Essay on Human services worker for developmental disabilities

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Human services worker for developmental disabilities
Introduction
Developmental disability refers to a medical condition in which the person has mental or physical impairments and they are unable to perform their daily routine tasks and carry other such movements with their body. They have very less control over their brain and have problems in learning and hence they are not self-dependent. They always need some kind of assistance to regularly perform their tasks. People suffering from developmental disability have different types of this condition and their symptoms as well as effects differ from one person to another. For guiding and helping the people who are suffering from developmental disability, there are different volunteering programs developed across the globe (Wehmeyer, 2007).
There are other features that the developmental services or human services worker has to observe while carrying their tasks and these features are mentioned below.
Providing person-directed support
As we have mentioned above, each and every case of developmental disability is different from one another, though all of them require one thing, that is are. The people who are suffering from developmental disability are either born with it or they acquire it within 18 years and they would be having it for the rest of their life. However, these people are capable of possessing unexplored talent that would help them in becoming athlete, sportsperson, artist and other such achievements. The only thing that they require is individual support and this can be provided with the help of person directed support (Caldwell, 2007).
Person directed support includes providing the person with developmental disability with special care that would help them to explore their talents and develop it to such a level that they can pursue their dreams through it. It would help them in living a more systematic and balanced life through the compassion and care provided by the human services workers. A human services worker has to take special care of the needs of the people that are suffering from developmental and intellectual disabilities.
Respect and promote self – determination
As mentioned above, providing care and love to the person with developmental disabilities would also respect and promote self-determination among them. It would help them to live with respect and stand with a good level of self-confidence with them. By providing them with care and showing respect makes them feel that they too are the part of the society and gives them the feeling of getting inclusive in their communities.
Self-determination is one such quality or virtue that would help the people with these disabilities to reach great heights in their lives and achieve magnificent things for them. It would in developing their self-respect which would in return boost their confidence and they would be able to dream big. They would also achieve their dreams through self-determination quality that has been developed through training with love and compassion. By promoting self-determination among these people, the entire community can be uplifted through their extra-ordinary talent and skills that needs to be identified and then explored through consistent motivation and self-determination (Wehmeyer, 2007). When a human service worker promotes self-determination qualities and inculcates respect for themselves within the people with developmental disabilities, it provides the people with these disabilities with amazing strength, power and energy that would help them achieve anything they want.
Support health and well-being of people with intellectual disabilities.
By providing the person with developmental disabilities with extensive care and support and helping them feel inclusive in the community, their health and well-being would be promoted. These are the people with intellectual disabilities where they cannot easily learn things, evaluate and analyze it in their mind and can also not develop movement abilities (Rosenbaum & Stewart, 2004). The health and well-being of the people with intellectual communities should be provided with the help of a human services worker and they should be able to provide extensive support with the feeling of love, intricateness and care.
The human services worker should take special care of the health and well-being of the people with these disabilities. This would ensure that they stay in good health and then only they can learn various skills and develop their talents. Thus, supporting the health and well-being of the people with intellectual disabilities is necessary to inculcate a feeling of belongingness among them and helps in developing leadership qualities along with the feeling of inclusive communities for them.
Thus, it can be seen that by providing person-directed support, respect and promoting self-determination among the people with developmental disabilities would result in their well-being and good health.
References
Caldwell, J. (2007). Experiences of families with relatives with intellectual and developmental disabilities in a consumer‐directed support program. Disability & Society, 22(6),, 549-562.
Rosenbaum, P., & Stewart, D. (2004). The World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: a model to guide clinical thinking, practice and research in the field of cerebral palsy. In Seminars in pediatric neurology WB Saunders., 1(1), 5-10.
Wehmeyer, M. L. (2007). Promoting self-determination in students with developmental disabilities. Guilford Press.

Report on Correlation and Regression Analysis on Age and Weight

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Table of Contents
1. Executive Summary 3
2. Introduction 4
3. Impact of age on increasing weight 4
4. Regression: 4
5. Correlation: 6
6. Conclusions 7
7. Recommendations 8
8. References 9

Executive Summary
There is a gradual increase in the weight of the person as they are aging. There is an intricate relationship between aging and increasing weight. It has different effects on different people. But, in majority of the cases, it is found to be increasing with the age. It has to be established through a research where regression as well as correlation analysis has been carried out. It has been observed that there are two variables in the regression analysis where it refers to the development of an independent variable on the basis of which there is a dependent variable. There are two elements that are related to the impact of age on weight that have been identified and discussed. On the other hand, there is a correlation analysis developed on the basis of linear association that is obtained between two variables. it consists of developing a correlation coefficient for the two variables and the relationship between them.

Introduction
With the advancement in technology, there has been tremendous increase in the comfort that is provided to the people. As a result of which, there is hardly any physical activity carried by the people, especially during their old age, once they stopped working. It leads to severe disorders, knee damaging and other serious health related problems for the people whose weight is continuously increasing with age. There are special steps that are to be taken and ensured for solving the problem of increasing weight with age. In order to establish a relationship between the increasing weights that is observed along with the aging process among the humans, there are few variables that are developed for deriving the regression analysis as well as correlation analysis of the same.
Impact of age on increasing weight
There are many factors that are affecting the weight factor when a person crosses the age of 40. These factors have been mentioned below:
Regression:
It refers to the development of an independent variable that consists of the aging process and the dependent variable would be the increase or changes in weight. The changes in weight serves to be the formulation of the dependent variable. In such case, there is a direct relation obtained that is shown in the following graph. There is linear kind of relationship developed between the two variables and there is a presence of the model parameters between the variables (ABYSS.UOREGON.EDU, 2016). It can be observed that through readings that are developed on the basis of the aging process and the changes in weight that are observed in individuals (Lewis, et al., 2000).

From the above chart that displays the regression analysis that is based on two variables that is aging itself and the increase in weight. Here, aging is an independent variable, whereas increase in weight is a dependent variable. It somewhat depends on the process of aging as well as other such factors that are related to the reducing of the physical activities and other kinds of problems that occur once an individual crosses the age of 40. It is due to the increasing comfort that is obtained through various means that reduces the movements of the body and involves carrying repetitive tasks continuously. There is a decline in the increasing trend of weights that is observed between 60 – 70 years as shown in the above figure. However, it resumes the increasing trend after 70 years. These factors show that there are many food habits and lifestyle habits that are to be controlled while an individual is aging.
Correlation:
There are two variables that are developed for analysis in the Correlation model. It consists of developing of linear relationship between the two variables. The two variables are connected through a correlation coefficient. The values of this correlation coefficients tend to be -1 to +1. When there is a positive linear relationship, the correlation coefficient will be +1; whereas, on the other hand, when there is a negative relationship between the variables, the correlation coefficient would be -1. When the value of the correlation coefficient is 0, there would not be any kind of linear relationship between the two variables (ABYSS.UOREGON.EDU, 2016).
One such kind of correlation analysis has been carried out in the following graph where the two variables are the number of hours for which the physical exercise is carried out and the changes in weight that is observed in individuals (Dziura, De Leon, Kasl, & DiPietro, 2004). It has been shown in the following graph through a linear model:

It can be observed from the trends that are obtained in the graph that with an increase in the number of hours for which physical exercise is carried out, there is a constant decrease in the weight of the person. It is shown through the two trajectories that are developed in the above graph. However, after a steady increase in the number of exercise for about 4 years, there is a very less amount of decrease in weight in the 5th year. This is because excessive exercise can lead to various other health related diseases and disorders as a result of which the person would have to take rest and their weight would not reduce like the way it used to through physical exercise.
Conclusions
Thus, it can be seen with the increasing age, there are many activities that are to be performed like walking for minimum 30 minutes during the day. It also involves controlling the taste buds and adapting to healthy living habits that involve development of various factors that are based on the projection of healthy living across the entire lifestyle that is adopted by the individuals. The two variables that are interdependent as seen in the regression model, it can be observed that there is a steady increase in weight with the increase in age. However, there is a slight decline in the trend between the age of 60-70 years when there is a slight decrease in the weight as compared to the previous weight that has been prevailing in the previous years. It is also observed through the correlation model that there is a linear relationship developed between the amounts of physical exercise performed to the changes in weights of the people. There is a steady decrease in the weight with a stable increase in the number of hours for which the physical exercise is carried out. The relationship helps in obtaining that there should be a continuous time table developed for performing physical exercises on regular basis after one has reached 40 years as there is a depletion in the stamina and capacity of a person to do work and carry other activities that involves physical strain.
Recommendations
Thus, it can be recommended that people should be aware about their body and the changes that are occurring or going to occur in their body post heir 40’s. It has to be undertaken seriously during aging, in order to control the effects that it has on the weight of the individuals. It is due to these factors that an individual derives their fitness and established a healthy environment and a healthy life for him. It consists of the elements that are observed within the body that are to be controlled and mastered through a strong will and discipline in the life style that is adopted by the individuals.

References
ABYSS.UOREGON.EDU. (2016). Regression and correlation analysis:. Retrieved from http://abyss.uoregon.edu: http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/correlation.html
Dziura, J., De Leon, C. M., Kasl, S., & DiPietro, L. (2004). Can physical activity attenuate aging-related weight loss in older people? The Yale Health and Aging Study, 1982–1994. . American journal of epidemiology, 159(8), , 759-767.
Lewis, C. E., McCreath, H., Kiefe, C. I., Schreiner, P. J., Smith, D. E., & Williams, O. D. (2000). Weight gain continues in the 1990s: 10-year trends in weight and overweight from the CARDIA study. . American journal of epidemiology, 151(12), 1172-1181.

Essay on Childhood Obesity

Title: Childhood Obesity
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction 3
2. Two points for argument: 3
2.1. Thesis Statement 3
3. Background: 3
3.1. Definitions: 5
4. Arguments 6
4.1. Argument 1: Increase in the consumption of fast food 6
4.2. Argument 2: Technological advancements leading to laziness 6
5. Counter Argument 7
5.1. Counter Argument 1: Benefits of fast foods 7
5.2. Counter Argument 2: Impact of technology on eating habits 7
5.3. Evidence of counter argument 8
6. Rebuttal of the counter argument 8
7. Conclusion 9
8. Summarizing the paper. 10
9. Solution 10
10. Suggesting the importance of the topic and extensive research required 11
11. References 12

Introduction

Childhood obesity has been increased tremendously since the last decade. There are many factors that have contributed to this trend. It involves increasing food consumption from the fast food chains, very less physical exercise carried during the day, improper utilization of technology for developing food habits. These factors have been discussed in the sections below and solutions have been developed for the same.
Two points for argument:
1) Is fast food or unhealthy food, the main and the only reason behind the childhood obesity?
2) How serious is this problem today?
Thesis Statement
Childhood obesity cannot be prevented by banning vending machines nor fast food chains but it needs a promotion of healthy eating habits and awareness for children.
Background:
The rate of increasing in childhood obesity is increasing at a very high rate. Currently, more than 10 % of the children in the world are suffering from obesity and are overweight. The amount is much higher in the developed counties as compared to the developing nations and under developed nations. Almost one out of every three children in the developed nations is obese.

1. Author: Centers for disease control and prevention
Title: Childhood Obesity Facts
Date: 2015
Website: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/obesity/facts.htm
The above article provides a research on the reasons that contribute to obesity among the children as well as adolescents. It also includes the factors that are responsible for occurrence of obesity among these people. Overweight can be related to the possessing of extra fats at any part of the body that may cause serious consequences on the overall health if it persists for a long period of time. It occurs mainly due to the caloric imbalance that is obtained in the person that is suffering from obesity. It includes burning of very less calories as compared to the calories consumed (CDC.GOV, 2013). The consumption of calories should be as per the type of work done by the person who is consuming it.

2. Author: Tara Haelle
Title: Consumption Junction: Childhood
Date: 9/4/2013
Website: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/childhood-obesity-determined-largely-by-environmental-factors/
In this article, the author has described the factors that are responsible for childhood obesity. It argues with the generalized thinking and acceptation that childhood obesity is due to the genes or sloth of the children that they have inherited from their parents. However, it has been counter argued by the author that is largely due to the environmental factors and the consumption of the child that leads to the childhood obesity among them. The environment that has been developed around the kids and the extra care that has been taken in terms of eating spoils the habits of the children. It requires redeveloping and reengineering the food habits and the environment that is provided to the children for food consumption.

Definitions:
Obesity can be defined as having extra weights in few parts of the body in such an extent that it tends to have negative effects on the overall health of a person (CDC.GOV, 2013). Obesity has been existing due to the environmental factors that are provided to the children and the lack of exercise that can be seen throughout their daily life where they have been so rooted to the virtual games that they do not play the field games.
Obesity is a serious risk for the children in the 21st century. The overweight children are exposed to multiple diseases. It is also seen that the obese parents takes least interest in the food habits of their kids and in the most of the cases the overweight parents have overweight children. The eating disorder is followed throughout in the life and the trend of eating unhealthy food is imparted to their children (Haelle, 2013).
Arguments
There are two arguments developed on the topic of obesity and each one of them has been described in details in the following section. It involves developing factors that are responsible for obesity among the children at a very young age.
Argument 1: Increase in the consumption of fast food
The consumption of the fast food has tremendously increased the levels of obesity among the people. But, it cannot be blamed alone for the condition. It is the lifestyle and habits developed by the people that lead to the development of obesity. There are many elements that are to be evaluated and considered while consuming food during the childhood. It can also be seen that the fast food are extra on calories and have very less amount of nutrition that is needed by the body on regular basis. Hence, there is a serious accumulation of calories and fats at different parts of the body and it leads to obesity. The trend of fast food is increasing and most of the children follow the fast food culture nowadays. The fast food is easy to cook and tastier. Even the schools provide fast food to the children as well. The fast foods are generally packed with a higher amount of calories (Carrey, 2015).

Argument 2: Technological advancements leading to laziness
Another supporting factor or argument to the rise of obesity in children is the technology advancements. Nowadays, children spend most of their time in playing video games. Such games are played with a very little movement of body and thus the children sit on their places for a longer period of time. The children became prone to diseases like bone problem or deformity, diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol level, skin conditions such as rash, acne or fungal infections. Most of the obese children grow up and become overweight children too (Centers for disease control and prevention, 2015).
Counter Argument
Counter Argument 1: Benefits of fast foods
Contradicting to the two arguments mentioned above, there is a concept developed by Natalie Stein, where she stresses on the advantages of consuming fast foods in limited quantities. She highlights the ease and convenience that the fast foods provide to the contradictory other style of food. The cost factor has also been considered through the fact that the fast food restaurants are cheaper than the traditional theme based or regular restaurants. There are many interesting combo meals and offers available in a fast food chain. It has now been observed that as per the “Patient Protection and Affordable Care act of 2010”, the food chain restaurants have been compelled to mention the calorie count on its menu so that the consumers can decide for themselves to choose from the available options for low calorie and healthy food compared to the other food items on the menu (Stein, 2015).
Counter Argument 2: Impact of technology on eating habits
Technology has opened many new unexplored potential food options that can be utilized for satisfying the taste buds and at the same time go light on calories. It has been made possible through increasing the awareness among the people regarding the food that they consume. It also includes tracking the quantity of food consumed by the people though the use of advanced technology and sharing on the media. There is an in-depth nutritional information available to the people while consuming their food and this has been possible due to the advancement in technology and development of new techniques to keep the quantity of calories consumed under check (Yarrow, 2012).
Evidence of counter argument
Despite being unhealthy, fast foods are convenient, cheaper, tastier, easy to find, quick to prepare. Moreover, most of the fast foods comes with the calories count so that one could have knowledge about the calories if he is keeping the calories count (Stein, 2015).
Technology helps in obtaining the nutrition of different foods at one go and there are many options that can be easily assessed and explored for developing specific food habits and consuming food accordingly. It includes developing the technological aspect to such a level that the nutritional value of each and every food that is consumed is made available to the consumers (Yarrow, 2012). However, it is the choice of the consumers to go for the healthy food options that provide high nutritional content or go for the tempting fast food items that would have very low nutritional content in it.
Rebuttal of the counter argument
The main reason for disagreeing with the first counter argument is that there are more hazardous effects of consuming fast foods then the nutritional content that is obtained from them. Obesity is one of the prime problems that is being faced by the children in the society. But the fact is that the fast food is presented to them in such a way that they gets attracted to it. Fast foods are often advertised in the best way possible and with the high appropriate skills. Some of them are even advertised by some famous celebrity. Children are one of the most innocent section of the society that gets attracted on seeing the advertisement and they can’t seem to resist. On the other hand, they do not get the right knowledge or proper guidance from their school or from their parents (Ipatenco, 2015).
Conclusion
Thus, it can be stated there are various considerations to be made while consuming food from a fast food chain. There are technological aspects to be considered while developing healthy eating habits through analyzing the calorie content and nutritional value of each and every food. There are few solutions developed for the above mentioned problem and they are discussed in the below section.

This paper argued that fast food has a significant contribution in the attainment of obesity among the children. It also argued the point that technological advancement has also made considerable amount of contribution in that.
This research examined current studies on the consumption of fast food and its effect on the health as well as the effect of the technological innovation and advancements in the food eating habits of the consumers across the globe.
My research found that the way fast food chain are promoting their food and developing appealing promotional and advertising campaigns to attract the children and this is leading to greater consumption of fast food among the children.
Summarizing the paper.
Childhood obesity is not a one way process. There are multiple factors that are playing an important role in promoting it. Lack of guidance from their parents and from school to tasty and cleverly advertised fast food, the children are not left with a choice. Therefore banning vending machines and fast food chains will not prevent childhood obesity but it needs a promotion of healthy eating for children. The technological advancement should also be used in a positive and healthy way to derive healthy options for food consumption and reduce the laziness that has been inculcated through the comfort that is provided by the technological innovations.
Solution
One of the most important ways to reduce childhood obesity is to provide them proper education and the correct information and guidance. The children should be taught about how harmful this food can be, on the long run. They also should be taught on selecting the healthier food options always. Moreover, the parents and the schools should also engage the children in playing some sort of outdoor activities and sports on a regular basis. Consequently, the technological innovations should be made such that the consumption of food is carried out on the basis of the features and characteristics that are offered by the food. This can be studied upfront by being alert and aware about the consumption of calories on daily basis and managing it accordingly with the working habits
Suggesting the importance of the topic and extensive research required
Childhood obesity is a worldwide problem and it is not related to any one country. It is a serious issue and if it increases on a current rate then soon there will be a majority of unhealthy children in the world with the unhealthy lifestyles. The fast food industry is growing at an alarming rate. It has to be understood that excessive consumption of fast food or daily consumption of fast food has many adverse effects that could lead to the development of serious health issues over a period of time. There are very high chances that the children who are obese due to eating of fast foods in their young age may get cardio vascular disorders due to it. It should also be observed that the consumption of food plays a significant role in the completion of tasks by the people that are consuming these foods. Hence, healthy and nutritional food would provide an individual with the right amount of energy and nutrition that is required for maintaining a healthy life.
References
Carrey, E. (2015, November 2). The Effects of Fast Food on the Body. Retrieved from healthline.com: http://www.healthline.com/health/fast-food-effects-on-body
CDC.GOV. (2013). Childhood Obesity Facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/obesity/facts.htm
Centers for disease control and prevention. (2015). Childhood Obesity. Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/obesity/facts.htm
Haelle, T. (2013, April 9). Consumption Junction: Childhood Obesity Determined Largely by Environmental Factors, Not Genes or Sloth. Retrieved from Scientificamerican.com: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/childhood-obesity-determined-largely-by-environmental-factors/
Ipatenco, S. (2015). What Attracts Kids to Fast Food? Retrieved from healthyeating.sfgate.com: http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/attracts-kids-fast-food-1589.html
Stein, N. (2015, April 22). What Are the Benefits of Fast Foods? Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com: http://www.livestrong.com/article/259534-what-are-the-benefits-of-fast-foods/
Yarrow, K. (2012, April 1). How Technology is Changing What We Eat. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-why-behind-the-buy/201204/how-technology-is-changing-what-we-eat

Article Critique on the Report on Investigating the Failure to Aspirate Subglottic.

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Investigating the Failure to Aspirate Subglottic. Internationa; Anesthsia Research Society, 1083 – 1085.
By Dragoumanis, C. K., Vretzakis, G. I., Papaioannou, V. E., Didilis, V. N., Vogiatzaki, T. D., & Pneumatikos, I. A., 2007

There have been many cases in the medical case study in which the subglottic secretions were used for preventing pneumonia as mentioned in the article provided. This has resulted in development of dysfunction of many parts in the respiratory track like the suction lumen (Dezfulian, et al., 2005).
Type of study
In the article, Cohort type of study has been utilized which refers to one form of research and study that would involve analysis of various factors carried among a group of people, consisting of 40 adult patients. These participants have been treated with Evac ETT. It has been carried out on people who share a common characteristic of medical condition and its treatment. It is a prospective cohort type of study as it has classified the patients in the form of participants who have been provided with Evac ETT. The effects of the treatment on these participants are developed (Deem & Treggiari, 2010).
Overall quality of the report
The research has got approval from the Institutional Scientific Board. The report has been developed after an intubation of Evac ETT in men and women. On the basis of this, the effect of this insertion led to the dysfunction suction lumen and damage of the tracheal mucosa which contains the subglottic suction port.
Robustness of the study
The robustness of the study has been developed through critically appraisal using critical appraisal tools like CASP. It involves developing of certain questions and parameters in the form of a checklists. These checklists may contain the following elements (Fowler, 2001):
1. Are the results obtained from the study valid?
Yes, the results obtained are valid as it has been carried over the patients who have been treated with Evac ETT. The results provide that about 48% of the participants had faced dysfunction in their suction lumen. In 43% of the participants, it was found that there was obstruction of the subglottic suction due to the blockage in the tracheal mucosa.
2. Did the study address the issue with precise focus and without any bias?
The issue of safety in using the Evac ETT technique for the suction of the subglottic port has been very well addressed and directly obtained in the study. It also establishes the effects on the tracheal mucosa due to the insertion.
Criticisms of the study
Critical analysis of the article have been displayed using two factors which have helped in developing robustness of the study. The critical evaluation of the method used involves considering the effects that the selected method has on the health of the patients. This makes the study very complex to practice and execute (Denzin & Lincoln, 2009). The patients who were taken into consideration as the participants were provided intubation of Evac ETT. Then they were placed in different positions, at different angles to determine the effects on the trachea and their responses at the end of 30 and 60 minutes were taken. This shows how effective the study is considering the detailed structure of the research that has been carried out on the patients for development of their subglottic secretion and dysfunction in their suction lumen. Thus, the critical analysis favors the method used in the report.

References
Deem, S., & Treggiari, M. M. (2010). New endotracheal tubes designed to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia: do they make a difference? Respiratory care, 55(8), , 1046-1055.
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2009). Qualitative research. . Yogyakarta: PustakaPelajar.
Dezfulian, C., Shojania, K., Collard, H. R., Kim, H. M., Matthay, M. A., & Saint, S. (2005). Subglottic secretion drainage for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis. The American journal of medicine, 118(1), , 11-18.
Dragoumanis, C. K., Vretzakis, G. I., Papaioannou, V. E., Didilis, V. N., Vogiatzaki, T. D., & Pneumatikos, I. A. (2007). Investigating the Failure to Aspirate Subglottic. Internationa; Anesthsia Research Society, 1083 – 1085.
Fowler, G. R. (2001). Evidence-based practice: Tools and techniques. . Systems, settings, people: Workforce development challenges for the alcohol and other drugs field,, 93-107.

Essay om Promoting Positive Health Behavior in women Regarding Breast Cancer

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Promoting positive health behavior
Introduction: Preventive Healthcare among the women
With the advancement in the medical science and invention of better medicines and treatments for different diseases, there is an increasing awareness among the people, especially the women, regarding preventive health care. Preventive Healthcare provides the women with a proper understanding of avoiding the disease and other medical conditions from occurring. Even though there are many steps taken in the preventive health care of the women, there has been a significant increase in the number of cases across the globe in which women are suffering from breast cancer, cervical cancer and colon cancer (Zomorodi & Foley, 2009).
At the same time, there are many new programs which have been developed by the U.S. government to overcome the problems of these diseases among the women which are more prone to contract the disease due to their community, backwardness, living practices as well as their geographical conditions. Few of these programs were successful to influence and bring a change in the society, whereas, the remaining programs were unable to make the desired level of influence on the preventive healthcare and detection of disease among the women. These programs would be discussed and analyzed for obtaining their influence on the dedicated section of the women across the different parts of U.S (Backer, Geske, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005).

Every Woman Matters program:
Every Woman Matters is a program developed by the U.S. government in Nebraska. It is established for the women who were between the ages of 40 – 64 years and were coming under the poverty levels set for the different sections of the society. It focused on the detection of breast cancer and cervical cancer among these women. It aimed at detecting the cervical and breast cancer among the women in the early stages and also to promote additional preventive health care practices and awareness regarding regular screening of women in Nebraska for various diseases (DHHS.NE.GOV, 2015). It included carrying a wide range of tests like the Pelvic exam, mammogram, Pap test and other such techniques for identifying breast and cervical cancer. It included providing financial help to the women who needed to be treated, but could not afford to get the treatment on their own. There is an inspirational quote on the health of the women by Diana Cohen which says, “Don’t let breast cancer take away the motivation to achieve your dreams” (THE FRESH QUOTES.COM, 2015).
Reasons for ineffectiveness of the program:
There are many reasons for the ineffectiveness of the “Every Woman Matters program” in achieving its desired objectives and goals. There is a very limited consideration of the complexities which are involved in practically applying the concepts which are developed in this program. There are many challenges which the medical practice providers, nurses and other staff are unaware of during the program. There is already a huge amount of pressure on these staff and including any kind of extra or additional work in their schedule is followed by their resistance to work and perform effectively (Backer, Geske, McIlvain, Dodendorf, & Minier, 2005).
Along with this psychology, the major reason for the ineffectiveness is failure to accept and inculcate change. Developing changes is one concept and implementing them and getting them accepted by the population is an altogether different concept. It has to be ensured that there is an appropriate distribution of work among the different people involved in providing health care practices. This largely affects the willingness of the staff and other medical professionals to execute these functions of preventing health care practices on a successful level.
Two successful advocacy programs
Advocacy programs aim at developing an awareness regarding any specific cause. In this case, the advocacy programs revolve around the identification of cancer among the women and its preventive measures. There are few programs which were successful and efficient to inculcate change in the society and create a huge level of impact on the society. Two of such programs have been mentioned and discussed below.
Mammography screening program:
There are many mammography screening programs developed in U.S., but, the one which has gained popularity and has been successful in promoting the advocacy on detection and treatment of breast cancer is through the Sister’s Network, which is an organization founded for increasing the awareness among the women regarding breast cancer. It was initiated in 1994, by an African American lady who was suffering from breast cancer and was diagnosed for the same. There is a quote on early detection and mammography by Cynthia Nixon, “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. So the only thing to really be afraid of is if you don’t go get your mammograms” (Newman & Jackson, 2009). The screening programs which are developed by this organization inculcate awareness among the women of different ages regarding the identification of breast cancer in its early stages. They have also formed a national tagline or slogan for this cause which states that, “Stop the Silence”. They carry counseling of the females at different places like churches, health fairs and other such locations or venues where they would be getting a large number of women (Newman & Jackson, 2009).
Black Coral program:
It was initiated by a community health center called as “St. James-Santee Family Health Center” in the rural parts of South Carolina. They have identified that after skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer among the women in America. They found that African American were 40% more vulnerable to die with breast cancer as compared to the American women. They empowered the women in the local areas, provided them with counseling and developed screening and other tests for them. They interacted with the culture prevalent in these areas (THE COMMUNITY GUIDE.ORG, 2012).
Reasons for the success of the two programs:
Breast cancer and cervical cancer can be cured and diagnosed easily if they are detected in the early stages of their formation. There are higher chances of survival when these forms of cancer are identified in their early stage and this has been assured in both the advocacy programs which I have considered above.
The success of the first program, that is, the mammography screening program can be obtained by the increasing number of women who are turning up for the tests. It has been estimated that there has been a tremendous increase of about 22% in the number of women who come here for their screening. This has been possible due to the appropriate level of counseling and interaction with the local people carried out by the experts of the Sister’s Network (Newman & Jackson, 2009).
The second program, that is, “The Black Corals program” has been successful in increasing awareness among the women regarding the early detection of cancer and its diagnosis. They have connected with the culture prevailing in the South Carolina region where there are a large number of African American women who are more prone to breast and cervical cancer. It has been successful in reducing the cases of cancer patients and deaths due to these two cancers among the women (THE COMMUNITY GUIDE.ORG, 2012).
Screening
Screening can be termed as a technique to check the occurrence of specific disease in a specific area for a specified population which is more prone to development of this particular disease. It is carried for carrying preventive measures and providing the population with a basic knowledge and awareness regarding the disease. It is very useful for spreading knowledge regarding a specific disease in the regions where there is very limited awareness regarding the same.
Characteristics of screening for cancer
• It helps in identifying an important health oriented problem in a specific area.
• It helps in identification of disease
• It helps in easing the diagnosis and decreasing the number of deaths due to the disease through early detection and proper counseling.
• It helps in curing the disease through adoption of proper medication and treatment for the disease.
• Cancer can be easily diagnosed and cured through effective screening (Tengland, 2010).
Strategies for an effective prevention program
An effective prevention program has to inculcate adequate level of awareness and interest among the people for which it has been developed. It includes developing strategies which includes cultural influence of the region. There is a very well-framed quotation on breast cancer by Ann Jillian which is, ”There can be life after breast cancer. The prerequisite is early detection” (Tengland, 2010). The prevention program should be provided through proper and interactive counseling which would ensure that the program becomes successful. Nurses should be specially trained for imparting knowledge to the people and developing a sense of awareness regarding the disease among them (Zomorodi & Foley, 2009). It involves including a large number of population within its parameter, overcoming the disease in such population and then targeting new population for the prevention program.

References
Backer, E., Geske, J., McIlvain, H., Dodendorf, D., & Minier, W. (2005). Improving female preventive health care delivery through practice change: an Every Woman Matters study. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 401-408;.
DHHS.NE.GOV. (2015, May 14). What is Every Woman Matters? Retrieved January 4, 2016, from http://dhhs.ne.gov: http://dhhs.ne.gov/publichealth/EWM/Pages/Home.aspx
Newman, L. A., & Jackson, K. E. (2009). The Sisters Network: A National African American Breast Cancer Survivor Advocacy Organization. J Oncol Pract, 313–314.
Tengland, P. A. (2010). Health promotion and disease prevention: logically different conceptions?. . Health Care Analysis, 323-341.
THE COMMUNITY GUIDE.ORG. (2012). Black Corals: A Gem of a Cancer Screening Program in South Carolina . Retrieved January 4, 2016, from http://www.thecommunityguide.org: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/CG-in-Action/CancerScreening-SC.pdf
THE FRESH QUOTES.COM. (2015). Inspiring Breast Cancer Quotes and Slogans – Pink Day. Retrieved January 4, 2016, from http://www.thefreshquotes.com: http://www.thefreshquotes.com/inspirational-breast-cancer-quotes-and-slogans/
Zomorodi, M., & Foley, B. J. (2009). The nature of advocacy vs. paternalism in nursing: clarifying the ‘thin line’. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 1746–1752.