Thesis on Gender Stereotyping

Gender stereotyping
Gender stereotype is the term which refers to developing of particular type of behaviour, attitude, mind set and belief regarding the individuals on the basis of the difference in gender between them. It is very much common since ages where the society always thinks and portrays men as superior over women and they are also treated similarly. It has been an age old tradition across the world where the male section of the society dominated over the female section considering them as the weaker section of the society. But, the term women empowerment has now revolutionized the world and has helped in gaining support for the liberalization of women across the world and has also been successful in gaining respect for them too. The thinking and belief of the people plays an important role in developing stereotypes on the basis of gender (Hoffman & Hurst, 1990).
It has been observed that the products as well as the services that are developed and branded across the globe have gender stereotyping in some of them. It can be seen in the movies too where it has been a universal phenomenon where men saves women from the evils and other such critical situations. It has been portrayed in such a way that it has an everlasting effect on the people in the society. The cases of violence against women occurs mainly because men try to impose their supremacy over women by violent means as it has crept into their minds that they are superior to women (Heilman, 2001).
The marketing of the products in the form of commercials is also carried out in such way that it develops gender stereotypes where they portray men to be masculine and tough and women to be soft and gentle who cannot handle tough conditions specially the physical ones. However, it is the time to change mentalities regarding women and considering the mas equals.
I would be discussing the role of gender stereotyping in the society, that is, is it negative or positive. The thesis lies on the very idea of developing the amount of gender stereotyping in the society and its effects.
Role of Gender stereotyping in the society: Is it positive or negative?
There is gender stereotyping observed in the society in various forms ranging from the physical side to the economic as well as logical side. People find it very common when an advertisement of men driving an SUV or a sports bike is shown on the television. However, when there is a women shown in the advertisement who is driving an SUV or sports bike or performing stunts then it surprises people. In the similar manner there are few areas and situations where gender stereotyping is widely observed and they are described below (Jost & Kay, 2005).
Colour bias
Since ages, it has almost strived as a tradition that pink colour symbolizes feminism and blue colour symbolizes manhood. Due to this, pink colour is always related to the girls and products related to girls like toys, clothing and accessories whereas blue colour has always been connected to the products used by men. However, it is just a mind-set of the people and a tradition that has developed such thinking among the people because it is just a matter of colours. It is also observed in case of new born babies where if the baby is girl than all of her room would be surrounded with pink things and if the baby is a boy then it would be of blue colour for him. This shows that the gender stereotyping of colours has been introduced into our minds since the very childhood. So, the colour bias on the basis of gender stereotyping should not be followed so religiously. It should be taken moreover as a personal choice of an individuals to select the product of their choice irrespective of the gender stereotyping among the colours (Jost & Kay, 2005).
The conceptualization of colours should also be reduced in the media in the form of commercials and movies. The belief of the colour specification on the basis of gender has to be uprooted from among the adults so that they do not transfer it to their next generation.
Reservation for women:
This is the area where the concept of gender stereotyping has actually generated many positive effects. The reservation that has been provided to the women in different fields ranging from the education field to political field as also in the transport system. This kind of reservation helps them to get their rights and provides allowances for the women to get equal status with men and compete with them in each and every field. There is a reservation of women in politics so as to ensure that their voices are heard and that they have an adequate amount of representation in the running of the nation. This type of reservation on the basis of gender stereotyping is very much responsible in providing the women with the power to run parallel with the men in terms of economic and social field. The reservation has a positive effect on the families which actually prefer men children or are ready to spend more on the education of men, thereby providing less chances to women for development and personal progress (Jost & Kay, 2005).
This kind of mentality has been almost eradicated through various reservations for women in higher education and low cost or free education for the women in universities and other educational institutions across the globe. It can be observed that in UAE, the condition of women with regards to the education and higher education has transformed largely with more and more women getting top most positions in education, politics and other such prestigious government positions in the country.
Emotional and physical factor:
The most common stenotype that is developed on the basis of gender is on the emotional context. It has been found since old days that women are showed to be more emotional and soft hearted whereas men are always shown to be hard, tough and the ones that almost never cry. However, this phenomenon is largely a myth and does not have scientific support to it. It depends on the individual that how he reacts during a specific situation. But, since, the society has developed such a tradition that men who actually cry are either coward or less masculine or do not possess strength has forced men to hide their emotional context and always stay as the hard and tough guy in the society even though he may be suffering from within (Hoffman & Hurst, 1990).
In terms of physical strength too, women are considered to be way weaker than men. Even though the women can bear the extreme pain of giving the birth to a child which is one of the most painful act in the history of human life, they are considered to be physically weak. This should be eradicated from the society so as to provide equal opportunity to all the individuals living in the society.
Thus, it can be seen that it is more of a myth and misconception that has resulted in gender stereotyping of the people in the society. There should be more attention paid on the facts and scientific studies rather than the blindly following the traditions that have been followed since ages. There should be rational thinking before discriminating or relating any individual with anything. There are positive as well as negative effects of gender stereotyping which we have discussed above. It justifies the phrase there “Every coin has two sides”. There should be rationality and equality observed in the society for overall development as women tend to occupy significant part of the society (Stewart & McDermott, 2004).
The role of media in stereotyping of the people’s mind set is large and hence they should focus more on advertisements that portray the mas equal.
The traditions which also create a rift between the two genders needs to be replaced by a more conventional form of thinking.

Heilman, M. E. (2001). Description and prescription: How gender stereotypes prevent women’s ascent up the organizational ladder. Journal of social issues 57.4 , 657-674.
Hoffman, C., & Hurst, N. (1990). Gender stereotypes: Perception or rationalization?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 197.
Jost, J. T., & Kay, A. C. (2005). Exposure to benevolent sexism and complementary gender stereotypes: consequences for specific and diffuse forms of system justification. . Journal of personality and social psychology , 498.
Stewart, A. J., & McDermott, C. (2004). . “Gender in psychology.” . Annu. Rev. Psychol, 519-544.

Essay on Ethnography

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Ethnography Essay
Ethnography is termed as the science and art where the people and their cultures are described on the basis of their customs, traditions, habitual differences and other such factors. In the book “In An Antique Land”, the author, Amitav Ghosh, who tends to be a young anthropologist from the Oxford University has described the exposure of cross-cultural experiences where firstly, he has been carrying an ethnographic research and fieldwork in an Egyptian village and secondly, he has been describing the culture prevailing in the 12th century with respect to the concept of slavery and human trade in Egypt and in India. He has described the customs and traditions which were prevalent in the society across the two different countries, India and Russia during the 12th century.
While describing the customs and traditions, he has also described the relations between India and Egypt during those times. He has very well established the synopsis of this relationship and through it, he has established a post-colonial study of the two cultures and practices in these two countries. He has emphasized that there were many similarities in the trade and goods exchange policies and methods adopted by Egypt and India. On the contrary, he has also observed that the customs and traditions are totally different in these countries. They had customized culture which was based on the hiring of people for their work in the form of slaves. This was observed in both the cultures.
The author has maintained a historiographic approach throughout the book and he has developed an image of the slaves and their treatment during the 12th century. His work clearly specifies the fragmented sections of the society in India as well as in Egypt. He has obtained the details of the slave and his life in the writings derived from the Egyptian synagogue. It has been helping him in developing the structure and framework existing in the society during that time. The concepts of slavery and humanity from the church’s point of view and the practices followed in the form of traditions during the 12th century has been described in his book.

Main body
The author Amitav Ghosh, has described that the rights and the perks were enjoyed mostly by the literates during the 12th century. Their stories developed the base for historiography and at the same time, it helped in understanding the various concepts based on their experiences. They were the ones who were considered for all the customs and traditions in their culture. However, the author strikes a chord on the topic of discussing and understanding the stories and lives of the other sections of the society like the slaves and other such classes in the society. The historiography has been considering the stories of the literates which serves to be the tip of the iceberg of the human beings. On the contrary, he stresses to focus and emphasize on the other parts of the icebergs in terms of historiography while considering the lives and stories of other class in the society.
These sections of the society have been deprived of their rights and they have not been provided with any pf the privileges which are enjoyed only by the literates. However, a fair contribution can be obtained from their lives, in terms of the historiographic stories. These stories would be describing the lives of the people in the society which would be prevailing during the 12th century. The historiographic stories which have been developed by the author helps in obtaining the relationship between the existing slavery practices in India as well as Egypt and the experiences of these slaves which have left a remarkable image on their lives.
The author has described the theories of historiography for explaining the functioning of the culture that has been prevailing in the society since those days in the earlier 12th century. The limits of the historiographic work has been under the shadows of the literates where it has been restricted to their lives and their traditions. This has to be understood with the various practices and customs which were prevalent in the society during that time. It has been highly linked with the partiality of the historiographic stories where there is an excessive emphasis on the literate people in the society. This has been observed through the different works and historiographies developed during the 12th century or on the practices, customs and traditions in the 12th century.

The author has described the life of a slave, whose name was Bomma. He had been hired to work for the Jewish trader and merchant, Abraham Ben Yiju. The trader had different set of customs and practices for carrying the daily works with the help of the save. The lives of the literates were the ones which were highly considered and described in the work of the historiographics and this can be seen in the society too, where, Ben Yiju, being a learned trader and merchant was provided with exclusive privileges by the people in the society. However, the author has described the lives of the slaves existing during those times and the struggles and atrocities which were faced by them. He has described the network that has been developed between the Egypt and India along with the other east countries. There has been considerable similarities as mentioned by him in their styles of trade and their trading policies. However, Ghosh has also described the major differences between the societies in these two countries, where the difference lies in the culture, ethnography, historiographical works and other such cultural works of the people and civilization.
The author Ghosh, has described the importance of considering the lives, stories and experiences of the people belonging to other classes in the society and those who are not so literate. The over emphasis on the customs and traditions of the literates has deeply rooted in the society and this has to be removed and evicted from its roots through a proper understanding of the customs and traditions of other tribes and sections of the society. This involves developing an ethnographic and proper understanding of their rituals and life styles. These sections of the society has been experiencing courageous and challenging experiences throughout their lives, in their work as well as in their living. They have seen many tough times and experienced the cultures across the globe throughout their life.
The story has a touch of fiction which has been developed by Amitav Ghosh, in his minds and this has helped him in portraying such an image of the slaves. However, he has witnessed the cross-cultural practices across the globe and this has helped him in having a better understanding of the customs, traditions, practices, religious rituals and other such activities to be performed by the literates only and that the other sections of the society which were very less literate or illiterate were considered to be insignificant in developing the historiography. The customs and traditions have been focusing on the literate and high profile sections of the society.

On the other side, the author also argues that the experiences as well as the stories of the people from the backward class of the society or those who are not literates have to be considered as they, indeed, have a great story which has been developed over a period of rigorous Hardwork and amazing experiences which would never had been faced by the literates in their lives. The stories from the lives of these people would add an additional touch of excellence and clarity to the history that has been developed over a period of years. People of these sections has been described with the help of the main events which occur in their lives like the customs and traditions that are to be followed at the time of birth, deaths and marriages among the people of these class in the society. There has been a considerable contribution of the historiographic demographics which has helped Ghosh to develop the relation between the culture and the lives of the people prevailing in the 12th century among the people.
The ethnographic description of the culture has been through the description of historical events which the slave in the story, named Bomma, had witnessed while his work in the Middle- East and other countries. These people have been enslaved by different cultures and civilizations of the world and the have been travelling through times. Bomma has an exposure to different cultures of the world as he had been working as a slave and serving different masters belonging to different cultures in the world. The description and understanding of cultures from his point of view has helped in developing a fair ethnographic study to the author.
In this way, it can be seen that the author has very well linked the practices in the society to the culture prevailing among the people in the society. It has also helped in obtaining an ethnographic approach and study of the various customs and traditions which were existing during the 12th century in the contemporary society of India and Egypt. The people which have been studied are a Jewish trader named, Abraham Ben Yiju and a slave, named Bomma which was hired by him to help and assist him during his stay in India. The interactions between the two sections of the society has been described through the historiographics and this has been obtained by the author by obtaining a proper understanding of the customs and traditions which hare prevalent in these historiographics.
The character that has been described by Ghosh has a touch of fiction and it is observed to be developed from his imagination which has been led to the development of such an image portrayed for the slaves and illiterate sections of the society. Hence, there are many chances of the actual conditions getting manipulated or ignored by the author, where he has developed an ethnographic study of the prevailing conditions in the society. The description of the culture has been very specific where the significance of the daily customs and traditions has been obtained through the lives of the slave and the Jewish merchant. This has helped in having a proper understanding of the cross cultural exposures. The culture has been witnessed through the eyes of the literates in the society and they were given the highest preference and were considered as the only eligible section of the society on the basis of which historiography would be developed. The author has very well described the various activities which are happening in the lives of the other sections and class of the society. These activities are in the form of different events which occur in the lives of these people and are in the form of births, deaths and marriage as well as having children.
The author has been successful in achieving the feat of describing and evaluating the importance of the stories and experiences through the ethnographic approach regarding the people who were slaves or belonged to the backward sections of the society. He has shown that irrespective of their illiteracy, they have been witnessing large number of incidences and experiences and this would have helped them in achieving great heights in their personal life and also improve their knowledge and skills.
Thus, the ethnographic approach of the author Amitav Ghosh has helped in contextualizing the people, that is, the slaves and the merchant, who have been studied in his works. The author has used the theory of humanity and utilitarianism which has helped him in observing the fulfillment of the virtues and values of these people. The description of culture has been very vivid, where the author has connected the working of the culture to the conditions prevailing in the society. The culture and the customs as well as traditions existing in the 12th century in India and Egypt has been linked with the cross cultural experiences and practices of the people belonging to different class in the society.

Report on Cultural Heritage of Dubai

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Table of Contents
1.0. Introduction 5
2.0. Location Audit / Assessment 7
3.0. Location SWOT Analysis 9
a) Strengths: 11
b) Weaknesses: 12
c) Opportunities: 13
d) Threats 14
4.0. Stakeholder Analysis 16
4.1 Identifying the Stakeholders 16
4.2 Influence of the stakeholders 18
4.3 Investigating a major Stakeholder 19
4.4 Data Analysis 21
5.0. Vision 24
5.1 Image of the destination: 24
5.2 Activities that people would be doing: 26
5.3 Value of the visit: 28
5.4 Value for the stake holders and host communities 28
6.0. Mission Statement 29
6.1 Purpose of the cultural heritage site 29
6.2 Target markets: 29
7.0. Strategies 31
7.1. Product Development: 31
7.1.1. Visitor Attractions and Activities: 31
7.1.2 Hospitality: 34
7.1.3. Access and Transport 35
7.2. Cultural Heritage Interpretation of site communicated to visitors 36
7.2.1 What to interpret? : 36
7.2.2. How you will communicate with visitors at your attraction 38
7.2.3. Training of the staff: 39
7.3. Promotion strategy 39
8.0 Sustainability – Impact Analysis 40
8.1. Environmental 41
8.2. Socio-cultural 41
8.3. Economic 42
9.0. Conclusion 43
References 44
Appendices: 47
Survey 47
Jebel Ali Heritage village 47

List of Figures
Figure 1: Contribution of Travel and Tourism to GDP 6
Figure 2: Location of Mina Jebel Ali 7
Figure 3: Palm Jebel Ali near Mina Jebel Ali 8
Figure 4: SWOT Analysis elements 11
Figure 5: Identification of the stakeholders 18
Figure 6: Relationship matrix between the stakeholders and project 19
Figure 7: Traditional small houses 24
Figure 8: Replica of an Ancient styled cistern in UAE 25
Figure 9: Camel riding in UAE 26
Figure 10: Holding a Falcon in hand in UAE 26
Figure 11: Power and Interest model 29
Figure 12: Traditional Housing style in UAE 30
Figure 13in UAE: Traditional store in UAE 31
Figure 14: Traditional style of shopping in the lanes in UAE 31
Figure 15: Traditional Al Dama game in UAE 32
Figure 16: Ancient art festival in UAE 32
Figure 17: Ancient style Belle dancing in UAE 33
Figure 18: Ancient style tents in the site 33
Figure 19: Traditional mode of transport design 34
Figure 20: Traditional clothing style in UAE. 35
Figure 21: Henna style of art in UAE 36

1.0. Introduction
With the advancement of technology and increase in awareness among the tourists, the Tourism industry has witnessed a tremendous boost in the last decade. The interests of the tourist have been unique and specific. They significantly stress on the natural habitat, wild life and environment of the destinations while taking their decisions of travelling to these destinations. Tourists, also considered the culture of the destinations before visiting them.
There has been a great contribution of Tourism on the economy of UAE. In 2014, it has contributed about 8.5% to the overall GDP of UAE. Development of world class hotels and resorts in these regions have led to such a tremendous growth of the tourism industry in UAE. The contribution of the tourism and aviation industry in Dubai has been about 27% of its GDP. These shows the increasing importance of tourism in the economy of Dubai. This contribution is expected to increase in the coming years and the current trends in Dubai’s tourism industry show the contribution to rise up to 38% by 2020 (Henderson, 2014).
This shows that there is a tremendous scope of growth for any company which is involved in the tourism and aviation sector. It provides a promising future potential of the huge profits that has been forecasted after observing the current trends in the tourism industry of Dubai. It would therefore, be favorable and advisable to invest in the travel and tourism industry that would help in exploring the culture and heritage of Dubai to the tourists.
The statistics of the contribution of Tourism and Travel industry on the GDP of UAE in financial terms can be observed from the graph shown below. It helps in signifying the importance that would be given to our project of exploring the culture and heritage by the government.

The increase in the contribution of tourism industry towards the GDP in UAE is shown in the graph below:
Figure 1: Contribution of Travel and Tourism to GDP

(Geronimo, 2014)
The culture of UAE is very unique and authentic. It has interesting desert and night life to support these culture. The heritage of the places are retained through effective maintenance and hence, large number of tourists from across the world are interested in understanding and exploring the culture of UAE through specially visiting the places of cultural importance. This would provide large number of opportunities to the companies and hotels that are planning to develop a cultural village in Dubai which would help the tourists in exploring its authentic traditional culture and heritage through effective tourism (Henderson, 2014).
On the basis of this, we would also be proposing a location and evaluating it on various basis for establishing a cultural heritage village in Dubai and this will be discussed in the report.
2.0. Location Audit / Assessment
We would develop and forecast the potential of developing a cultural and heritage tourism in UAE. The location that has been selected by us is Mina Jebel Ali which is situated near the Jebel Ali Beach hotel as shown in the figure below:
Figure 2: Location of Mina Jebel Ali

The location of Mina Jebel Ali, is in the heart of the city with the north side opening towards the sea near the Palm Jebel Ali Island. It has a Jebel Ali Freezone region towards its east. It has a wide network of roads and highways towards its south, which include the D53 and E11 highway, as shown in the below figure:
Figure 3: Palm Jebel Ali near Mina Jebel Ali

This would immensely contribute to the business possibilities available in these regions as the Palm Jebel Ali island is one of the biggest investment hub of the world and it maintains the tourism to the observed level. The location could be assessed on the basis of its proximity to the sea and availability of adventurous water sports. There are also provisions for diving available in these regions in order to help the visitors explore the aquatic flora and pearls existing in the sea.
The location of UAE acts as a bridge between the east and the west countries. Hence, it tends to get visitors and tourists from both the sides of the world. There are no trade barriers and this would lead to feasibility of purchase price of the branded products and services. This would also boost the number of visitors as a large number of them would come for the purpose of shopping. It has a wide option for the tourists regarding their safety during the visits. It is due to the stability of the culture, economy, politics and administration in UAE.
There is Jebel Ali village nearby and this would help in involving the local communities from there and getting their support for the establishment of the cultural heritage site in Mina Jebel Ali. It would also ensure that the authenticity and uniqueness of the Arabian culture has been retained in the cultural heritage village. This would positively impact the decision of choosing the tourist destination by the people.
3.0. Location SWOT Analysis
SWOT analysis would help identifying the elements which hare important to be considered in the development of a project or any business model. It provides a critical evaluation of the feasibility of the project by providing the pros and con in executing the project and developing it on a large scale. It involves developing the factors in advance, and evaluate their importance for obtaining required success and growth of the project in the market. It helps in determining the potential of the project for the coming future. Carrying SWOT analysis of our project would be very important so as to obtain the feasibility of the project and develop other decisions regarding the investment of cost, time and resources in the project.

It consists of the following elements:
Figure 4: SWOT Analysis elements

Identifying the strengths of our project is very essential as it would help in developing a base for the marketing strategies, business model, realization of the services and products to be offered. It is also necessary to identify and evaluate the weaknesses that are present in the market, country and concept regarding the developing of a cultural heritage site in Dubai.
It is also very important to evaluate the opportunities available to the project as it would help in maximizing the efforts and utilizing of resources in the right direction towards the development of a successful project. The potential threats to the business are also to be identified. They are to be evaluated and analyzed. After that, solutions have to be developed for overcoming their effects and to minimize their potential.
The SWOT analysis of the above selected location would be carried out as follows (Ghazinoory, Esmail Zadeh, & Memariani, 2007):
a) Strengths:
• The project is very unique and is based on exploration of the culture and heritage of UAE. This is greatly appealing to the tourists across the globe.
• The stable economic and political environment in Dubai provides a huge scope for development and progress of this project.
• The geographical situation of UAE is very critical, as it is in between the east and the west. This would lead to visitors all round the world, from both the sides of UAE.
• The culture of UAS is very different form the general western culture which has not only been observed in the west, but it has also its influence on the east. This differences in culture, traditions, living styles, clothing patterns and other such factors would generate lots of interest among the tourists.
• The location of the selected site for development of the project is near Jebel Ali village. This would provide an authentic touch from the local communities present over there. It would also help in sustaining their culture for generations among the visitors who would be coming to the project.
• The proximity of the location to the Jebel palm island would boost the tourism of the Mina Jebel Ali region.
• There are many luxurious resort and interesting activities that are available in the area near the Jebel Ali beach hotel. This would attract more tourists to these regions.
• Cultural heritage tourism would help the tourists in exploring the culture of UAE and feel the privilege of its heritage.
• The tremendous boost in the tourism industry of Dubai and development of world class and state of art monuments and buildings like the Burj Khalifa Tower, The Dubai Mall and exotic hotels like the Atlantis palm, Burj Al Arab have resulted in increasing number of tourists in Dubai. It creates a great potential for our project, as the increase in the tourists base of Dubai would favoring our business and help in its growth and sustenance (Henderson, 2014).
b) Weaknesses:
• Dubai has been affected by recession which has resulted in slowing down of its economy. This would adversely affect the policies and government incentives to the tourism industry.
• There has been a tremendous increase in pollution observed in Dubai. Due to this, the natural touch of the destinations has been significantly affected.
• The living and travelling costs in Dubai have increased considerably and this would have negative impact on the tourist who plan to come to Dubai as it would incur very high costs to them.
• There is a very limited scope for the visitors to rent a vehicle for themselves or drive it. This is due to the strict laws and policies of the Traffic Authorities and regulations in Dubai.
• It is not very favorable for English speaking.
• There are very strict hunting and forest rules which are to be observed by the tourists.
• There are separate rules for each and every location and destination. This generates an unfavorable and confusing psychology among the visitors. This can largely affect the flow of visitors.
• There are many laws regarding the owning of the land and it does not favor the investors and buyers.
• There are huge reservations in different important sectors of the government and private companies for the local people of UAE.
• It has a huge dependence on the crude oil trade with the other parts of the world and hence, its economy is also largely affected by it.
• The other factors of infrastructure and labor are developed at a very high cost (Henderson, 2014).
c) Opportunities:

• Complementing to the tremendous growth in the Tourism and travel industry, there has been a huge increase in the number of foreign visitors to UAE. The data supporting this involves increase in the contribution of tourism industry to the GDP of UAE as discussed in the earlier sections. Considering all these factors, there is a huge potential for the development of the cultural heritage site and diving village in Dubai.
• Location of Dubai attracts many tourists from all over the world, who are interested in aquatic flora and fauna and would like to indulge in the adventurous water sports and scuba diving. These services are very efficiently maintained and offered on a large scale owing to the proximity with the sea.
• The development of Dubai as a business hub across the globe has encouraged large investments from companies and entrepreneurs from the different countries of the world.
• There are many festivals and events of international importance which are celebrated and held in Dubai. This would provide large number of opportunities to the tourism industry as the number of local visitors and tourists would increase considerably.
• There are tremendous number of opportunities in Dubai for shopping as it is home to large number of global brands. There are various cultural things justifying their heritage and these traditional things are available on commercial basis. Thus, many opportunities of trading traditional games and things are available to the people involved in businesses that explore their cultural heritage.
• Dubai is extremely stable politically and hence there are many opportunities provided to the new businesses and entrepreneurs who would be interested in exploring the culture and heritage of Dubai.
• There are large number of things which are exported by Dubai.
• It has formed many unions and agreements for carrying trade with economically developed countries like U.S., Canada, UK and other countries which have huge scope as a market for UAE like South Africa.
• There are many large scale projects to develop exotic hotels and resorts that would add to the shrine of the existing state of the art infrastructure and hospitality industries.
• There are many world class infrastructure facilities proposed in Dubai like the biggest arc bridge of the world, introduction and development of moving sky scraper high rise buildings (Henderson, 2014).
d) Threats
• The location of UAE also poses a threat to its security and stability as it gets impacted by the conflicts between the countries in the east as well as in the west. This creates huge security and integrity issues in Dubai.

• There are unstable and insecure security conditions in the neighboring countries like Iraq, Iran. This poses a huge threat to the flow of visitors as they would not prefer to keep their security at stake for exploring the tourist destinations.
• It is observed that many visitors in these regions are not tourists and are from the local towns and nearby locations. They would be least interested in exploring the culture as they have been witnessing it throughout their whole life. This would be a threat to cultural tourism in Mina Jebel Ali area.
• There is a potential threat from many other hotels, resorts and companies who are continuously involved in developing cultural tourism parks and islands in these region. Thus, huge competition would be existing in these region.
• The authenticity of the products and services can be duplicated by other companies and hotels and they would provide the same service at lower prices. This would pose a serious threat to the business of the company and lead to decrease in the number of tourists visiting our place (Ghazinoory, Esmail Zadeh, & Memariani, 2007).
• The concept of a cultural heritage village is very unique and has requires special care regarding the services and products offered. Authenticity of the product or services has to be maintained.
• There are huge government shares in the businesses, which is collected in the form of taxes imposed on different elements of the business (Henderson, 2014).

4.0. Stakeholder Analysis
A stakeholder is a person or a group of person representing a company and holds a part in other company’s product or services, through acquisition of its shares or through partnerships (Ghazinoory, Esmail Zadeh, & Memariani, 2007).
Stakeholder analysis refers to the critical evaluation of the actions concerning the stakeholders and their behavior (Ruhanen, 2004). It helps any company in developing critical elements for a product or service that would affect the stakeholders and result in action or responses from the stakeholders. The actions from the stakeholders could be positive as well as negative depending on their attitudes and capabilities (Ghazinoory, Esmail Zadeh, & Memariani, 2007).
In our project, the stake holders need to be identified. After that, the role of the main stakeholders has to be determined. The interrelationships between the different stake holders, also has to be developed to have a proper understanding of their needs and match them with the project’s requirements.
4.1 Identifying the Stakeholders
For the development of strategies and business model of the cultural heritage village at Mina Jebel Ali, in Dubai, there are many types of stakeholders which are to be considered. There are three types of stake holders:
• Internal
• Connected and
• External
The elements and members of these three type of stakeholders are shown in the figure below:

Figure 5: Identification of the stakeholders

The identified stakeholders have different influences on the success of the cultural vilaage project. Hence, it is very necessary to consider the influence of eac hadn every element mentioned in the above types of stakeholders. The critical analysis and evaluation of this influence would help in developing strategies accordingly for the development of this project.
4.2 Influence of the stakeholders
The role of stakeholders in developing this project is very crucial. Stakeholders provide the project with the required resources and boost which would help in the growth of the business. The evaluation of the needs of the stakeholders and requirements of the project would help in developing a good model for the stakeholders. There is an inter-relationship between the stakeholders and the requirements of the project. At the same time, it would also help in developing model on the basis of the stakeholder’s requirements.
It has been shown in the matrix below:
Figure 6: Relationship matrix between the stakeholders and project

(Bourne, 2012)
Here, the needs of the stakeholders as well as the needs of the project have been evaluated on the basis of four elements that are,
• Objectors:
This include the critics of the project and people, companies or organizations who are against the project or any particular part of the project.
• Authorities:
The needs and requirements of the project developed are to be identified during stack holder analysis. The team and personnel behind the development of the project would project their needs and target goals from the project.
• End Users:
The end users refers to the customers, in the form of visitors in our case. The needs and specific requirements of the customers have to be targeted while developing an analysis of the stakeholders.
• Partners:
Many partners would be included as it is a project involving tourism, culture and hospitality. There are many organizations and companies which are to be partnered with and their needs and requirements affect the development of the project.
4.3 Investigating a major Stakeholder
There are many stakeholders in our project which has been discussed in the above sections. However, the intensity and contribution of each and every stakeholder is different on the cultural heritage project which is to be developed by me. The major stakeholder tends to be the customers, which are tourists in our project. The role of tourists is very significant as it would help in the growth of the cultural and heritage as well as diving village that is going to be developed by me.
The major stakeholder of our project would be the host community and the local tribes. They are taken as the major stakeholders because the project involves developing a cultural heritage village in Dubai. Hence, considering the point of view of the local communities would help in developing a better business model that would attract and appeal to large number of tourists across the globe. Hosting communities would also play a significant role in the development of the project as their extensive support would be required in constructing the cultural style heritage village.
The data for understanding the behavior, culture and tradition would be collected through filling of questionnaires from the local people. There would be a questionnaire developed which would be focusing on the qualitative factors for establishing a base of the business model. There were about 50 people who were provided with these questionnaires and their responses were obtained. The questionnaire is provided in Appendix A.
It helps in focusing on the elements of the community’s culture which can be used for attracting the tourists. This would help the local communities to enrich their culture as it would be explored by millions of visitors coming in the future. The reviews from the hosting communities would help in getting their opinions regarding the structure of the cultural heritage site which is going to be developed by me. The questionnaire would stress on traditional elements involved in the development of the cultural heritage village. The traditional market and occupations would also be obtained through the questionnaire.

4.4 Data Analysis
There are various models which are available for executing stakeholder analysis in a business model. Mapping techniques are evaluated and used for carrying the analysis. There are a large number of mapping techniques available for stakeholder analysis. One of them, which is the most applicable on our project is the “Three-dimensional grouping of power, interest and attitude” mapping technique.
It helps in evaluating the elements that would add logic to the stakeholder mapping. One has to consider the elements of power and interest effectively for establishing an understanding of the interest of the stake holders in the business. Another elements to be considered together are interest and attitude. This would help in obtaining a balance between the interests of the stakeholders and their attitude towards the development of the project (Murray-Webster & Simon, 2006). All the three dimensions of the stakeholder analysis mentioned above, namely, interest, power and attitude are critically evaluated for establishing a successful stakeholder analysis of the product or service in the market.
An analysis of the collected data would be done. The collected data would be tabulated on the basis of the needs of the project and the things which the local community feel should be highlighted in the development of the village. The opinions of the local communities regarding the structure of the village is also important. The questionnaire would help in getting the traditional style of living and other regular practices of the local communities, which are being followed in their culture since ages.
The data has been collected and analyzed. There were elements obtained from the people regarding the various things that should be used to display their culture. This table was obtained on the basis of it:
Name of the elements Feedback of the people
01. Design of Cultural Village Arabian Theme: 78%
Modern: 22%
02. Strategic location of heritage Inside Jebel Ali beach hotel: 38%
Next to the hotel by the beach: 62%
03. Sustainable practices should be incorporated Recycling waste: 41%
Recycling of water: 30%
Installing new usable energy by solar panels: 29%
04. Camel riding 85%
05. Henna art activity 68%
06. Traditional culture dancing 83%
07. Diving for pearl 74%
08. Traditional culture clothing 72%
09. Traditional culture games 82%
10. Preference Tourist guide services: 71%
Touring independently: 29%
11. Social media used Instagram: 31%
Facebook: 69%
12. Traditional media TV: 39%
Radio: 18%
Billboards: 17%
Posters at airport: 10%
Brochures: 16%
13. Will Emirati style in Heritage site help to sustain the Emirati culture Average of the responses: 3.5
14. Jebel Ali is a very good location for Expo 2020 Average of the responses: 3
15. Attracting too many tourism in Jebel Ali could be annoying the host community Average of the responses: 2.2
16. Hiring local employees within the culture heritage to provide the services to tourists, is most suitable because they know much about our culture Average of the responses: 4
17. Gender Male: 70%
Female: 30%
18. Age-group 18 – 25: 23%
26 – 35: 32%
36 – 45: 26%
46 – 55: 14%
56 +: 5%
19. Income 7000aed-10000aed : 38%
10000aed – 20000aed : 32%
20000aed-30000aed : 21%
30000 + : 9%
20. Nationality Emirati: 30%
GCC: 24%
European: 9%
Asian: 12%
Arab: 21%
Others: 4%

The table was developed after identifying the elements that would be used in the questionnaire. The questions used in the questionnaire would be including the various elements which are shown in the second column of the table. The third column describes the requirements from the local communities and the questionnaire would collect the reviews and opinions of the people regarding the support that they would be able to provide in the development of the project. The elements were developed by us and the opinion of the local communities on the designing and maintenance requirements of each and every element was collected form the questionnaires.
5.0. Vision
The vision of the company would be based on the cultural heritage of Dubai. The vision would be, “Feel and Explore the culture and heritage of Dubai”.
5.1 Image of the destination:
For achieving the vision, the destination has to be a well-maintained cultural heritage village which would help the tourist in critically understanding the culture of UAE. It would also help them to get a first-hand experience of the culture and heritage of Dubai. The destination would be looking like the image shown below:
Figure 7: Traditional small houses

(Baldwin, 2012)
There are different traditional monuments and structures which would be developed. One of such structure consists of an ancient cistern that was developed during the ancient times in UAE, for storage of rain water is shown below:
Figure 8: Replica of an Ancient styled cistern in UAE

(Baldwin, 2012)
5.2 Activities that people would be doing:
People would explore the traditions of the Arabian world, enjoy in traditional styled restaurant with Arabic Desert and similar themes, and play traditional games that were developed in UAE before many years. People would also get a chance to enjoy a camel ride which is a traditional symbol of the Arab countries as shown in the image below:

Figure 9: Camel riding in UAE

(Baldwin, 2012)
People would love their visit to this village and cultural park. They would also click pictures with Eagle (Falcon) on their forehand, which is one of the traditions since ancient times in UAE as shown in the image below:
Figure 10: Holding a Falcon in hand in UAE

(Baldwin, 2012)
5.3 Value of the visit:
This would provide a unique and ultimate experience to the tourists and they would get a feeling of the authentic culture and heritage of UAE which would be fulfilling our vision. The tourists would get an extensive first-hand experience of the traditional style of living and they would be fascinated with the sports and games which are offered in the traditional infrastructure of UAE developed by me.
5.4 Value for the stake holders and host communities
The vision would help in obtaining quick and huge returns of the investments for the stakeholders. The ideologies and concepts would also be taken from the stakeholders as their opinions and views plays an important role in the execution of this plan. The unique design of the project and its state of the art features would help in attracting large number of tourists and this would bring in other investors too.
It would also boost the reach of the community to the entire world as the park would be displaying the cultural traditions and heritage of the local communities that have been existing over there for ages. At the same time, the local communities and the hosting communities would be getting large number of job opportunities through this project as the park requires people from the community too, for ensuring that the rich culture and heritage has been maintained. The community would prosper by maintaining its culture and would not have to adopt unnecessary westernization in their culture. The high standards of living offered by Dubai would be enjoyed and afforded by the local people in the Jebel Ali village and other surrounding areas.

6.0. Mission Statement
The mission of the cultural heritage site would be, “To maximise the reach of the Arabian culture and heritage in the world”.
6.1 Purpose of the cultural heritage site
The main purpose of the cultural heritage site is to develop a tourism business that would hele the tourists in exploring the culture of UAE and also help the local communities to grow and sustain their age old traditions and culture. This is achieved through the development of a magnificent state of the art kind of heritage site in Mina Jebel Ali, which tends to be very promising location for development of the business.
6.2 Target markets:
The purpose of the cultural heritage site would be serving the local communities with growth opportunities and providing the tourists with an authentic understanding of the culture and heritage of UAE. It would help the company in developing a firm hold in the tourism market which is booming in Dubai. Company could earn huge profits and trust of the tourists for the same.
Hence, the target markets would be the local people in Dubai as well as the tourists visiting the cultural heritage sites. The needs of the community of having a secure and good job would be satisfied by the project by providing numerous opportunities to the people in these communities. The needs of the tourists are also fulfilled through the mission of helping the tourists to explore the authentic culture and heritage of UAE. Tourists would get an amazing experience of the Arabian culture and they would also get a chance to experience diving in the sea for exploring the aquatic species and pearls existing in the sea.
The needs of the communities and the tourists are developed on the basis of power and interest model as shown in the figure:
Figure 11: Power and Interest model

The target markets involve the potential tourists all over the world. The structure and design targets the young population considering the urge for adventure and the interests in exploring cultures of different countries in them. The tourists have high levels of power in the project. Hence, they have to be kept satisfied through the process. The stakeholders have high interests in the returns from the project and so, they have to be continuously informed about the growth, success and future potential of the project.
This is the structure of target markets and the needs of the tourists as well as the stakeholders in the development of the project. Understanding these relationships effectively would help the project to develop a design which would be very successful in fulfilling the needs and requirements of both the groups, including tourists and the stakeholders.

7.0. Strategies
There are various strategies which are developed for the designing and structuring of the project site. The products and services that are developed involves consideration of the customs and traditions in UAE and it also inculcates the culture of UAE. The strategies and the offerings of the site are discussed below.
7.1. Product Development:
The products are developed considering different departments and details as mentioned below:
7.1.1. Visitor Attractions and Activities:
In this, ancient style of living and traditional houses would be developed as shown in the figure:
Figure 12: Traditional Housing style in UAE

Traditional stores of street shopping style would be created as shown in the figure:
Figure 13in UAE: Traditional store in UAE

Traditional style of shopping in the lanes would be created as shown in the figure:
Figure 14: Traditional style of shopping in the lanes in UAE

There will be areas where visitors would learn the traditional game of Al Dama from the local people playing it. This is shown in the figure below:
Figure 15: Traditional Al Dama game in UAE

The cultural festivals and arts and different forms of dancing would be displayed as shown in the figure:
Figure 16: Ancient art festival in UAE

(Tulsani, 2015)
Figure 17: Ancient style Belle dancing in UAE


7.1.2 Hospitality:
The facilities of housing and accommodation would be of traditional style as shown in the figure:
Figure 18: Ancient style tents in the site

(Tulsani, 2015)
The ancient style of eating food in groups would be provided along with serving of traditional food items as shown in the figure:

(Tulsani, 2015)
7.1.3. Access and Transport
The ancient mode of transport and design would be constructed as shown in the figure below:
Figure 19: Traditional mode of transport design

(Tulsani, 2015)
7.2. Cultural Heritage Interpretation of site communicated to visitors
The interpretation of culture is very important for the tourists. Interpretation does not only contain getting information, but it also includes analysing the information and processing it through evaluation and experiencing. The cultural heritage project that is being developed by us would focus on effective tourism would always provide appropriate interpretation rather than just providing information and relying on the facts.
7.2.1 What to interpret? :
The cultural heritage village aims at not only providing information to the visitors, but to provide them with a chance to feel the culture and traditions by experiencing it themselves. It is shown in the figure below, where a family of visitors enjoys the traditional dressing style of UAE.
Figure 20: Traditional clothing style in UAE.

(Lamson, Connor, 2015)
People would get a chance to experience and interpret the traditional henna art which has been obtained in UAE before many years. It has been shown in the figure:
Figure 21: Henna style of art in UAE

The use of the henna art has been since many ages in UAE. It is an art which has been developed across many countries.
Interpretation of the culture involves effective understanding of the art too through observing different forms of art as seen in the above sections.

7.2.2. How you will communicate with visitors at your attraction
The three golden rules of heritage interpretation is used by us which involves:
Understanding of the culture:
The interpretation of the tourists regarding the customs and traditions in UAE is carried by providing well maintained and attractive tour guide handbooks, leaflets and providing of an app that has all the details of the heritage site on the mobile play store and apple store market. The unique features and elements of the Arabian culture would be explained and experienced by the tourists.

Appreciation of the culture:
The culture would be understood by the tourists and then they would be appreciating it.
Protection of the culture:
The culture is retained and protected from getting westernized by not only the communities and us, but also by the tourists, who now respect the Arabian culture after interpreting it.
We would be having easy to understand leaflets available in different languages for the convenience of the visitors. We would also provide our mobile app to the tourists without any cost, once they enter the site. Mobile app would be very effectively guiding the tourists regarding the different locations in the site and it would provide them directions to each one of them through GPRS. We would also ensure that a human touch of exploration is maintained through guides and other staff members at each and every location.
A complete and genuine interpretation of the culture would be provided by the local guides regarding the Arabian culture from the traditional point of view. A proper interpretation has various benefits on the environment, tourism industry, visitors and for the operators. Here, the authenticity of the culture ensures benefits to the environment and tourism industry. Visitors would be satisfied and the operators, that is, us, would be getting good business through the increasing number of visitors.
7.2.3. Training of the staff:
The staff would be specially trained in hospitality and maintaining the authenticity of the Arabian culture. The visitors would not only be provided with basic factual information, but there would be effective and interesting interpretation of the sources by the guides. They would help the visitors to have an experience of the culture and heritage themselves. For this purpose, many people from the local communities would be selected and trained so as to effectively guide the visitors regarding their culture. The staff would be trained on all the elements that are present and are utilized in the heritage cite.
7.3. Promotion strategy
There are various marketing strategies which are to be studied and critically evaluated for developing and promoting the product. Promotion is an element of the marketing mix and promotion mix itself has 4 elements. These elements are:
Public relations:
Public relations refers to maintaining of the relations with the people, organizations, various departments of the government and other advertising and financial companies across the globe.
Advertising involves the promotion of the heritage site at various places of public importance, like in the metros, TV commercials, bus stations, taxis, etc. using effective modes of advertising would help in getting the required boost for the business. This would be beneficial for the growth of the project site and it would help us in generating large profits.
Sales promotion
Sales promotion refers to the effective selling of the products and services on the basis of its quality and authenticity. The distribution channel for the product and services are developed in this. Here, it would be very specific where the elements of the ancient tradition would be focused.

Personal selling
Personal selling is the form of promotion which refers to the individual promotion of the product by directly hiring the salesmen. This would involve hiring local people from the communities with efficient communications skills and train them accordingly.
8.0 Sustainability – Impact Analysis
There are various factors which are to be considered while developing the sustainability analysis and they are:
• Infrastructure,
• Organising events and festivals,
• Hospitality maintenance
• Accommodation and food
• Transport Facilities
• Guides and facilities for explaining the culture in details
The above mentioned factors would have a huge impact on three elements of sustainability which are mentioned below:
8.1. Environmental
The effects of our project on environment would be mostly positive. We would be restoring the culture and old practices practiced in the ancient times and this would hardly create any kind of pollution after its construction. There would be very controlled levels of air, noise or water pollution in the site. The effects of the products on the environment would be greatly looked upon and analysed. The effects of the processes involving exploration of the culture and traditions would be very authentic and carried out with minimal health hazards towards the environment.
For the henna art, we would be using scientifically proven herbal components that would not harm the individuals who use them. We would also be recycling most of the products after being used by the tourists. We would be installing garbage bins and highlight them so that they are easily visible. We would provide cleanliness guidelines to the visitors and ensure that no part of the environment gets dirty. We would be installing CCTV cameras inside the project site. This would help in curtailing all the anti-environmental activities that would pollute or harm the environment through effective monitoring of the entire project site by the team.
8.2. Socio-cultural
Establishing of a cultural heritage site would greatly influence the culture of UAE. It will spread the culture to different corners of the world through exploration by the tourists coming from different places of the world. There will be a social boom observed as the tourists would be helping the local communities to earn and share their culture. These socio-cultural benefits are a part and parcel of the cultural heritage site. The society would get more civilised as it would develop better living conditions for the communities and villages around our cultural site.
8.3. Economic
Development of the cultural heritage site would help financial growth of the local communities. They could utilize their knowledge in the best possible ways through guiding the tourists in our site and also in the construction and maintenance of the heritage site. It would provide them with a stable economic income for the coming generations.
It would also boost the contribution of tourism in Dubai through increasing the number of visitors to Dubai. The revenues collected would involve paying taxes to the government and hence, government would earn huge revenues from the site as well as from the visitors as they would be using the government’s services.

9.0. Conclusion
Thus, it can be concluded that development of a cultural heritage site would help in boosting the culture and spreading it to the different parts of the world. The cultural heritage site prepared by us after evaluating and implementing the above factors would help in the upliftment of the local communities. The vision of exploring the culture of Dubai and making the tourists feel it themselves will be achieved.

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Bourne, L. (2012, December 18). The Stakeholder Mutuality Matrix. Retrieved from
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FULLESTOP.COM. (2014, September 16). How to analyze your website through SWOT Analysis? Retrieved from
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Geronimo, A. (2014, May 05). DC forecasts strong growth in UAE tourism sector. Retrieved from
Ghazinoory, S., Esmail Zadeh, A., & Memariani, A. (2007). Fuzzy SWOT analysis. . Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems: Applications in Engineering and Technology, 99-108.
GOOGLE MAPS. (2015, November 5). Mina Jebel Ali – Dubai – United Arab Emirates. Retrieved from
Henderson, J. C. (2014). Global Gulf cities and tourism: A review of Abu Dhabi, Doha and Dubai. Tourism Recreation Research, 107-114.
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Murray-Webster, R., & Simon, P. (2006). Making sense of stakeholder mapping. PM World today, 1 – 5.
PHIL AND KEITH PHOTOGRAPHY.COM. (2013, August 29). Waiting for customers? Retrieved from
PUBS.OPENGROUP.ORG. (2011). 24. Stakeholder Management. Retrieved from
Ruhanen, L. (2004). Strategic planning for local tourism destinations: An analysis of tourism plans. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 239-253.
TROPICAL ISLAND. DE. (2014). Hatta Heritage Village, Dubai, United Arab Emirates / DXB Hatta Heritage Village – traditional houses with palm-trees and watchtower 5340×3400. Retrieved from×3400.html
Tulsani, m. (2015, January). 13 Reasons Why Living In Dubai will Ruin You for Life. Retrieved from

Jebel Ali Heritage village
Dear Respondent,
We are group of a young entrepreneurs studying in Dubai Women’s College and we are planning to develop a culture heritage attraction next to Jebel Ali Beach Hotel. There would be around 5 – 6 minutes required for completing the questionnaire. We would appreciate your thought and opinion on our development idea. We welcome your feedback and your Recommendations Thank you for your participation.
1. What design would you suggest for developing a culture Heritage
 Arabian Theme
 Modern
2. In your opinion the strategic location of heritage should develop
 Inside Jebel Ali beach hotel
 Next to the hotel by the beach
3. What sustain practices should in cooperate into our development
 Recycling waste
 Recycling of water
 Installing new usable energy by solar panels
4. We are planning to offer the following traditional activity, please indicate the activities that would interest you (tick as many as you can from the schedule)
 camel riding  Henna art activity  Traditional culture dancing  Diving for pearl  Traditional culture clothing  Traditional culture games

5. Which do you prefer to use
 Tourist guide services
 Touring independently
6. What kind of social media would you like
 Instagram
 Face book
7. What kind of traditional media would you like
 TV
 Radio
 Billboards
 Posters at airport
 Brochures
Below are some other questions:
Questions Strongly Agree
5 Agree
4 Average
3 Disagree
2 Strongly Disagree
8. If we are offering an Emirati style in Heritage site, will it help sustain Emirati culture
9. Jebel Ali is a very good location for Expo 2020

10. Attracting too many tourism in Jebel Ali could be annoying the host community
11. Hiring local employees within the culture heritage to provide the services to tourists, is most suitable because they know much about our culture

We would like to ask some questions about you: (you have to tick the suitable option)
12. Your gender
 Male  Female
13. Your age between
 18 – 25
 26 – 35
 36 – 45
 46 – 55
 56 +

14. Your income
 7000aed-10000aed
 10000aed – 20000aed
 20000aed-30000aed
 30000 +
15. Your nationality
 Emirati
 European
 Asian
 Arab
 Others
Thank you for taking the time to fill out our survey. We rely on your kind feedback to help us improve our project. Your input is greatly appreciated.

Cultural essay on Russia for a military school

Student’s Name:
ID Number:
Attendance Number:

Cultural essay on Russia for a military school.
With the advancement in technology and large number of scientific inventions to develop high tech weapons and warfare strategies, Russia has developed a powerful military and strong defense forces. Russia had been an empire till 1960. During that time, Russia had monarchy type of rule where the culture was male oriented and very aggressive as they believed in sheer physical strength. However, this culture has evolved across these years and there are many scopes of improvement that are being identified and upgraded with effective implementation. Russia has been struggling to retain its culture and values due to the impact of westernization. Military school plays an important role in the establishment of law, defense and security in the nation (Cassidy).
The culture that has been followed since years has to be evaluated and improvised for ensuring that it continues to be a superpower in the world. It is necessary for the government to identify the culture, values and behavior followed by the people in Russia. The advancement in culture is due to the westernization of the operations and activities and this has developed a great impact on the military culture in Russia. Analyzing the culture regarding the military ethics, strategies and other values would be done in this essay and this would be supported with accurate data and discussion (Ermarth).

Thesis statement
The essay describes the culture of Russia and it aims at developing and evaluating the thesis that, “Does Russia need to modify or upgrade its military culture”.
Russia has witnessed monarchy rule since a long time till 1960. They were always an empire and from their history, it can be seen that they made constant efforts to overpower the neighboring states and increase their own strength. It has a very rigid behavior towards the development of military. It has always been dominated by males, whereas females never imagined to be a part of the military or even military school. Military training of the male children is done since the time of their childhood and early teenage. The social behavior and principles are achieved through coordinated efforts of the government and its execution of absolute power on the people (Cassidy).
Russia has been following the same structure and design since many decades and it has been a long time since any changes being introduced in the military of Russia. Throughout history, it can be seen that Russia has always tried to expand its physical boundaries and widen its reach. This led to the development of various groups within the country and this adversely affected the sovereignty and peace of Russia. It can be seen that this has led to discontent among the people in Russia as a result of which they always tried to earn their freedom from the government and this has seriously damaged the integrity and harmony of Russia. The mindset of the people has been traumatized due to the excessive control of the government over the people (Ermarth).
The culture of Russia has various ethnic groups which has led to huge variety in the living style of the people. This not only increased the variety of living styles, but also provided them with a large number of religions owing to the presence of several communities in Russia from across the globe. These ethnic groups have a community of their own and they are very firm and rigid regarding their values and traditions. The culture has been influenced by the invasion of the Muslim leaders, impact of the Buddhist ideology, Christian philosophy and dominance of the churches and pope. The ethical behavior and practices by each one of them was different and there was difference of opinion among the culturally different ethnic groups. It was found that the society in Russia was very male oriented and provided meagre chance to the women to work in any of the institution. It was the tradition that men were supposed to do all the work and earning and women were restricted to handling the household work and carry upbringing of the children (Ermarth).
It has strengthened its military power through developing high end technology, extremely advanced warfare strategies, highly trained personnel and state of the art ammunitions. They have been developing their military since the formation of USSR which stands for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics” which is also known as “Soviet Union”. In the adoption of this sovereignty, the sovereign republics that merged together in 1917 are
“ the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR “ where SFSR and SSR stands for “Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and Soviet Socialist Republic” respectively (Adamsky).
During the merger of these countries, there was a tremendous boost observed in the trade and religious celebrations as the policies were friendly for each and every religion. During the reign of Vladimir Lenin, there was liberty and freedom of expression provided to each and every citizen of the soviet. Along with that, he also encouraged the writers and artists and was a part of a communist party. He had a communist thinking and his ideas and actions depicted the same. Later on, Joseph Stalin, came into the rule and he practised socialism which was severely controlled by the government. He did not support the writers and artists and also got them arrested and few of them were also killed. This kind of trend was followed till the latter half of the 20th century until Mikhail Gorbachev came into the rule in 1985. He introduced different reforms for the communist party like the”Perestroika and Glasnost” reforms which provided liberty and freedom to the people especially to the writers and artists. Such practices brought about reforms in the cultural values and ethics thereby encouraging more writers and artist to show and develop their works (Cassidy).
The gradual change in the behavior and culture of the people in Russia got a boost in 1985 after the new leader Mikhail Gorbachev which is discussed above. The military practices and culture related to it also underwent many changes owing to the continuous up gradation of technology and scientific researches to develop high quality ammunitions and provide expertise training. However, the mind-set of the people has somewhat not completely evolved through these times. In the earlier times, there was monarchy rule and so women were not given any chances and during the current situation, women are not given the opportunity to establish a position for themselves in the society. It is due to the dominance of the males in the society. There has been excessive importance given to the male section of the society and this has supressed the other section of the society, that is, the females over a period of years (Adamsky).
At the same time, the culture has evolved tremendously with the acceptance of different religions and increase in tolerance of the people with respect to the government. The government has however continued to hold the activities and supervise all the functions. This shows excessive control of the government over the people. There has been inculcating of core principles of Buddhism and Christianity in the ethical behaviour of the people and the government has been supporting the liberty and freedom of expression among the people (Ermarth).
Training of the military forces has also undergone extreme modifications incorporating innovations and this helps in sustaining the superpower position of Russia in the world. The culture has gone many levels of up gradations and modifications as seen above. Its culture has accepted various elements from different civilisations and religious ideologies and this has been developed over a period of years. The culture has seen a touch of globalisation and urbanization with limited development of the psychology of the people (Cassidy).
It can be seen that the culture of Russia has been glorified through ancient times. Cultural values have seen transformation through various phases as discussed above. It underwent many changes and many revolutionary thinkers and leaders have contributed in the upliftment of the society through flexible cultural ethics and principles. However, the culture fails to identify the importance that has to be given to women and opportunities that they deserve are to be established.
Military tends to be one of the backbone of the Russian economy. Military culture has evolved too with many opportunities been provided to the citizens from different religious backgrounds and having different cultures. Thus, it can be concluded that there is a need to modify its culture in such a way that equality and liberty is available to all the citizens irrespective of their caste, gender, culture and religion and equal opportunities in military.
Adamsky, Dima. The Culture of Military Innovation: The Impact of Cultural Factors on the Revolution in Military Affairs in Russia, the US, and Israel. US: Stanford University Press, 2010. Print.
Cassidy, Robert M. Counterinsurgency and the Global War on Terror: Military Culture and Irregular War. US: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. Print.
Ermarth, Fritz W. RUSSIA’S STRATEGIC CULTURE:PAST, PRESENT, AND… IN TRANSITION. Descriptive. US: Defense Threat Reduction Agency, 2006. Web.

Essay on Conservatism

Title of the paper:
Student’s Name:
Course Number:
Course title:
Date of Submission:

Conservatism is one type of philosophy which ensures the well-being and following of traditions, beliefs, religious feelings, cultural values and values and traditions that are nationally important (Kirk). It is one of the most critical factor in inculcating change for the benefit of the society. There are different levels of conservatism that has been defined by the different researchers and philosophical writers. They have identified the significance of this virtue in today’s world (Robin¸Corey).
The character that we are going to discuss is an American Leader, Stuart Mill. He was the leader of the socialist party and came into reign in 1968. He was very broad minded as compared to other leaders of his time. His way of thinking and philosophy was completely different. He had a firm hold on the ethics and principles which are to be followed while enjoying power in politics.
He helped in maintaining the tradition of the ancient population which was getting replaced by the modern culture. He stressed on overall development of the country and stated that people should be economically, culturally, socially, happy and they should have the understanding of their efforts towards the nation. He identified many behaviours of national importance that were to be carried out by individuals. During his time, it was very difficult for any political party to sustain conservatism owing to the critical war and its effects. He, however, was opposed by many and because of this he was dethroned as he made some changes and reforms related to the social and cultural beliefs of the people. He was however, not disheartened and he continued serving the nation through other departments in his home party.
In this way it can be seen that there are many elements of conservatism that were observed in the character taken by me. The person had many followers, but he fought for religious and cultural reforms is his most significant virtue. He had realized the need to inculcate change in the society through liberalism and this was one of the most revolutionary approach during such times.

Kirk, Russell. The Conservative Mind: From Burke to Eliot. Regnery Publishing,, 2001. Print.
Robin¸Corey. The Reactionary Mind: Conservatism from Edmund Burke to Sarah Palin. Oxford University, 2011. Print.