Report on Eco-Audit of a Jet Engine bracket

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction 4
2. Method 5
2.1. Design: How and where it is made. 5
2.2. Original Design 5
2.3. Proposed design by the winner 7
2.4. Final reinforced design for production 10
3. Eco- Audit of the process: 11
3.1. Passive energy use during the parts life and the options at end of life. 12
4. Results and analysis: 13
5. Discussion 15
6. Conclusion 15
7. References 16

List of Figures
Figure 1: Load Considerations in the original bracket 5
Figure 2: Original Design of the bracket 6
Figure 3: Layout of the proposed bracket design 7
Figure 4 :3 D modelling of the proposed bracket 8
Figure 5: Final look of the proposed bracket 9
Figure 6: Finalized reinforced bracket design 9
Figure 7: Eco-Audit technology in Granta 12
Figure 8: Stress calculation in the finalized bracket 14

Due to the advancement in technology and invention of better methods of production of aerospace parts, there has been a huge demand for developing cost effective and power as well as fuel efficient parts. The performance of the aircraft engines is very much depended on the parts it is made up of. These parts contribute to the overall weight of the aircraft and these reduces the efficiency by increasing the consumption of fuel (Mattingly, 2002). At the same time, it is also very important to maintain the high quality in terms of robustness, stiffness, toughness and other such physical aspects of the parts. This has to be achieved through effective designing using multiple engineering tools to optimize the size and structure of these parts without compromising in its strength and durability (Rawal, Brantley, & Karabudak, 2013).
For designing and developing such parts, additive manufacturing is a very useful solution. It is also known as 3D printing and provides a unique as well as exclusive feature to develop parts of any shapes and test the various parameters related to the strength and durability of the parts through 3D modelling. It makes the practical testing of the design possible through accurate and precise dimensioning of the part in the design modules. It helps in developing components which would be lighter in weight and would also provide the required levels of strength and performance (Dehoff, Peter, Yamamoto, Chen, & Blue, 2013).
GE Corporation has been carrying production of the aerospace and other engineering components for over years and is a very trusted name across the globe. It has been striving to develop product s and designs that would help in minimizing the weight of the components and at the same time provide the required performance. It has been encouraging engineers across the world to develop designs and structures that would provide the above mentioned characteristics (GRABCAD.COM, 2014).
In one such attempt, it had organized a competition for all the GRABCAD designers to develop brackets for jet engines which would be very cost effective and of high quality. For this competition, the participants would use the original design provided by the company and modify it through additive manufacturing techniques and design for developing a better engine bracket than the current used design. There were many specification in terms of load bearing capacity, weight, dimensions, thermal load bearing capacity, capacity to absorb tension, material, static linear loads, yield strengths as well as the size and diameter of the bracket.
It is assumed that the development of the product is in the initial stage where the forging and shaping of the loading bracket is carried out. The 3 different methods used in the production of the 3 obtained designs of the load brackets have to be evaluated in terms of additive manufacturing processes. It has been then evaluated through the CES EduPack software. In this software, the data regarding the development of the product would be evaluated. In this evaluation, any other forces or external factors affecting the moment of inertia of the loading fraction has been neglected. The standard readings of the parameters are considered for analyzing the passive energy used by the company in the development of the product, that is, loading brackets.
The method used involves considering the current design specifications, evaluating the best design provided and developing an optimum design for the engineering brackets used in the jet engines (Kalpakjian, 2001). The design and the load as well as other requirements of the designs has been evaluated and determined in the answer developed (Chu, Graf, & Rosen, 2008).
Design: How and where it is made.
Original Design
The design involves following the specific procedure of modelling, printing, testing, simulation, modifying and then finishing for final mass scale production (GE.COM, 2015).
The design of the original bracket developed by GE Corporation and used in the jet engines considers the static and torsional loads as shown in the figure below:
Figure 1: Load Considerations in the original bracket

(GRABCAD.COM, 2014).
The design of the engineering loading bracket which specified the above specifications is shown in the figure below:
Figure 2: Original Design of the bracket

(GRABCAD.COM, 2014).
Proposed design by the winner
The design that was proposed by M. Arie Kurniawan, the winner of the competition used Direct Metal Laser Sintering method of manufacturing (Dutta & Froes, 2015). The weight of the bracket was reduced from the original 2033 grams to 327 grams. In his design, it can be seen that he has used the principle of H-beam and developed a profile of the bracket on the basis of that.
The layout of the fraction that has been developed by M. Arie Kurniawan, involves development of the torsional and static loads that are going to be exerted on the bracket. The layout of his design is shown below:
Figure 3: Layout of the proposed bracket design

After developing the design and the layout, there was a 3D model developed by him, where he had used additive manufacturing tool and GRABCAD software fir displaying the model in 3 dimensional form and there

A 3D model of the design was developed by him which is shown in the figure below:

Figure 4 :3 D modelling of the proposed bracket

The final look of the design of the bracket that was developed by him is shown in the figure below:
Figure 5: Final look of the proposed bracket

Final reinforced design for production
The design proposed by the winner was then reinforced through simulation and modelling by the GRC engineers in its New York plant. They attached every bracket with an MTS servo testing machine which worked on hydraulics. It has been developed through the FDM manufacturing method which refers to Fused Deposition Modelling (Hambali, Smith, & Rennie, 2012). The weight of the final model was about 240 grams which was very less and ensured the compactness in the design and the performance of the bracket was also retained through high strength and durability of the component.
Figure 6: Finalized reinforced bracket design

After considering all the designs mentioned above, details of the technical and other specifications of the brackets developed in each stage is tabulated below:
Design Material Weight (g) Manufacturing method Cost (£)
Original (O) Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V 2,033 Milling 150
Proposed by the Competition winner (CW) Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V 327 DMLS 250
Finalized Fibre reinforced (FR) PLA, Basalt fibres, Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V
Epoxy PLA (182)
Basalt (20)
Titanium (33)
Epoxy (5) FDM, autoclave. 50

Eco- Audit of the process:
Eco-Audit of the production process refers to considering, evaluating and analyzing the effects of the manufacturing process on the various elements of the environment (Steger, 2000). “CES EduPack 2015” is a software which provides a complete analysis of the various processes and functions involved in the development of a product. It helps in providing evaluation of the product in terms of its cost, effectiveness of different methods of manufacturing, impact on the environment and evaluation of specific technical terms used in the development of the product. It involves maintaining of data bases regarding the material and the information regarding the various manufacturing and designing processes. The basic principle on which the CES EduPack software works in developing an eco-design of the products involves following of a specific flow of steps and measures which are shown in the following figure:
CES EduPack: Eco-design Tools

This design is followed for the data evaluation and analysis for the various processes which hare carried out in the software. At the same time, there is formulation of the Eco-Audit tool which requires setting up of the various parameters and developing the configurations regarding them.
The eco-auditing tool involves considering the following technology through user interface, Materials and Eco data, dashboards and reports as shown in the figure below (Amacher, Koskela, & Ollikainen, 2004). It provides an example of the Eco-Audit technology developed by Granta.
Figure 7: Eco-Audit technology in Granta

CES EduPack evaluation of passive energy use during the parts life and the options at end of life.
Passive energy use refers to the energy consumed ddurign the production of the parts or components. In our case, for production of loading brackets for the jet engines, the energy that is utilized depends on the design and manufacturing of the part (Collopy & Eames, 2001). There are three designs available. We have carried an ecological audit considering the energy used by the three designs for different processes involved.
This would include considering the usage of passive energy during the development of the loading bracket. This has been carried out using the CES EduPack software and the result of the analysis is shown below. The parameters regarding the evaluation data have been collected though the energy used in the manufacturing, transporting, matrial collection, usage, disposal and End of Life potential for the brackets developed by the three designs considered above. It is shown as follows (Radford & Rennick, 2000):

Results and analysis:
The proposed model by M. Arie Kurniawan, result into development of the below design. The design that was developed by him was very effective in reducing the weight. It reduced the weight by about 85%. Axial loads of the range of 8000 to 9500 pounds was exerted on the bracket. It was observed in their testing, that there was only one bracket which failed in these extreme conditions, whereas all the other brackets met the requirement. There was torsional load of about 5000 pounds per inch (Johnson, 2001).
Eco-Auditing of the manufacturing process involves considering the stress faced by the loading bracket during its operation (Cerdan, Gazulla, Raugei, Martinez, & Fullana-i-Palmer, 2009). It is discussed and shown in the following figure:
Figure 8: Stress calculation in the finalized bracket

(Dehoff, Peter, Yamamoto, Chen, & Blue, 2013).

The model that has been developed by the M. Arie Kurniawan, has reduced the weight of the original design of the loading fraction by a considerable amount. However, the material used is also the same and the process suggested by him for manufacturing of the fraction is DMLS which is suitable for metals and it is the best practice for such kind of production (Roy, Caird, & Potter, 2007).
However, using of FDM by the GRC engineers has helped increase in reduction of the weight. The method of FDM would be appropriate as it would be cost effective and at the same time, it would be very accurate for the production of loading brackets (Kyprianidis, 2010).
From the above analysis and eco-audit carried of the three designs, it can be seen that reducing the weightage of the loading fraction would help in reduction of fuel consumption in jet planes, thereby, increasing the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the process.

Amacher, G. S., Koskela, E., & Ollikainen, M. (2004). Environmental quality competition and eco-labeling. . Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 47(2),, 284-306.
Cerdan, C., Gazulla, C., Raugei, M., Martinez, E., & Fullana-i-Palmer, P. (2009). Proposal for new quantitative eco-design indicators: a first case study. . Journal of Cleaner Production, 17(18), , 1638-1643.
Chu, C., Graf, G., & Rosen, D. W. (2008). Design for additive manufacturing of cellular structures. Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 5(5), , 686-696.
Collopy, P. D., & Eames, D. J. (2001). Aerospace manufacturing cost prediction from a measure of part definition information (No. 2001-01-3004). . SAE Technical Paper.
Dehoff, R., Peter, W., Yamamoto, Y., Chen, W., & Blue, C. (2013). Case Study: Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Brackets. ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES, 19-22.
Dutta, B., & Froes, F. H. (2015). The additive manufacturing (AM) of titanium alloys. . Titanium Powder Metallurgy: Science, Technology and Applications, , 447.
GRABCAD.COM. (2014). GE jet engine bracket challenge. Retrieved from
GRANTADESIGN.COM ECODESIGN. (2015). Granta’s Guide: Five Steps to Eco Design. Retrieved from
GRANTDESIGN.COM ECOAUDIT. (2015). Granta’s Eco Audit Methodology. Retrieved from
Hambali, R. H., Smith, P., & Rennie, A. E. (2012). Determination of the effect of part orientation to the strength value on additive manufacturing FDM for end-use parts by physical testing and validation via three-dimensional finite element analysis. International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation, 3(3-4), , 269-281.
Johnson, R. B. (2001). Jet Engine Metallurgy (No. 530038). . SAE Technical Paper.
Kalpakjian, S. (2001). Manufacturing engineering and technology. . Pearson Education India.
Kyprianidis, K. G. (2010). Multi-disciplinary conceptual design of future jet engine systems.
Mattingly, J. D. (2002). Aircraft engine design. . Aiaa.
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Literature Review on 3D Printing in Manufacturing

Higher Colleges of Technology
3D Printing in manufacturing

Submitted by:

Table of Contents
1. Abstract 3
2. Introduction 4
3. Literature review 5
3.1. Research Questions 9
4. Methods 10
5. Findings 12
6. Discussion 14
7. Conclusion 15
8. References 17
9. Appendix Page(s) 19

There has been a tremendous increase in the demands of the people along with development of new technologies to fulfil them. The importance of developing new technological inventions pertaining to different fields has been realized by different industries across the globe. One of the most emerging technology pertaining to this advancement is 3D printer. It is one of the most innovative invention in the last decade. It has unlimited potential that can be explored through developing different machines and instruments from 3D printing technique. The importance of the 3D printing has been obtained and its future potential has been identified in the research.

With the current rate of technological advancement, no future possibilities are too hard to imagine. 3D printing is one such innovative technology that is additive in nature, in which objects get built up in a great number of extremely thin layers. 3D printers can be considered to be the technology that will bridge the gap between the physical world and cyberspace, and a manifestation of the second digital revolution, thus playing a foreseeable important role in our futures. (Barnatt, 2016).
3D Printing, also called additive manufacturing, includes the different processes that are used to synthesize three dimensional objects, by forming layers of material in succession under the control of a computer in order to form an object, that is, in simpler terms, three dimensional objects are made from a digital file. These objects may be of any possible geometry or shape. It is classified as a type of industrial robot. Some believe 3D printing to mark the start of a third industrial revolution. Using the capabilities of the Internet, it may soon become possible to send a product in the form of a blueprint to any possible place in the world. While originally,3D printing was used to denote the deposition of material onto a powder bed using inkjet printer heads, it now encompasses a wide range of techniques including sintering based processes and extrusion, all falling under the broad term of additive manufacturing. (3D printing). This research studies the applicability of 3D printing in manufacturing, both in terms of scope and commercial viability, and also other end user applications as well.
The research has been conducted by reviewing secondary literary sources, including journals and reports, to get an insight about how 3D printing can have an impact on the manufacturing process. The results after having conducted the research indicate that not only does 3D printing greatly impact the manufacturing process, especially in prototype manufacturing; it also has a wide variety to choose from to suit different purposes. The pivotal objective of the research is to study how this innovation in technology will bring about a revolution in the manufacturing process and shape its future for commercial as well as individual users.
While previous researches and reports have been published about how 3D printing will change the manufacturing technology, this report aims to cover up for the lack of a comprehensive report that users who are looking to use this technology for both large scale commercial uses as well as individual uses like making small spare parts. This research is based on qualitative method as carried out by previous literature and researches. Generally, it deals with an examination of finding out answers to a question, thoroughly employs a predefined set of processes to answer the question, gathers evidence, designs findings which were not verified before and creates the findings which are valid ahead of the instant limitations of the study.
Literature review
3D Printing: Additive manufacturing v/s Traditional Manufacturing
3D printing is an additive manufacturing process that adds extremely thin successive layers, instead on removing them from a whole. (Tarang, 2015)The European Social Fund and Deloitte evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of 3D printing when compared to traditional manufacturing. In traditional manufacturing techniques, called subtractive manufacturing, like cutting and milling, materials are removed from a preformed block, creating a lot of waste since the scrap generally cannot be reused. However, 3D printing eliminates this process of waste creation since the material is only placed and added successively in the location where it is needed, leaving the rest of the space free. (European Social Fund, 2013) Further, in a report by Deloitte, it is clear that apart from waste reduction, it also provides the benefit of reducing lead times, easily incorporating innovations, creating customized products or small batches economically, reducing the level of inventories and facilitating Just –In-Time manufacturing. However, it may be disadvantageous in the production of larger volumes, or produce bad quality products if low end printers are used. It is also not possible to product larger objects that traditional manufacturing can, at least not at the cost that traditional manufacturing does it at. (Deloitte, 2014)
Report by AT Kearney summarizes the benefits of 3D printing as allowing mass customization, introducing new capabilities at low fixed and overhead costs, reduced speed and lead times, due to shorter cycles of production, process and design, simplification of the supply chain, by keeping production close to the demand point and ensuring reduced inventory, and reduction in wastes. (AT Kearney, 2013)
3D printing and the future of manufacturing
In a report published by Leading Edge Forum and one published by Campbell, T, Williams,C, Ivanova,O and Garett,B, the impact that 3D printing will have on the future of manufacturing is discussed. It says that 3D printing will bring about a change in the calculus of manufacturing by the means of optimizing for batches of one. It can be used to manufacture customized, improved and even near impossible products right at the point of consumption or usage. Apart from this, it can be used to create a wide range of products with flexibility, which implies the possibility of a serious change in supply chains and production models. Based on the materials that are used, although mass consumption is tougher, products can be up to 65% lighter but equally strong as in traditional manufacturing. 3D printing will initially focus on new markets instead of established ones, and competition will only drive the market forward. It has applications in a variety of industries such as Defense, Aerospace, Automotive, healthcare, with customization being called the new normal and sophistication and simplicity being its strengths. (Leading Edge Forum, 2012) Further, Additive manufacturing could also help leverage other breakthroughs in science and manufacturing, when used as a disruptive technology. Apart from the manufacturing process, it also has tremendous scope to create advances in environmental protection due to reduction in wastes created in the process of manufacturing. It will create new industries and careers and thus a possible shift in the global economy. (Campbell, 2011)
Singh,O, Ahmed,S, Abhilash,M and Dimitrov,D, Schreve,K and Beer,N write that 3D printing implies manufacturing processes involving low labor costs, and high precision. It can be used for a variety of purposes, right from manufacturing car accessories, printing out tooth fillings, to repairing components of space shuttles, and thus finds use in a number of varied fields. (Singh, 2016) (Dimitrov, Schreve, & Beer, 1995)
Applications of 3 D printer
3D Printing In the Aerospace Industry
Currently, rocket engine injector of NASA prepared from a 3D printer agreed a major hot fire test. The rocket engine injector produced ten times more driving force as compare to other injector from 3D printing previously in the test.
3D Printed Organs
3D printing has been employed for printing organs from own cells of a patient. This indicates that the patients do not have to wait for a long time interval for the donors in the future. Previously, hospitals implanted the organs and structures into patients designed by hands. 3D printing has considerably enhanced this process.
3D Printing In the Automotive Industry
Engineers at General Motors used 3D printing to conserve time needed in prototyping the components for the vehicle when the company began to create the 2014 Chevrolet Malibu.

Household uses
If one were to own and use a 3D printer at home, Jackson,B suggests a number of uses. They can be used to create adaptors and other repair parts for almost any hardware, and make them work, instead of simply discarding them if a part stops functioning. They can also be used for designing and creating products that are unique or hard to find generally. It can also be used to easily create parts for the household computer or desktop, that could be otherwise expensive to procure. (Jackson, 2015)
Orsini,L agrees that even the most cynical users will have to embrace the fact that 3D printers have completely changed production technologies, however using them effectively required time and effort to be invested, to get the models and required sizes right, perfectly. Although this may seem like a step backward, requiring intensive efforts by the user, one should not make the mistake of dismissing this quickly because it has occurred several times in the past that organizations have rejected emerging technologies too soon, and then gone on to regret those decisions. (Orsini, 014)

Choosing the right 3D printer
3D Systems Corporation writes in a report about the different types of models that can be chosen from. Concept models are used to improve the earlier design decisions that have an impact on engineering activity. It helps reduce expensive changes later on in the process and reduce the length of the development cycle. It gives a number of options that can be evaluated and chosen from. Functional prototypes can be used once designs begin to shape up, to verify the elements of design so as to make sure the product will meet its functionality requirements, such as fit, form and performance. Digital manufacturing prototypes can be used more for end or spare part manufacturing. (3D Systems Corporation, 2013)
In the summary from the sources studied in the literature review, the differences between 3D manufacturing, which is an additive process and traditional manufacturing is evident. 3D manufacturing also offers the benefit of producing much lighter but equally strong products, as well as those that are tougher to find, although it is tough to product large goods or carry out mass production. It will also revolutionize the manufacturing process, since goods can be produced very close to the source of consumption and thus entire supply chains and processes may undergo changes. For the household consumer too, 3D printing can offer several uses. Further, different variations in these printers are available according to possible end use applications, and thus the appropriate model or variety needs to be chosen by customers according to their needs.
Research Questions
• How 3D printing can transform manufacturing?
• What is the future of 3D printing in manufacturing industry?
• What is the cost of 3D printer?
• What are the most important factors to you when choosing a 3D printer?
• What kinds of items would design and create with 3D printer if you owned one?

Type of Research
Quantitative methodology is selected for this research, which is based on the collection of data from sample population. As suggested by the name, quantitative data is considered in this approach. Different accepted standards of statistics are included in this approach for its validity like the number of respondents for the establishment of a result which is significant statistically. To ascertain the benefits of using 3D printers in the manufacturing companies, quantitative data is used as survey questionnaires were distributed to get primary data for the research project (charmaz, 2014). The questionnaire that was developed was filled by 30 people who were the managers and members of a company.
Data collection
In order to get the data of manufacturing companies, questionnaire will be distributed among the managers and members of the company. These questionnaires with the combination of our deep research on the benefits of 3d printing would lead us to examine the future of 3d printing (charmaz, 2014).

Data Analysis and Interpretation
Data analysis is the process of systematic implementation of logical or statistical techniques to illustrate, describe, condense, and assess the data. A comprehensive summary of the outcomes of the research will be included in the data analysis as well as the main conclusions attained through the research will be included.
The study will give reflection on the benefits of using 3D printers in the manufacturing industry. The data for this purpose will be processed by statistical inference which is a reliable tool for analyzing primary data. It will provide assistance in analyzing the situation as well as will be helpful in reaching conclusion regarding the issue. Primary data analysis would also be helpful in finding the answers of the research questions.
Reliability and Validity of the sources
Reliability of the source refers to the level of consistency that the research possesses and the results that are developed through it are stable. It is a very important tools in identifying the applicability of the research and the developed data even after a long term that has been developed for the same purpose. Reliability can be achieved through developing data and its research on the basis of the opinions that are collected from the sample population. It has been obtained without any prior briefing or information and the responses are not manipulated and are totally genuine.
Validity, on the other hand refers to the level up to which the research is applicable and can be applied in the real world. It provides the practicality of the research method and its solution. It is one of the most important tool that is similar to reliability, but it provides the practical aspect of the research and the data that is obtained. The analysis of the data has helped in identifying that the solution that has been developed would be valid for practical application. The feasibility of the research has to be evaluated through systematic review and analysis of the system.
In Q6, it describes into the different applications that are possible with the usage of 3D printing, both commercially and for individual customers so the reader may understand fully the spectrum of end user applications that this technology offers.
Among the responses obtained from the questionnaire, the data analysis for Q6 is shown in the table and chart given below:
Options Number of responses Percentage of responses
Aerospace 12 40
6 20
Academic institutions
3 210
Medical 3 10
Fashion Industry 1 3.33
Service Bureaus 2 6.64
Electronic accessories 3 10

The role of the 3D printer in shaping the future of the machines in the future has been obtained through the Q10 in the questionnaire. The findings of this theory are as follows:
Options Number of responses Percentage of responses
Extremely important 12 40
9 30
6 20
Not so important 3 10
Not at all important 0 0

Thus, it can be stated that about 70% of the respondents found that the role of 3D printing in shaping the machines of the future is important or extremely important as shown in the figure given above.
It can be obtained from the responses that are obtained from the sample population that has been taken into consideration that 3D printing has the ability to transform the manufacturing industry and at the same time, bring large number of innovations in the field of automotive, aerospace, Medical, Fashion Industry and Electronic is found to have positive effect on the development of industries across the globe. There are many advantages of using 3D printing that has been discussed and there is an unlimited potential available to be explored in the technique of 3D printing. These advantages are realized while developing a prototype or a design of a complicated design which is very tiring and time consuming. At the same time, the required level of accuracy is not obtained if the production is carried through the traditional manufacturing processes.
It can also be obtained that the future of the 3D pointing in the manufacturing industry depends on the level of innovation that is incorporated in the process. It can be achieved through identifying the potential areas where there is a need to imbibe 3Dprinting in different processes. There are many advantages that are provided through the use of 3D printing. Accurate design and durable structure are the two most significant characteristics that are provided through 3D printing. It has been obtained from the questionnaire that was asked to the respondents.
While developing its effect on the manufacturing industry through the survey, it was obtained that most of the respondents did not agree that it had a negative effect as they knew the potential that 3D printing has in it. However, it has been identified from the responses obtained from the participants that there is a need to explore the potential of 3D printing and make significant and innovative designs with the help of it.
3D Printing has no doubt revolutionized the way manufacturing processes are carried out, and this is not just a current trend, but can spell significant changes for the future of both commercial and household applications as well. While this is more labor intensive, and may seem as a backward step at first, organizations and individuals need to evaluate its applications and suitability for different applications before they decide to use it in their processes.

They can help produce much lighter, and equally strong products, as well as parts that are tough to find and are complex to create. However, because of involving more effort, they need to be further developed since they currently cannot support mass production. On the other hand, their overhead and fixed costs are quite low, and this can be effectively tapped into to nullify other possible disadvantages.

1. 3D printing. (n.d.). What is 3D printing? Retrieved from 3D
2. 3D Systems Corporation. (2013). 3D Printer buyers guide. Retrieved from
3. AT Kearney. (2013). 3D Printing: A Manufacturing Revolution.
4. Barnatt, C. (2016). 3D Printing. Retrieved from Explaining the future:
5. Campbell, T. W. (2011). Could 3D Printing Change the World? Startegic Foresight Report.
6. Deloitte. (2014). Disruptive manufacturing: The effects of 3D printing.
7. Dimitrov, D., Schreve, K., & Beer, N. (1995). Advances in three dimensional printing – state of the art and future perspectives. Rapid Prototyping Journal.
8. European Social Fund. (2013). Domain Group 3D Printing Workshop Notes.
9. Jackson, B. (2015). Household uses for your desktop 3D printer. Retrieved from 3d printing systems:
10. Leading Edge Forum. (2012). 3D printing and the future of manufacturing.
11. Orsini, L. (014). Why You’ll Want A 3D Printer In Your Home. Retrieved from Readwrite:
12. Singh, O. A. (2016). Modern 3D Printing Technologies: Future Trends and Developments. Recent Patents on Engineering.

Appendix Page(s)
1. Can 3D printing transform manufacturing?
a. Strongly Agree
b. Agree
c. Not sure
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

2. According to you, how is the future of 3D printing in manufacturing industry?
a. Extremely good
b. Good
c. Average
d. Bad
e. Extremely bad

3. What is the cost of 3D printer?
a. Extremely high
b. High
c. Average
d. Low
e. Extremely low

4. Among the following, what are the most important factor to you when choosing a 3D printer? (Choose one)
a. Quality
b. Design
c. Cost
d. Portability
e. Availability
f. User Friendliness

5. Would you like to design and create items with 3D printer if you owned one?
a. Strongly Agree
b. Agree
c. Not sure
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

6. Which of the following 3D printing applications is the most interesting?
a. Aerospace
b. Automotive
c. Academic institutions
d. Medical
e. Fashion industry
f. Service Bureaus
g. Electronic accessories
7. Do you think that 3D printing will help in overcoming many designing problem in the future?
a. Strongly Agree
b. Agree
c. Not sure
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

8. Are the current developments in the field of 3D printing satisfactory?
a. Strongly Agree
b. Agree
c. Not sure
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

9. Do you think that adapting 3D printing on a large scale would have some negative effect?
a. Strongly Agree
b. Agree
c. Not sure
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

10. According to you, what role would 3D printing play in shaping the future of machines in the future?
a. Extremely important
b. Important
c. Average
d. Not so important
e. Not at all important