Essay on Global Media Trends in US


Table of Contents
1. Overview: 2
1.1. Introduction 2
1.2. Geography of USA: 2
1.3. Demographic Information 3
1.4. Economy and Politics 3
2. Media Systems in USA 4
2.1. Media Theories and Political Philosophies 4
2.2. Barriers and Influences to Media Development 4
3. Country Details 5
3.1. Media Systems 5
3.2. Media Overview 5
3.3. Emerging Trends 6
4. Conclusion 6

The scenario of the media systems in the US has evolved largely with the increasing awareness among the people regarding the events and the transition of technologies across the globe. The advancement of the social media has led to the awareness among the people regarding the businesses and options that are available in different fields. US has always been known for its innovation in various fields like the concept of Mc Donald’s and KFC food chain and the extremely popular Walmart supply chain. The widespread geography of USA has made it possible to use the benefit of both the hot as well as cold temperature zones in the development of the media (Gunzerath, 2012). There is a difference in the life styles and the living standards across the states in USA.

Geography of USA:

Demographic Information
The division of the population on the basis of various factors is termed as the demographic information of a nation. In USA, the population is categorized on the basis of age group where the population of people above 65 years is going to be increasing from 12% to 20% till 2050. On the other hand, the number of young people and the working population is expected to be up to 45% in 2050 which is much better than the other superpowers like China, Japan and Europe. This would be due to the consistency in the fertility rate per woman which would be above 2 in US which has tremendously dropped in the other nations (Kurz, 2011).

(Kurz, 2011)

Economy and Politics
The economy of USA has been evolving since years as it promises to be one of the most promising center for industries, it companies, fashion and food chains along with the development of other businesses. The economy has developed itself from the recession that it was facing in the late 20th century. The political background has been creating the news and journalism has evolved due to the revolution brought by the advancement in technology (Gunzerath, 2012).

Media Systems in USA
There are various modes through which the media systems has evolved in US. We are going to discuss few of its elements in the article.
Media Theories and Political Philosophies
The theories related to the media and press were first developed by Siebert, Peterson and Schramm in 1956, in the “Four Theories of the Press”. They compared the existence and the proper utilization of the media systems in USA during those times. During those times, the political rules were not liberal for the acceptance of liberalized views and opinions in politics like it is today. Though the structure of the political and the economic system has improved a lot since these years. Hallin and Mancini in 2004, developed advanced study and research on the structure of the media systems and they provided three models on the media and politics that are observed in USA. These three models were based on the dimensions of newspaper and journalism industry, the political considerations, professionalism and the role of the state in the development of the media system (Kurz, 2011).
Barriers and Influences to Media Development
There were various barriers that are created in the acceptance of the laws and enforcements by the US government. This can be seen from the opposition to the strictness that was to be imposed on the use and possession of hand guns in US. However, there were mixed views of the people in different states which led to the liberalized laws in certain states which has led to influencing the media and its usage to cover the issues. Another issue that was observed was when there was liberalization of few rules related to the sales and production of weed in certain states of US. There has been ban imposed on the use of weed in certain states owing to the flexibility that US government offers to the development of laws in the states (Kawamoto, 2003).
Country Details
The use of the media and its widespread reach among the number of people in US has been developed due to the creation of various bodies and councils that help providing the setup for the entire scenario.
Media Systems
There are various bodies developed in US by the government as well as private bodies that are trusted and signed through the government to ensure the righteousness and reliability of the media sources in drawing the attention of the people and providing them with the information.
Us government has developed bodies like USAID which stands for “U.S. Agency for International Development”. They have various departments like the Democracy and Governance as well as Transition Initiatives which helps in dealing with the dealing of the projects and the crisis that are related to the development and utilization of the media that is present in USA.
There are various non- profit organizations like “Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL)” and “ The Centre for International Media Assistance (CIMA)” which are dedicated to the proper display and providing assistance to the use of media and its sources in USA.
There are various other groups that are based in US states like “International Center for Journalists (ICFJ)” and “Media Development Investment Fund (MDIF)” which help in the development of the media that is being used in the country for various purposes ranging from the development of laws, policies to the contribution of the people in the country’s economy. They also handle the bodies which have to make sure that the genuineness and reality of the truth is transferred to the people through the use of different media systems.

Media Overview
The modes that are used for the transfer of media range from using the social media in the form of networking sites to the age old procedure of using the radio and television as the medium for the increased awareness among the people. Along with that, publishing the news and other information in the newspapers and magazines also serve to be one of the most significant method of spreading the news and information among the countrymen.

Newspapers & magazines:
The section of the society that is largely affected by them are the people mostly belonging to higher age and working group. They largely believe the facts mentioned there as they sometimes have limited access to the outer world.
Radio & Television:
It helps in reaching the largest section of the people across the USA which helps in creating awareness and entertain people in the US.
Internet and Social media:
The use of internet has increased exponentially over the ages and this has large impact on the younger section of the society which are very much prone to any sort of addiction or belief due to their sensitiveness and immaturity. However, it has also helped to connect people and generate awareness through its extended use.
Emerging Trends
There has been increase in the use of the social networking websites and apps like Facebook, WhatsApp, Snapchat and Skype. This has increased the connectivity among the people at various places within the country and it has made sharing of media possible too. The influence of these tools serves to be one of the most important element of the media. These emerging trends in the medium of propagating the news and developing awareness among the people regarding various issues has gained popularity since ages and this has helped to increase the viewers and has widespread increased the reach of the news and other modes of media. The media has developed tremendously and its effects have also emerged so as to affect and reach a large number of population in USA. They have an immense effect on the attitudes and the behavior of the people in the society.
There has to be clarity and specificity in the information that is being transmitted and displayed over the different media among the people. The genuineness of the news has to be ensured and ethical terms of people and different communities are to be considered on the whole to develop the media and propagate it through different sources among the people. There has to be increasing use of motivational and inspirational stories and news so as to help the people to overcome their difficulties and problems and contribute to the development of the nation (McChesney, 2004). The use of the social media has to be carried out cautiously while considering the sentiments of the people and taking special precautions in the display of the information across the media.


Gunzerath, D. (2012). Current Trends in U.S. Media Measurement Methods. International Journal on Media Management, 99-106.

Kawamoto, K. (2003). Digital journalism. . Emerging Media and the Changing Horizons of Journalism.

Kurz, A. (2011, july 02). HEALTH REFORM TRENDS, RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS. Retrieved from

McChesney, R. D. (2004). The problem of the media: US communication politics in the twenty-first century. New York: NYU Press.

Essay on Global Media Trends in Japan

Table of Contents
1. Overview 2
1.1. Introduction 2
1.2. Geography 2
1.3. Demographic Information 3
1.4. Economy and Politics 3
2. Media Systems in Japan 4
2.1. Media Theories 4
2.2. Barriers to Media Development 5
2.3. Emerging Trends in the Media 5
3. Country Details 5
3.1. Political Philosophies 5
3.2. Media Systems 5
3.3. Media Overview with Examples 6
3.3.1. Newspapers & magazines: 6
3.3.2. Radio & Television: 6
3.3.3. Internet and Social media: 6
3.4. Emerging Trends 6
4. Conclusion 7
4.1. Media outlook in Japan and its role in the progress and development: 7
4.2. Consequences 7
5. References 7


The scope of the media and the theories owing its growth has been on an increase in Japan due to the increasing knowledge and awareness among the people pertaining to the media and its importance. Japan has been leading the world of technology with the large number of innovations and technological inventions that has helped the electronics world to evolve globally. The growth in the automobile as well as the electronics industry has been led by Japan singlehandedly through the companies like Toyota, Honda, Nissan and Panasonic and Sony.

Japan’s geography is surrounded by water from all the sides and the proximity to the sea has resulted in the climate that would be warm and moist.

Demographic Information
The division of the population of Japan that is the demographic information of Japan as per the division of the population is to be considered. In Japan, the population is categorized on the basis of age group where the population of people above 65 years is going to be increasing from 22% in 2010 to 40% till 2060. On the other hand, the number of young people and the working population is expected to decline due to the decrease in the population growth in the country and owing to the fertility rates which are as low as 1.39 that are observed over here (Digitalstrategyconsulting, 2013).

(Digitalstrategyconsulting, 2013)
Economy and Politics
It has also been leading the financial world through possessing a large number of financial assets that are existing in the world. It is also the world’s second largest economy.

Media Systems in Japan
The media systems in Japan has evolved through various phases which are discussed below in the form of different elements.
Media Theories
The media system that is existing in a country depends on the political system that is existing in the country. There are five types of political theories that are pertaining in the world and they are (Feldman, 1993):
• Soviet/Communist Theory:
In the Communist type of theory, government completely holds and operates the public and the media that is to be broadcasted among the public.
• Authoritarian Theory:
In the Authoritarian type of theory, the government had the hold on what should be ideally shown or broadcasted but the media had the freedom to develop things on its own and then take the permission of the government to broadcast stated that the media could be privately as well as publicly owned.
• Libertarian Theory:
In the Libertarian theory, the main role of the government is to spread and create awareness among the people regarding the truth and provide the people in the country with the liberty to express their views freely irrespective of them opposing the media. In countries like China and US, this theory is observed.
• Social Responsibility Theory
In the Social Responsibility type of theory, the media has got the freedom to criticize the government and institutions and they are having the social responsibility of serving the public where the main goal is to fulfil the needs of the society. It is somewhat similar to libertarian process, but it also suggests and defines the role of the media in depth. This kind of theory is observed in countries with large economies like Japan, Great Britain and Australia (Feldman, 1993).
• Developmental Theory
In developmental theory, the main focus of the media is to promote the social as well as economic goals of the country that would be inheriting the purposes of Literacy, health goals and political integration. Government uses the media as a tool to achieve the above mentioned things. This kind of theory is found in developing countries like India, Africa and East Asian countries.
In Japan, the control of the government is at different level depending on the hold that it has in influencing the media and developing policies and theories in the country. However, it is observed that the theory which is adopted by the government in the development of media is of socially responsible type.
Barriers to Media Development
In Japan, the decreasing population in the age group of 18-65 that serves to be the young and the working class serves to be a major threat to the development of media in the nation. This poses a great threat of innovation and development of the economy in terms of the modifications and upgradations that are to be made (Digitalstrategyconsulting, 2013). There has also been a decrease in the number of immigrants from other countries in Japan. This poses the threat of incomplete understanding of the cultures across the world and leaves them with limited scope of expansion and adoption of the global needs and requirements. There are various changes that are made in the laws and imposing them serves to be a major barrier for the Japanese government.

Emerging Trends in the Media
The medium through which the public can be reached is changing and developing due to the advancement in the technology and easy accessibility to the internet. These trends serve to be the major means of reaching the public and they not only reach to a large amount of public through its extended reach but also manage to influence the views of the public regarding the social and political issues (Schodt, 2014).
Country Details
Political Philosophies
The theories and philosophies that have been adopted in Japan range from the communist type of theory in the early twentieth century to the development of the socially responsible theory in the twenty first century. The political philosophy of Japan still emphasizes on imposing of excessive military control in a controlled manner over the public. This has been criticized by large number of protests in Japan and hence they have now developed a more diplomatic form of political philosophy.
Media Systems
There is a great difference in the views of the people depending on the development of the economy in their specific region. For, this we need to see the development of various regions in Japan.

(Wakamatsu-cho & Shinjuku-ku, 1996)
Media Overview with Examples
Newspapers & magazines:
Newspapers serve to reach the maximum number of masses with its widespread reach. Yomiuri Shimbun is the top most selling newspaper in Japan and it has undergone continuous opposition from other the medias of reaching public (Digitalstrategyconsulting, 2013).
Radio & Television:
There are various key stations that are formed in japan that control the content that is formulated across the media in the television and radio. This include the Nippon Television, Tokyo broadcasting system and other such systems and there are various radio FM and AM channels like JFN, JFL and JRN which are broadcasted through them.
Internet and Social media:
The social media has been influenced the maximum in the last decade and this is due to the advancement in technology and easy availability of the social networking options. There has been increase in the popularity of the global networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, Line and local sites like Mixi and Gree (Digitalstrategyconsulting, 2013).
Emerging Trends
There is a tremendous increase in the influence that the social media has on the public across the globe. In Japan too, people have been spreading awareness and criticizing the government for their rules, laws and policies that they do not agree with (Digitalstrategyconsulting, 2013).

Media outlook in Japan and its role in the progress and development:
The influence of the media on the public can be seen through the opposition of the “Draconian Secrecy Law” in Japan where the law curbed the media from revealing or searching for any secrets that are related to the government (Schodt, 2014). However, this was not supported by the people in Japan and they opposed the establishment of the law in large numbers. Thus, it can be seen that the media helped in expressing the views of the people and this serves to be a good notion for the implementation of laws that would in the best of public interests.
It is also observed that the government has to impose more strict punishments and rules for the breaching of laws that is due to the freedom provided to the individuals in the nation to express their views against the government. There has to be a very preventive role which is to be exercised by the various councils of the government to ensure that the right laws are to be imposed irrespective of the oppositions that it may face (Digitalstrategyconsulting, 2013).

Digitalstrategyconsulting. (2013, february 06). Top 6 social networks in Japan. Retrieved january 8, 2014, from
Feldman, O. (1993). Politics and the news media in Japan. . Ann Arbor: : University of Michigan Press.
Gunzerath, D. (2012). Current Trends in U.S. Media Measurement Methods. International Journal on Media Management, 99-106.
Schodt, F. L. (2014). Dreamland Japan: Writings on modern manga. Stone Bridge Press, Inc..
Wakamatsu-cho, & Shinjuku-ku. (1996). Chapter 2 Population and Households. Retrieved from

Research Report on The Role of Mass Media on Body Image, Body Image Dissatisfaction

Student’s Name:
ID Number:
Attendance Number:

Table of Contents
1. Introduction 3
1.1. Research Statement: 3
2. Literature review 4
2.1. Relevant researches 4
3. Findings 6
3.1. Future Research projects 8
4. Conclusion 8
5. References 9

The Role of Mass Media on Body Image, Body Image Dissatisfaction: Gender Differences in Eating Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Reasons for Exercise
With a great boost in the social media technology and advancement in the internet, the role of mass media in influencing the people across the globe has increased significantly. Any information can be circulated worldwide within few seconds. Mass media refers to the modes of communication that is utilized for communicating to a large crowd or public in the world. Body image is the perception that people have regarding attractiveness of themselves. The increasing influencing of mass media also has certain disadvantages along with many advantages. It has a great influence on the psychology of the people, especially the youth and this influence has negative outcomes. It has huge impact on the self – esteem of the people and it also affects the perception of the people for their own selves.
Owing to the westernization of the cultures across the world, there has been significant changes in the habits, life style, food habits of the people across the world. There is a great mutation in the eating habits and attitudes of the people regarding food. There are different perceptions regarding the food and Self- esteem as per the gender of the person. This outcomes has resulted in increase in the number of diseases and disorders among the people and specially the youth of the world. This has aroused my interest in the topic that identifying the cause of body image dissatisfaction and gender differences in the Eating habits of the people due to mass media.
Research Statement:
Establishing the role of mass media on body image dissatisfaction and gender differences in eating habits, self-esteem and perception
Literature review
Along with the boost of the mass media, there are many negative influences which have been identified by various researchers and scientists. Different forms of media were identified like the television, magazines, newspaper, radio and their impacts on the perception and psychology of the people have been established. This kind of influence has led to body image dissatisfaction where individuals start getting over conscious about their body and start considering the body and shape shown in the mass media to be ideal.
A major contribution of these influences through the mass media comes from television. There are programs, shows and movies that objectify various parts of the body and are displayed so glamorously that people start getting uncomfortable with their own body. People start developing complexes with their own structure and shape. As a result of this, they tend to go into depression, get hyper tension and invite many unwanted disorders and diseases due to this. This also leads to mood swings among the people which again is not desirable for the well-being of the society as it would promote insecurity, quarrels and heated arguments among the people.
Relevant researches
It has been mentioned by well-known researchers like Adrian Furnham, Nicola Badmin and Ian Sneade, department of Psychology, London, that the influence of the mass media is different for the two genders. They have further stated that the body consciousness and body complex that is developed through mass media have developed different eating habits and developed different attitudes among them regarding consumption of food. For the men, it has managed to develop more concern on the shape rather than weight. While, for the women, it has developed more concern on the weight and thinness of the waistline and due to this they carry dieting in improper proportions which spoils their health and reduces their immunity (Furnham, Badmin, & Sneade, 2002).
According to a well acclaimed nutritionist and dietician Dr. Ana R. Sepulveda and Maria Calado, the eating disorders have been developed due to the globalization of the cultures due to westernization and mass media (Sepulveda & Maria, 2012). The eating disorders have raised from the body image dissatisfaction among the youth and it has different characteristics and perception for the two genders.
The body image dissatisfaction among the women due to the mass media have developed the psychology of considering the thin body as shown in the television and other sources as ideal body shape and weight for the women (Shelly, Monique, Shibley, & Hyde, 2008). Eating attitudes and behaviour of the women are an outcome of the above mentioned urge of having the ideal thin body. There is a link between the body image dissatisfaction among the women and their eating behaviour. Due to the thin body shown and popularised on mass media, women tend to attain that shape and weight through rigorous dieting which often leads to lack of essential nutrients and vitamins as a result of which they become sick and prone to various infections (Shelly, Monique, Shibley, & Hyde, 2008).
There has been different researches on the effect of mass media on young boys and girls who were in their adolescent age. During the adolescent age, exposure to media which displays thin women or girls and tough and toned boy leaves an image in the minds of these young people. Also, depiction of images that would provide incomplete knowledge to the boys may result in injuring them or developing a major injury due to the excessive exercise without proper diet and plan. Food attitudes develop due to such ignorance which also result in low self-esteem and lack of motivation among them (Barker & Galambos, 2003).
The need of exercise arises from the striving need of the men and women or boys and girls to achieve the ideal figure and shape that they have seen in the mass media. There is some link or connection between the body image dissatisfaction and improper eating habits or attitudes and this link serves to be developed through the use of mass media and leaving influences on the minds of the people regarding the appropriateness of their body. This link has been studied and analysed by various researchers which we are going to observe further.
There are various experiments and survey carried out by different researchers to establish the relationship between the body image dissatisfaction developed through mass media and the differences among the genders regarding eating behaviour and habits. Experiments have been carried on adult men and women as well as adolescent boys and girls.
One of such experiment was carried out by Marika Tiggemann, where she undertook around 1450 students from secondary school. She had developed questionnaires designed especially for the adolescent kids that involved viewing of different programs on television that boys and girls of their age would prefer watching. She linked the disorders in the eating attitudes with the different type of content viewed on television. She found that young boys and girls were hugely impacted by the exposure, but it was not completely negative. Most of the boys and girls showed body image dissatisfaction which was however, not related to the total time for which they watched television, but to the type of content they saw on television (Tiggemann, Television and Adolescent Body Image: The Role of Program Content and Viewing Motivation, 2005).
Another such experiment was carried by Marika Tiggemann along with Duane Hargreaves where they undertook 196 women and 205 men and they established the relation between viewing of television commercials which involved both the categories appearance based and nonappearance based with the changing moods and behaviour of the participants. It was observed that when the participants were shown appearance based shows, there were much greater mood swings which included getting angry, insecure and dissatisfied body image (Tiggemann & Hargreaves, 2002).
Another such experiment was carried out by Adrian Furnham, Nicola Badmin and Ian Sneade, department of Psychology, London, where they took 235 boys and girls and established a relation between eating habits of the students and their self-esteem as well as conceptualization of ideal body for them. They found that female’s self-esteem was more affected through body dissatisfaction then the male’s self-esteem. There were relation between the reasons for exercising and body image dissatisfaction and the reasons were found as a result of low self-esteem and improper eating habits (Furnham, Badmin, & Sneade, 2002).
Considering such experiments, it can be stated that there is mass media has promoted a improper and baseless ideal structure that has led to body dissatisfaction among the people and adolescent boys and girls. The influence of mass media can be established by knowing the ideal size from the girls and boys which they think as perfect and would like to achieve such body. Most of the boys displayed interest for more muscular body and girls displayed interest in having thin and slim figure. In both the genders, discontent for own body was found though it was for different parameters and hence body image dissatisfaction was observed in both of them. Such sociocultural effects of the mass media on body image and behaviour among both the gender stereotypes are shown in the figure.

(Sepulveda & Maria, 2012)
Future Research projects
The effects of mass media on the behaviour and psychology of the young people has been observed and hence, it is very important to reverse it or reduce it by proper guidance and supervision. There has to be a regular check on the display of images through mass media and the ones that are based on appearance have to be removed or altered to decrease their impact. There are many projects which are established to find the appropriateness of the content that is being displayed and these practices are adopted strictly on a large scale and it also takes the assistance of censorship whenever required. It is found that in the future for providing correct information regarding the body and removing body image dissatisfaction can be widely achieved through positive media only (Thompson & Heinberg, 2002).
It can be concluded that mass media has to be utilized carefully and imposing of such psychology has to be prevented and reduced through coordinated efforts. The behaviour of those that have already been affected has to be improved through effective counselling.
The media that is responsible for such body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders is capable enough to rehabilitate people involving mostly the young people, regarding the positive and correct body image psychology that would motivate the people and develop high self-esteem among them.

Barker, E. T., & Galambos, N. L. (2003). Body Dissatisfaction of Adolescent Girls and Boys:Risk and Resource Factors. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 23(2), 141-165.
Furnham, A., Badmin, N., & Sneade, I. (2002). Body image dissatisfaction: gender differences in eating attitudes, self-esteem, and reasons for exercise. The Journal of Psychology,, 581–596.
Sepulveda, A. R., & Maria, C. (2012). Westernization: The Role of Mass Media on Body Image and Eating Disorders. Relevant topics in Eating Disorders.
Shelly, G., Monique, W. L., Shibley, J., & Hyde. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: A meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin, 460-476.
Thompson, J. K., & Heinberg, L. J. (2002). The Media’s Influence on Body Image Disturbance and Eating Disorders: We’ve Reviled Them, Now Can We Rehabilitate Them? Journal of Social Issues, 55(2), 339–353.
Tiggemann, M. (2005). Television and Adolescent Body Image: The Role of Program Content and Viewing Motivation. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(3), 361-381.
Tiggemann, M., & Hargreaves, D. (2002). The Effect Of Television Commercials On Mood And Body Dissatisfaction: The Role Of Appearance-Schema Activation. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 21, 287-308.