Essay on Germany and Polynesia

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Introduction:
European history, especially the German history, has been full of events, mass movements and reformations. Europe has its influence on the territories that were once ruled by them like the Polynesia. There has been a huge influence of the missionaries on the culture in Polynesia and these missionaries first came here in the late 1700 century AD. There are many small islands that together comprise Polynesia and the 21st century, more than 70% of their population stays in Hawaii. Germany has its history spread along the ages of the Stone Age man. It has gone cultural, historical and habitual transformations in the last few centuries starting from 1500.
Comparing and contrasting:
The incidences of reformations and national movements are observed in Germany in the beginning of the 16th century, due to the increasing discontent among the people regarding the practices prevailing in the German culture. On the other hand, the incidences of reformation and mass movement in Polynesia started with the independence of Samoa Island from New Zealand in 1962. Since then, different islands in Polynesia that are not habited by people have been a site for nuclear tests.
In the earlier century, in 1896, there was a movement known as “German Youth Movement” and more than 8 million children became a part of it by 1938. Germany also has the “European Movement Germany” network for coordinating with the European government. Polynesia has passed its major movement in 2011, that consists of the “Polynesian Leaders Group” and it consists of the eight territories or kingdoms that come under Polynesia. Among these eight territories, five are self-governed and non-sovereign; whereas three are sovereign.

Essay on Abraham Lincoln and Indira Gandhi

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Abraham Lincoln and Indira Gandhi
During the times of social restrictions and limitations witnessed in the early 19th and 20th century, there are many heroes who have contributed immensely to development of changes and brining a revolution. There ae many attributes that are incorporated in a hero. These attributes are in the form of leadership, effectiveness to inculcate change, bring social changes removing malpractices observed in the society, courage to stand for social and national cause. There are many heroes who have shown the above mentioned qualities and have revolutionized the field in which they have contributed. These heroes have changed the economic, social, political and psychological conditions of the people across the globe. Two of such heroes who have immensely contributed in the upliftment of their nation through different practices are Abraham Lincoln and Indira Gandhi. Abraham Lincoln, played a very significant role in removing the practice of slavery from America (Schwartz, 2005). On the other hand, Indira Gandhi helped India to develop a significant position in the world in various sectors like food production, military strength, nuclear technology and other such elements which would contribute to the increase in strength of India (Gupte, 2012).
Though there was a huge difference in the backgrounds of Abraham Lincoln and Indira Gandhi, they had a common vision which was to bring overall development in the country through social, economic and political upliftment. Abraham Lincoln had faced many economic problems during his life and his struggle shows that he is a self-made man. He was a lawyer by profession in his early days. He had an aspiring vision which made him to never lose his hope and this made him win the president elections at the age of 52. On the other hand, Indira Gandhi was the daughter of the first prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru and thus, was born with a golden spoon. However, she did not chose to enjoy the luxuries of life and remain simply in her house, married to a man and nurture their family. She changed this ideology of the society and this resulted in women liberalization.
Abraham Lincoln had lost the state election for 8 times, encountered failures in business twice and had also gone through a nervous breakdown. However, he had a clear and firm vision and he was ready to go through any obstacles that came in his way of becoming the President for development of America. This undying spirit of Abraham Lincoln, which made him victorious in the President elections, serves to be a source motivation for people across the world (McPherson, 1991). He led to the enactment of laws against slavery, which was very prevalent during those times. He strived hard and put all his efforts in removing this evil practice carried out throughout the society. He was opposed by many local leaders, people and organizations for changing the traditions and way of living of the American people. But, he did not make people’s opposing views affect him in taking decisions and planning for the development of America. Similarly, Indira Gandhi had many opposition from the male dominated society prevailing during her times. She was not considered as an appropriate candidate to fit for the position of Prime Minister of India. However, she proved everyone wrong by bringing significant reforms in the society and also strengthening the position of India through high end technology and efficient military power in the world. She introduced the Green Revolution in the crops production which helped India to not only fulfil its needs but also emerge as a leading exported of many food crops across the globe. She developed Nuclear Alliances for development of the nuclear technology and this brought India on the world map. She was a firm believer in her principles and methodologies and was very adamant regarding the steps that she carried. She is one of the best example of women empowerment and women leadership across the globe. She brought powerful military rule in the country and strengthened the various frontiers of India through increasing the military power and improving its technology (Kaviraj, 1986).
Abraham Lincoln had served as the President of America for only four years, but his contribution in the social, cultural, economic and overall development of America is commendable. He ended the very old practice of slavery of the blacks carried by the whites since many centuries in America. His famous quotes are: “Whatever you are, be a good one”, “Whenever I hear anyone arguing for slavery, I feel a strong impulse to see it tried on him personally”. These quotes shows his distinct personality and clear vision of freeing the mankind from slavery and its effects. He was a firm believer in Hardwork, merit and dedication which can be seen throughout his life (Wineburg, 1998). Indira Gandhi had similar kind of distinctive personality, where she used to make her own rules and principles related to the development of the nation. Few of the famous quotes by her are: “The power to question is the basis of all human progress”, “A nation’s strength ultimately consist in what it can do on its own and not in what it can borrow from other” (Sinha, 1982). These quotes show her level of confidence, courage and action following her conviction regarding the efforts that she carried to emerge India as a super power in the world
Thus, it can be seen that though there were many people who opposed Abraham Lincoln and Indira Gandhi, but this did not stop them from pursuing their vision and taking action for the achievement of overall development in their respective countries. Abraham Lincoln was successful to eradicate the traditional practice of slavery and also introduced many economic reforms for the upliftment of America (Long, 1994). Indira Gandhi, too, broke the hypo critic image of ideal women existing in the male dominated society and handled the international relation of India with the super power countries of the world very effectively. She brought about and characterized the image of being an iconic symbol holding courage and determination among the women. This made her earn the title of “Mother India” (Gupte, 2012).
References
Gupte, P. (2012). Mother India: a political biography of Indira Gandhi. . Penguin Books India.
Kaviraj, S. (1986). Indira Gandhi and Indian Politics. . Economic and Political Weekly, , 1697-1708.
Long, D. E. (1994). The jewel of liberty: Abraham Lincoln’s re-election and the end of slavery. . Stackpole Books.
McPherson, J. M. (1991). Abraham Lincoln and the second American revolution. Oxford University Press.
Schwartz, B. &. (2005). History, commemoration, and belief: Abraham Lincoln in American memory, 1945-2001. American Sociological Review, 70(2), , 183-203.
Sinha, N. (1982). Indira Gandhi: Her Road to Power. . American Political Science Review, 76(04),, 941-942.
Wineburg, S. (1998). Reading Abraham Lincoln: An expert/expert study in the interpretation of historical texts. . Cognitive Science, 22(3), , 319-346.

Essay on Buddhism and Japan

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Introduction: Buddhism in Japan
Buddhism has played pivotal role in establishing and sovereignty in the world, especially the Asian countries of India, Japan, China and Korea. It has its roots in the early centuries where it spread on to Japan in the middle of the 6th century. However, the source of Buddhism established in Japan is still a matter of debate and is discussed by various scholars even today.
Many have supported the phenomena which states that Buddhism spread to Japan in A.D. 538 through a Korean ruler of the Baekje province, who wanted to develop relationship and gain help from the then Japanese ruler named, Kimmei with Buddhist scriptures, arts and images of Buddha as well as religious writings. After 40 years from this incident, when Prince Shotoku came into reign, following Empress Suiko, Buddhism was declared as the official religion in Japan by him. He developed many policies for the people that would help them in better execution of trade with foreign countries. Thus, this inculcated a feeling of respect for the ruler as well as for the religion in the minds of the people. Shotoku was one of the first Japanese person who converted completely to Buddhism and he carried the treatment of his father through Buddhist practices. This saved the life of his father and he too converted to Buddhism (JAPAN BUDDHIST FEDERATION 2004).
It was found that even after the end of King Shotoku, Buddhism emerged and flourished between the people, the nobles and the court policies and structures. There were many Buddhist temples which were developed by the rulers and they propagated the Buddhist religion and its philosophy among the common people. There was development of six Nara schools of Buddhism in the temples for maintaining the flow of monks and classifying them into different schools for better utilization of their energy and work (LaFleur 1986).
Historical Argument
Buddhism has been very helpful in development of the Japanese culture, its economy as well as its style of ruling by the emperors. Its introduction in Japan has two different theories and stories. There were many clashes among the different clans in Japan regarding the introduction and acceptance of Buddhism as a religion and ideology for Japan. However, despite of the above mentioned opposition, Buddhism has emerged as a powerful tool in developing the trade and culture of Japan with other countries since its introduction in 6th century.
The historical argument is regarding the source of introduction of Buddhism in Japan where, it is believed by few researchers and historians that it originated in the proposed that it was introduced in the Kofun period which was from A.D. 250 to A.D. 538. On the other hand, most of the researchers and historians claim that it was introduced in Japan through the Korean ruler of the province, Baekje, in A.D. 538, which is mentioned in the above section. The argument regarding the introduction of Buddhism in Japan has been incorporated in the thesis statement.
Thesis Statement
The thesis statement tends to be the subject around which the report would be developed. The thesis statement of our report is:
Was Buddhism introduced in A.D. 538, by the Korean ruler or it was introduced in the Kofun period?
Historical Interaction: Economy`
The introduction of Buddhism in Japan heavily influenced its trade with other countries where earlier it used to carry its trade mostly with China and other small Asian countries. It provided a scope for improving the trade relations with other powerful countries of the world. This not only improved the trade, but also raised the Japanese economy to a compatible level with other rich and commercial countries. The effects were found right since the reign of Prince Shotoku in A.D. 562. He had established peace and sovereignty in Japan through introduction of Buddhism and implementing it as the official religion in Japan. The execution of trade with Europe helped in economic up liftment of Japan. This was possible through the message of peace that was given by following Buddhism religion and announcing it as their official religion (Covell 2006).
The economy of japan had to suffer due to the aggressive nature and non-compliance of the Japanese rulers with the rulers of other countries. They always wanted to expand their territorial boundaries to expand their kingdom. However, this situation changed after the adoption of Buddhism. Buddhism made the rulers calm and more peaceful which benefited their relations with rulers of other countries. Many policies were developed to promote trade between the nations. This was the historical interaction of Buddhism with the economic aspects of Japan.
Historical Interaction: Politics
The political influence of Buddhism in Japan is hardly found today, but in the 6th century, it had large impact on the politics of Japan. Buddhism was opposed by the two clans right from its introduction in Japan and since then there was discontent among the people of this clans regarding the acceptance of Buddhism as the official religion of Japan.
The rulers had difference in principles of ruling the public and this led to conflicts among the rulers. There were many rulers who tried to suppress the growth of Buddhism as they considered it as a threat to the traditional Shinto religion. However, they were opposed by their military as well as their subjects who wanted peace and so they favored Buddhist religion. Politically, Buddhism started gaining importance in the next few years where increasing number of people adopted the religion and it became very difficult for other rulers to suppress or restrict it. This was the impact of the historical interaction of Buddhism with the Japanese politics.
Historical Interaction: Culture
The highest influence of Buddhism was on the culture of Japan where the arts, images, scriptures and writings were taken from Buddhism. The art and paintings of Buddhism had a great impact on the Japanese style of painting. There were many Japanese scriptures who derive their source from Buddhist scriptures (Dolan and Worden 1994).
The principles of peace and sovereignty over power were liked by the people and they practiced it in the next years where, they passed its scriptures and learnings from one generation to another. The court had adopted Buddhism religion as the Buddhist principles were based on moral and intellectual thinking which was not observed in the traditional Shinto practices. Hence, though the court had to adopt written literature of the Chinese culture, they started understanding the importance of Buddhism and learned it through a period of years which helped in developing their own Buddhist scriptures and laws (Baker 2005). Thus, the historical interaction of Buddhism and the Japanese culture helped in the overall development and progress of the Japanese culture.

Source Analysis
Many sources have established the influence of Buddhism on the peace and progress of Japan. It is observed that the adoption of Buddhism, in A.D. 538, was protested by the two clans of Japan, which were, Nakatomi and Mononobe. However, it was strongly supported by the Sogo clan which played a significant role in the Japanese economy during that time. The earlier mentioned two clans of Nakatomi and Mononobe had orthodox approach and they opposed the inculcation of Buddhism in Japan’s culture and economy.
The leader of the Nakatomi clan believed that Buddhism propagated Buddha to be the most powerful of all the lords and deities and this was not accepted by him as it would reduce their power among the people. As a result of this, they opposed Buddhism. The Sogo clan however, identified the importance of adopting Buddhism to enrich their culture on a global level. There were many controversies and contradiction between these two clans where the heavy influence of the Soga clan on the Japanese economy helped them to emerge as victorious from the argument of adopting Buddhism on national level as one of its own religion.
Then, after the reign of King Shokotu, in the Taika period, which followed Kofun period, from A.D. 645 to A.D. 710, there was increasing adoption of Buddhism and its culture. In the Nara and Heian period from A.D. 710 to A.D. 1185, Buddhism gained the official status of being an official religion in the whole of Japan.
The importance and role of Buddhism in the Japanese economy, culture and politics has increased significantly which is clearly evident from its history.

Bibliography
Baker, Maikeru. 2005. “Cultural Diffusion and Its Effects on Japan.” http://www.samurai-archives.com. Accessed November 3, 2015. http://www.samurai-archives.com/cde.html.
Covell, Stephen G. 2006. “Buddhism in Japan.”.” Buddhism in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives (Buddhism in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives (2006): 219.) 219.
Dolan, Ronald E., and Robert L. Worden. 1994. Japan: A Country Study. Descriptive , Washington, DC: : Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.
JAPAN BUDDHIST FEDERATION. 2004. PART I: A BRIEF HISTORY OF BUDDHISM IN JAPAN. Accessed November 3, 2015. http://www.buddhanet.net/nippon/nippon_partI.html.
LaFleur, W. R. 1986. The karma of words: Buddhism and the literary arts in medieval Japan. Univ of California Press.

Annoted Bibliography Mayan warfare

Bibliography
Aoyama, K. and E. Graham. “Ancient Maya warfare: exploring the significance of lithic variation in Maya weaponry.” Lithics–The Journal of the Lithic Studies Society (2016): 5. Print.
The authors have described the weapons and the variation in the warfare strategies that was observed during the Maya empire. There is a lithic variation as per the authors in the Maya warfare and these weapons were manufactured accordingly to the requirements. They used weapons that were made of metals contradictory to most of the weapons that were made of stones. The significance of the lithic production in the Maya civilizations has been stressed on and the development of lithic has been evaluated and provided in the form of an analysis. It’s impact on the society has also been obtained across the system.
Aoyama, Kazuo. “Classic Maya warfare and weapons: spear, dart, and arrow points of Aguateca and Copan .” Ancient Mesoamerica 16.2 (2005): (2005): 291-304. Print.
The development, rise as well as the fall of the Maya empire has been described by the authors in these article. They have focused on the weapons used by the Maya Empire in their cities. It included using spears and dart points when there was any kind of conflict between the groups that were present in the Maya civilization. The use of the arrow points by the people in Aquatec and Copan has been derived from the excavations that are made in these areas and their tools for the warfare have been obtained. The importance of the warfare weapons in the development of the warfare techniques that would lead to the expansion of the kingdom has been developed.

Barrett, Jason W. and Andrew K. Scherer. “Stones, bones, and crowded plazas: Evidence for Terminal Classic Maya warfare at Colha, Belize.” Ancient Mesoamerica (2005): 101-118. Print.
In this article, the authors have developed an analysis and research on the critical conditions that led to the collapsing of the Maya civilization in the global history. There were many transitions and modification in the development of lithic tools as well as there were significant changes in the settlement patterns that were existing in the society during those times.
Chase, Arlen F. and Diane Z. Chase. “Late Classic Maya Political Structure, Polity size, and Warfare arenas.” Department of Sociologu and Anthropology (1998): 11-29. Print.
In this article, they have determined the classic political structure that was existing in the Maya political structure with many long term excavations carried out in the same. The size of their polity was quite huge as per their civilization and the warfare arenas were developed on the basis of the expansion that it aimed to make in its kingdom.
Chase, Diane and Arlen Chase. ” Seventh Century Star Wars: Reassessing the Role of Warfare in Shaping Classic Period Maya Society in the Southern Lowlands.” The 80th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology (2015). Print.
The authors have highlighted the territorial gain purpose of the Maya warfare and they have shown that the conflicts that were made during the Maya times served to be one of the core element in the development of the ritual purposes that were observed during those times. It includes the main purpose of developing the warfare strategies in the Classic Maya period. It constituted a significant part of the warfare techniques and weapons developed by the Maya empire.
Dahlin, Bruce. H. “The barricade and abandonment of Chunchucmil: Implications for northern Maya warfare.” Latin American Antiquity (2000): 283-298. Print.
In this article, the author has described the warfare strategies of the northern section of the Maya civilization. There were walls surrounding the entire city and this has been obtained through various sites that have been excavated over a period of time in these regions. There was an excessive competition among the rivalries to increase their resources in order to provide their population. There are indications that there was very low rainfall, lack of soil in the Maya civilization areas. Thus, the main purpose of expansion tends to be the requirement of food.
Demarest, A. A., O’Mansky, M., et al. “Classic Maya defensive systems and warfare in the Petexbatun region: Archaeological evidence and interpretations.” Ancient Mesoamerica, 8(02), (1997): 229. Print.
The authors have described the various excavations and archaeological sites that were explored through the development of an understanding of the civilization prevalent during those times. In their warfare strategies, they used large walls of masonry for their defense and there were wooden palisades on the top of the wall. There were baffled gateways, palisades and moats at the entrance of the village that ensured high security and safety of the village during the wars.
Graham, Elizabeth, Scott Simmons and Christine White. “The Spanish conquest and the Maya collapse: how ‘religious’ is change?. .” World Archaeology (2013): 161-185. Print.
In these article, the author has provided an emphasis on the Spanish Conquest of the region that was due to the mishaps in the Maya warfare management and strategies. There was adoption of the Christian burial during the times of the Maya empire which is indicated through the archaeological excavations that are carried out in these areas. The conquest of the Spanish rule in the Maya civilization led to the major collapse of the Maya culture and civilization. Consequently, it also led to the end of the Maya warfare strategies that became outdated for the development of new warfare strategies and techniques to be adopted as per the impact that the war has on the society.
Haas, Jonathan. ” Warfare and the evolution of culture.” Archaeology at the Millennium. Springer US (2001): 329-350. Print.
In this article, the author has developed an evaluation of the evolution of the warfare strategies across different civilizations. It has been carried out on the basis of the warfare strategies that were adopted during the times of Maya civilization. The effect of the warfare skills and structure adopted had a huge impact on the culture as well as traditions that were developed during those times. The author has highlighted the significance of the warfare strategies over the development of human welfare and overall good of the society.
Serafin, Stanley, Carlos Peraza Lope and Eunice Uc Gonzalez. ” Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico.” American journal of physical anthropology (2014): 140-151. Print.
In this article, the authors have described the ancient Maya violence that existed in the Northwestern region. The evidences have been obtained from the bio archaeological analysis of the conditions that were prevailing during those times. The frequency of violence in the Maya civilization has been obtained through the cranial trauma and accident conditions that were prevailing in the society in terms of the chronological trends that were observed in the society during those times. The factors have been determined on the basis of the bio archaeological excavation and investigation of the violence and warfare that existed during the Maya culture.

Essay on History of Trading Gold

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Introduction
The history of gold has its mention in the ancient ages of human beings. It is believed that in 560 BC, one of its kind of first coin was introduced by the Greek state of Lydia in Asia Minor. It tends to be one of the most rarest and difficult metal to be mined and hence it was used as a currency in the earlier times. It was very highly valued and was used while trading among different nations of the world. When the price of gold was standardized and fixed across the globe in the international market trading gold was not applicable.
Since ages, it has been observed that gold represents wealth and social position in the society. It turns out to be an important material of trade and business. It was highly regarded as the currency that tends to have several effects on the trading relations of the world. It helped to decide the power and wealth of a specific country, when the total amount of gold that they possess is equitized at the global level at the standardized level. Gold has always had a huge impact on the market across the globe. It was one such commodity that was responsible for establishing a respectable position in the society. It has been gaining such significance and value since the value of money that is in the form of paper through currency is not certain and it changes from one country to another. Hence, in order to determine a standard liquidity that can be used as a commodity in the global trade, trading gold for the other commodities or considering it as one form of cash has been achieved (Bernstein).

Initial phase:
The first price of Gold was sent in 1946, through the Bretton Woods Conference and its price was fixed at $35 per ounce. It was aimed at creating a gold standard in the United States. It has set a benchmark in the trading history, where during the times after World War 2, countries kept their currency at a rate that was near the US dollar and the amount should equally be divided into gold as it had a stable price over the globe. There became huge presence of gold in US when there value increased through their dollar gaining value in against the value of gold that has been constantly increasing in power due to which Europe started becoming weaker. It is also known as the Bretton Woods Agreement that aimed controlling the activities in the international finance, that is Forex market and to eradicate the harmful effects of World War II developed among the entire generation (TRADEGOLDONLINE.COM).
However, in 1971, Bretton woods Agreement when gold was no longer exchangeable with US dollars. The market became supply vs demand oriented and the main functions of trading included developing of new financial instruments and institutions for the same. It was established by President Nixon, where the system of paving gold and trading across the different nations was permitted and the value of US dollars started increasing. In 1974, there were many gold trading opportunities explored when the ban regarding the private ownership of gold by the citizens of US was relaxed by through the legal bodies concerning with the trade and finance policies in the US government. Gold has been involved with the development of ornaments and design among the people (EASY-FOREX.COM).

Current scenario:
Gold trading is very easily available these days with a large number of companies and ventures who have their share in the contribution of the share market and currencies among the different countries of the world. It was brought on one level through the US dollar currency and trading of gold became a part of the bonds and joint ventures that one have to observe while developing a partnership with the different financial bodies and departments across the big financial exchange companies on a global level. Carrying the trading of gold online can be carried out through Forex market (TRADEGOLDONLINE.COM).
There are many other options that are readily available to the financial investors for depositing their money and equating it through the national rates of exchange that are developed for gold. It involves providing money that would be equal to the gold credits to the countries who need it. Many countries deposit their gold in the World Bank and it handles the flow of finance very smoothly for each and every nation across the globe. There are many economic as well as political considerations that are very much influenced by the rate of gold in the international market and its exchange in terms of currency (EASY-FOREX.COM).
Currently, with the advancement in technology and increasing awareness among the people related to the Forex market, there are new parts to be developed by the Forex market as each and every member across its existence would be getting the benefit of considering gold as a substitute for money regarding different set of financial activities and investments that is required to be made through them (EASY-FOREX.COM).
Conclusion:
Thus, it can be stated that the journey of trading gold across the history of humans has constantly increased the value of gold in the market and its capabilities to be a crucial factor in establishing the trading relations with other nations and estimation of the financial value that has been generated across the international finance market by the globalized banks. It can be observed that how the trading through gold has become standardized and systemized that it will be supporting the main framework consisting of the market demand and customer satisfaction. Gold has attained the stature of being considered as one form of currency through the international financial market and different aspects of trading gold against currency for dealing with factors that are related to the development of currency through notes.

References
Bernstein, P. L. The power of gold: the history of an obsession. . John Wiley & Sons., 2012.
EASY-FOREX.COM. Gold Trading History. 2016. 13 March 2016. .
TRADEGOLDONLINE.COM. The History of Trading Gold. n.d. 13 March 2016. .