullah, A. (1977). THE USE OF DISTRESS PREDICTION SUBSYSTEMS FOR THE DESIGN OF PAVEMENT STRUCTURES. Volume I of proceedings of 4th International Conference on Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements, , (pp. 3-38). Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Fukuhara, T., Terada, K., & Nagao, M. (1990). Automatic Pavement‐Distress‐Survey System. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 280-286.
Pynn, J., Wright, A., & Lodge, R. (1999). Automatic identification of cracks in road surfaces. 7th International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications, 671 – 675.
Wirtgen, R. (1981). Method and apparatus for repairing longitudinal seams or cracks in road surfaces. US 4407605 A.

Guide on Construction_technology

a) Basement construction and approaches:
Basement is that part of a building or structure that may be entirely or partly below the ground level. They are mostly used as a space where various systems like the air conditioners, electrical distribution and other electrical equipment like the electric panel, control box. There are various amendments that are made especially for parking in the building while constructing the basement. There are inventories of the shop or a commercial chain that is kept and maintained in the basement. This may also be in the form of store rooms and other specially designed rooms to collect and safely store the required material.
The design of the basement needs to ensure that the soil on which it is made up on will be able to sustain the entire structure and the allocation of the basement. Here, we are going to develop an office tower which will be of 25 storeys and there are going to be two basements to facilitate car parking as well as service rooms. There has to be special precaution taken while constructing the basement because the tower is going to be constructed on a coast that is near to water body and the design has to be sufficient enough to withstand this condition.
There are many methods and approaches that are available for constructing the basements. This involves the top down, bottom up approach and carrying excavation in an open structure.
In the top down approach, there is formation of the actual element and then the sub-elements are developed from it which can be understood from the name itself which means moving from top to bottom. Firstly, the entire project is developed without indulging in accurate details. At the end when they are divided into sub elements, detailed specification comes into the evaluation.
In the bottom up approach, there is formation of sub-elements in the initial phase and then there is a merger of all these elements that is carried out to develop a design which will provide the optimum features as per the requirement.
Excavation in an open structure involves tanking and insulating the inner parts horizontally as well vertically to make the surface water proof below the ground level.
Since the construction which we are going to observe is going to be done over a water front, there has to be special care that should be taken of the water proofing. It can be done by providing exterior as well as interior insulation which is also known as exterior and interior tanking. The coating or the bed for both the cases can be made of concrete or masonry bricks. The concrete or the masonry wall that is created is to be coated by a special kind of Asphalt which is known as Mastic Asphalt. Asphalt is used because it is very impervious to water and helps in protecting the layer of concrete from the reaction with the sulphates in the soil.
Thus, the approach that we have adopted is a combination of the top down and bottom up approach. This will be the most appropriate as we have to design a deep basement which has two storeys below the ground level. The combination that is taken will help to provide the strength that will be required to withstand the hydrostatic pressure that will be existing at such a deep level of two floors below the ground level.

b) Frame structure and Masonry structure for construction:
The building that we are going to construct consists of 25 floors and 2 floors of basements which will be created above a water front. Thus, there has to be special care that has to be take about the water proofing, moisture content and resistance to fire.
There are two kinds of structure that can be used for developing the frame of the building. They are frame structure and masonry structure. The frame structure involves columns and beams to be created whereas, masonry structure involves creating walls externally and internally that would absorb the load.
• Frame structure is more appropriate for our design due to the unique features that it provides to the design along with the economy of the project. The features of frame structure over masonry wall structure is as follows:
• Frame structure consumes less amount of space because of its small area of cross section as compared to the masonry wall structure. In masonry wall structure, the utility of the floor space is greater due to the construction of internal and external walls to provide the tanking or insulation, whereas frame structure involves constructing beams and columns that would consume less floor space. Thus, a great amount of floor space will be saved.
• In the masonry wall structure, there is construction of walls and this restricts carrying long runs on the respective walls and this limits the ability to optimize the floor area. On the other hand, in frame structure, there is more flexibility available to the use of the floor by providing a scope to carry long runs over the surface.
• The construction of a frame structure takes much less time as compared to the masonry wall structure. Since, the use of frame structure saves time, there is a great amount of cost savings that are supported by the saving of time. This will enable the DAMAC properties to develop the tower at optimum cost with maximum amount of cost savings. However, it ensures that the quality is not kept at stake or neglected.

Thus, frame structure is more appropriate for the construction of the tower as it provides more flexibility in terms of savings in time and cost by ensuring high quality of construction and providing all the requirements of load bearing that is required.

c) Frame structure and its specifications:
A frame structure would be the most appropriate for constructing the office tower for DAMAC properties. It involves developing an ideal type of frame structure that would be the most suitable for the high rise office tower of 25 storeys with 2 floors of basement. The frame structure that we are going to construct involves considering the factor that the tower is going to be built on water front and has to be constructed of high quality construction. There are various factors that involves evaluation of designs that are to be used to develop a frame structure for the office tower.
The frame structure may be created either of concrete or of steel. Depending on the use and altitude of the building that is to be constructed these frame structures are selected. In our case, since we are constructing a high rise tower, the frame structure involving steel frame would be more appropriate. The steel frame will be more flexible to design and assemble since it provides great ease in the construction of columns and beams than that in the concrete frame that involves construction of load bearing walls
There are many advantages of using steel frame structure in our project like reduction in construction time and high quality and accuracy of the project obtained. Both of the above features are obtained due to large number of products that are casted and created in the factory. This also provides great accuracy in the assembly of the components. It ensures that great amount of time that is involved in assembling the components and erecting the structure is saved. The construction of the tower will be least affected by the weather during the development of the structure and design. The structure that will be created will be able to withstand all the loads straight from the time it is erected. Curing time is not required in this type of frame structure.
However, using a steel frame structure involves two factors that are to be taken care of and they are Fire and corrosion. The fire problem can be solved by providing any of the casings over the steel frame from concrete, brick, plasterboard to sprayed vermiculite as the casing. This method is to be selected on the basis of the availability and feasibility of the material required. The problem of corrosion can be easily solved by using galvanized or painted steel that would create a protective layer over the steel and prevent it from corrosion.
While developing the layout of the steel frame structure, there has to be special evaluation on the location of columns and number of spans between the beams. This provides greater flexibility when the span of beams is increased and at the same time increases the cost. On the other hand, it will be economic when span of beam is kept short and this reduces the flexibility due to the requirement of a large number of beams. Thus a proper calculation and evaluation of the spans between the beams and number of columns has to be obtained in the development of the design. This beams and columns are supported by providing upper floors in between them. This ensures that the strength of beams and columns is retained.

Project Design on Septic Tank

Table of Contents
Introduction 2
Definition: 2
Description: 2
Project Description 3
Villa requirements: 3
Villa Capacity: 4
Design Capacity: 4
Procedure 4
The capacity 5
Conversion 5
Calculations 5
Conclusion 9
References 10

Introduction
Definition:
A sewage tank can be defined as a system that carries the treatment of the sewage that is produced on a small basis either in the households or commercial centres or schools, colleges and factories. They are usually developed in those regions where the availability of the main sewage line is not there or is situated at a very large distance from the place where the sewage is generated. In the household areas, the handling of the sewage has to be clean and proper to ensure that it does not affect the health of the people living in it. This kind of system is developed to ensure the proper disposal of the waste that is generated (Gray, 1995).
The septic tank works on the action of the bacteria to decompose the material that enters the tank. This kind of action is known as “anaerobic bacterial environment” which is developed in the tank to provide the bacterial action that would help in the decomposition of the waste. It can also be referred to as an “On-site sewage system”.
We are going to develop a septic tank for a villa which does not have a central sewage treatment system and this would help in safe disposal of the waste and ensure the sewage lines to be handled effectively.
Description:
The septic tank that is used is usually kept individually for the villa and its design depends on the Waste Water flow and the per capita usage of the people in the villa. Many times if one septic tank is not sufficient enough for effective handling of the sewage generated, then there is a requirement of the second septic tank. During the design, the septic tank volume varies from 1500 to 2500 Gallon.
The septic tank consists of inlet in the top of the tank. In this phase, the solid substances in the sludge settle down and the scum will flow on the top. The second end is usually made as a T section pipe like the first one. This is done to avoid the damage that the material could make to the wall and the body of the septic tank. The outlet is at the same level of the inlet pipe in order to ensure that the scrum would go through it with the liquid sewage (Gray, 1995).

Project Description
Villa requirements:
The size of the septic tanks depend on the quantity of the waste water generated and the capacity of the disposal system to handle it. Considering the above points, the design of a septic tank for a villa is done and the capacity of the tank is determined for the sewage of the waste water. The number of persons that are living in the villa and are using the system are to be considered while designing the septic tank for the villa (Bounds, 1997).

Villa Capacity:
The villa that we have selected has 11 bathrooms and 4 kitchens and there are 18 people living in the villa for 24 hours daily. We will be able to determine the size of the tank will be known after calculating the rate of flow and getting the information from some tables.
Design Capacity:
This villa has 18 person living in and there is a daily consumption of 300L per capita. When the total consumption per day is compared with the tables acquired we will be able to estimate the number of tanks needed. We would also be determine the design of the septic tank through suitable calculations of the capacity of the tank and the waste water that is to be disposed in it. These calculations and its applications are discussed in the report further (Bounds, 1997).
Procedure
For the designing of a septic tank we have to follow certain steps and the procedure is listed below:
Design the septic tank for a villa
Consider the villa and its location that we have taken into consideration.
Arranging a meet with the contracting company
Obtaining adequate information from the contracting company:

Name of the owner Mr. Saeed AlGhafry
Area(m) 56.6 x 21.6
Number of People 18
Number of Bathrooms 11
Number of Kitchen 4

Calculating per person or per capita usage.
Evaluate the design developed and check its feasibility and suitability for the villa that we have taken into consideration.
The capacity
Using appendix 1, the consumption rate for the single family is 300 L/Day/Person. After the calculation we will find out whether the resultant consumption per day is high or not high as per the calculation in the next page since 18 person live in this villa.
Conversion
British system is the standard system used in UAE for units. There is a conflict since the criteria and standards tables are all in American system. We should convert all the units from American gallons to L and from L to m s (Cotteral & Norris, 1969).
Calculations
* Villa Capacity : 18 person
*Villa Consumption rate: 300 L / day / person
*Peak Flow Q
Q = consumption x number of staff
Q = 300 x 15
Total Q = 4500 L / day
The peak flow calculated is less than the mentioned values, so we used 1 tank which drains a flow of wastewater equal to 4500 L / day.
We had to extend the values of Average Sewage wastewater flow; we took the closest value to Q which is 4987.2 L / day (Appendix 3).
Also from Appendix 3, we took the minimum size of effective capacity needed from the extension of the values as 6904 L / day.
The volume of the septic tank of the clinic:
V = 6904/1000=6.904m3
We had to convert the volume to dimensions that can fit with the formulas of septic tank design criteria as the following (Cotteral & Norris, 1969):
Ratio of Length: Depth= 4:3
Length = L
Depth = 0.75 L
Width = 0.5 L
L x 0.75 L x 0.55 L = 6.904
0.3375 L3 = 6.804
L3 = 21.16
L = 2.922m
Length= 2.922m Depth= 2.842m Width= 1.825m
Volume= 2.922×2.842×1.825
V= 6.909 m3
Converting these result to standard dimension for designing in millimeters:
Length= 2922 mm
Depth= 2842 mm
Width= 1825 mm
Pictures
Layout of Septic tank

Typical Gravity Septic Tank

(Single Compartment)

(Two Compartment)

Conclusion
The design of the septic tank provided us with an in depth understanding of the construction process that is followed in the management of the waste water. The system that we have developed will help to estimate the design of the tank for the villa. The design that we have provided is made on the basis of calculation and conversion that we have developed during the process. The design would help the villa during the development of the septic tank.

References
Bounds, T. R. (1997). Design and performance of septic tanks. ” ASTM SPECIAL TECHNICAL PUBLICATION 1324, 217-234.
Cotteral, J. A., & Norris, D. P. (1969). Septic tank systems.
Government of Western Australia. (2014). Understanding Septic Tank Systems. Government of Western Australia.
Gray, N. F. (1995). The influence of sludge accumulation rate on septic tank design.”. Environmental technology, 795-800.