Essay on Comparison of Doctrines of Mozi and Confucius

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Table of Contents
I. Introduction 2
a. Historical Background of Mohism and Confucianism 2
b. General Similarities 3
c. General Differences 4
II. Body 4
a. Obedience and Hierarchy 5
b. Political Theory 5
Role of government (Compare between the two) 6
Anti-war stance 7
c. Familial Ethics and Social Order 8
Universal Love vs. Filial Piety 8
Frugality of Mohism 8
III. Conclusion 9
References 9

I. Introduction
Mohism and Confucianism are two teachings and philosophies that existed in the time period of 200 BC to 400 BC in China. Their details are obtained as under:
a. Historical Background of Mohism and Confucianism
Confucianism is believed to be developed from a person named Confucius and his actual name was Kong Qiu. However, the principles and teachings of Confucianism refer to the cultural practices of the Zhou clan. The birth of Confucius was on 28th September 551 BC. He developed codes of behaviour for the people to be observed in the society. He had developed a system which was based on “virtues”. It was very much accepted by the Han Dynasty in their schools (Lai).
Mohism was founded by Mozi, whose actual name was Mo Tzu and was born in Tengzhou, which lies in the Shandong province of China. He developed an ideology and philosophy which challenged the core principles and teachings of Confucianism. The teachings of Mohism were based on observing self-reflection and self-learning and not to follow the practices which were followed by their ancestors since ages. It had innovation and logical approach. Its importance declined after the introduction of the Qin dynasty and it further declined by the acceptance of Confucianism through Han Dynasty in their schools (Ning).
b. General Similarities
The basic principle in both the philosophies tends to focus on obtaining the ultimate goal of spreading love among all the people. This is the biggest similarity among the two philosophies and teachings.
Both of the philosophies emphasized on putting forth the interests of the society ahead of the personal interests by the people. It involves sacrificing of their interests for the overall benefit of the society. Both of them heavily stressed on the conduct of the individuals.
There was similar style and structure of administration and bureaucracy observed in both of the philosophies (XUE and MA).
c. General Differences
In Mohism, people were prescribed to learn from their self-reflections and question existence of each and every thing until they got satisfied by the answers obtained. On the other hand, Confucianism prescribed the followers to learn from the methods, techniques and working patterns which were followed since ages by the ancestors.
Mohism developed the concept of Universal love which was based on a specific purpose or goal. While, Confucianism developed the concept of benevolence in love, which was based on following of ethical behaviors and duties derived from ancient times. The concept of both were same, but the method of attaining the love was different in both the philosophies as seen in the above discussion.
Confucianism was based on the virtue of uniting oneself with the heaven (Tian) and it provided the relationships between men and heaven. While, Mohism is observed to be depended on the behavior inculcating the virtues of impartiality in the practices of men (Qi-zhou).
II. Body
There were many differences in the approach and living styles of the people which were derived from the differences between the two teachings and ideologies of Mohism and Confucianism.
a. Obedience and Hierarchy
There were different levels of hierarchy observed in both the philosophies and the important characters in both of them were also different depending on their approach.
In Mohism, the level of hierarchy was passed on directly without any second opinion from the subjects. While, in Confucianism, the hierarchy was passed too, but there were interests and opinions of the public which were considered. Hence, it can be seen that there was difference in the pattern of inheritance displayed in both of them. This ideology of hierarchy was developed from the traditions and logic developed in the two philosophies.
Regarding the obeying of authority, Mohism emphasized to strictly follow and obey the orders of the rulers and people who were at higher positions. People should not argue or express their opposing opinion regarding the laws and strategies developed. It stressed that the main cause of any conflict was difference of opinions. While, in Confucianism, there was obedience of the rulers and higher authorities, but it also involved obtaining the views and opinions from the subjects participating in the government and this opinions may also be contradicting to the ones of the rulers (Thompson).

b. Political Theory
In Mohism, the political theory was very much based on ruling the people with appropriate importance given to the merits of the people. It emphasized that people have to get rid of the ancient baseless traditions and methodologies and develop new ones for themselves. This describes that the Mohism philosophy was based on innovation and developing a logical approach rather than a rational one. This was the political basis which was prominent in the followers of Mohism.
While, in Confucianism, there was emphasize on developing an intrigue relationship of one’s body so as to reach heaven. It focuses on developing virtues and practices on for the well-being of the human beings which can be obtained from the traditions and customs followed by the ancient people since ages in their lives. It involves learning from their experience and using the solutions developed by them in the same way. Thus, the political theory was much like the structure adopted before few ages (Thompson).

Role of government (Compare between the two)
There were different perceptions regarding the role of the government in these two ideologies. They focused on both the logic required for administration, innovation and implementation. The level of intensity of these two factors was different.
In the Confucianism, a good leader would be achieving the steps of reaching the Heaven for his subjects. Whereas, in Mohism, a good leader would propagate the principle of universal love for his subjects and promote the same to be followed.
Regarding the equality and meritocracy, the policies were much lenient in Confucianism. It stressed on taking up of important positions in the administration by the people who were suggested by the rulers or high authorities and they were not only selected on the basis of merit, but also on the basis of their relation with any other higher authorities or on the basis of their nobleness. In Mohism, the system was fair and provided chance to the meritorious people as against the relatives of the higher authorities in selection for the administrative roles in their kingdom.
The legitimacy of the two philosophies was different owing to the difference in their ideologies and justice structure. In the Confucianism, ancestors were taken as ideals in developing the laws and imparting justice to the people. In Mohism, however, the experience along with the talent of the rulers was important for imparting justice to the subjects and establishing laws in the kingdom (Qi-zhou).
Anti-war stance
There were different approaches in the two philosophies regarding their strategy for war. However, both of them inculcated peace in their strategies. In Confucianism, there was provision for the subjects and higher authorities to provide their opinions and challenge the decisions of the rulers. This was to be done peacefully without affecting the peace of the kingdom. In Mohism, it was ensured that the conditions of war does not arise as it was against the practicing of war and fights for winning any territory. It emphasized that the rulers had highest powers and that everyone had to obey and follow his orders and there would be no other opinion developed against him (Huang).
c. Familial Ethics and Social Order
Universal Love vs. Filial Piety
In Mohism, there was no partiality in the authority or age of the person while providing them with the respect. Hence, it adopted the principle of universal love in its administration and philosophy.
In Confucianism, there was Filial piety, which refers to a system where the people respect their elders, parents and the ancestors. This was hugely practiced in Confucianism. The concept of love was based on benevolence in Confucianism, which was depended on specific reasons and purposes (Brooks).
Frugality of Mohism
Mohism was based on frugality of each and every rites and rituals that were carried out. It challenged the existence of the rituals and proposed development of logical approach towards it. It was very economical in considering the various tasks like listening to music, holding of funerals, weddings and other such gatherings for a social cause. They stated that people wasted their time by listening to music and getting involved in the above mentioned occasions. They stressed on utilizing the same efforts on production and development of resources.
Confucianism, on the other side was very traditional and firmly believed in rituals. They stressed on development of the people through social gathering and enjoyment offered by them. It believed in sustaining the ancient culture and rituals and also emphasized on the importance of listening to music (Huang).
III. Conclusion
It can be stated that the concepts and ideologies in both the philosophies were different. Both of them had many followers and they emphasized the school of thoughts in adopting their culture and improvising it for the next generations. The Confucianism focused on benevolence perspective of love, whereas, Mohism, stressed on the Universal perspective of love.
References
Brooks, A. Taeko. “”Mwodz 14-16″ Universal Love.” Warring States Papers 1 (2010): 129-131. print.
Huang, Siu-chi. “ “Musical art in early confucian philosophy.” .” Philosophy East and West (1963): 49-60. print.
Lai, Karyn. An introduction to Chinese philosophy. . New York:: Cambridge University Press,, 2008. print.
Ning, Chen. “ “Mohist, Daoist, and confucian explanations of Confucius’s suffering in Chen-Cai.”.” Monumenta serica (2003): 37-54. print.
Qi-zhou, W. A. N. G. “On Mohist View of Literature——A Co-discussion on Differences and Similarities Between Confucian and Mohist View of Literature.” Journal of Shaanxi Normal University (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition)2 (2008): 3 – 11. print.
Thompson, Scott. Compare Mozi vs. Confucius. 2015. Web. 9 November 2015. .
XUE, B. C. and H. F. MA. “A Review of Researches on the Comparison of Confucianism and Mohism in Recent Decade [J].” Journal of Jilin Normal University (Humanities & Social Science Edition), 2, (2011): 11 – 25. Print.

Critique of the Movie One flew over the cuckoo’s nest

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Introduction: One flew over the cuckoo’s nest
In the film, “One flew over the cuckoo’s nest”, which was released on November, 1975, was based on the human psychology of perceiving things as per their thinking. The film is based on the novel which has the same name. It was based on the social beliefs of the people, who were patients of a psychiatric hospital. The story started from a prison statement of Randle Patrick McMurphy (Jack Nicholson), the lead protagonist in the story. He planned to be a mental patient rather than spend his time in jail. He thought that it would be more suitable and easy for him to live without the requirement of working hard in the mental hospital as compared to his life in the jail. With a psychology of spending his life in peace, McMurphy had decided and planned to live in the mental hospital irrespective of his normal condition. He believed it to be a much easier option than facing the Hardwork and ruthlessness in the jail. But, this was not the case (Kesey, 2002)
He saw the firm and fierce reigning of the Nurse Mildred Ratched (Louise Fletcher). She almost ruled the psychiatric ward and controlled the patients at the tip of his fingers. She abused, threatened and provided severe shock sessions to the patients for keeping them under control. This started a very rigorous battle for survival and triumph in the hospital between the two, McMurphy and Nurse Ratched respectively. During this conflict, the other patients were largely affected, too, as they get carried away by the talks of McMurphy and on the same time, they had a huge hatred against the nurse due to large number of reasons. This led to development of critical situations in the ward, where there were many continuous efforts by both the main lead characters of the story. Following the twists and turns that the story takes, there is a death of two members of the two members of the ward, namely, McMurphy and Billy. The story takes a complete turn with the death of McMurphy and an advantage of this situation was taken by Bromden who managed to escape the ward that night.
There are various famous theories and researches by various sociologists all over the world regarding the topic of human psychology and social behavior. Two of the most prominent researchers, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber have provided many concepts regarding the human interactions, psychology and behavior as well as attitude of the people. This would be discussed in the essay, where the interrelationships among the two researches with respect to the concepts shown in the movie have been developed.
One flew over the cuckoo’s nest and Durkheim’s concept:
There are many concepts regarding the human psychology and social behaviors which have been developed by the famous French sociologist, Emile Durkheim. He has developed a critical rationale for the base of the human psychological study across the globe. He has provided the term, “Collective Conscience”, which is related to the moral behaviors and approach of the people regarding the acts and traditions that are performed in the society. Collective Conscience, refers to the psychology which is responsible for taking decisions and acting during different situations by an individual. It differs from one person to another depending on their capabilities to think and develop social behavior regarding the people in their surroundings. This term was developed by Durkheim in “Division of Labor in Society” in 1893 (Pope, Cohen, & Hazelrigg, 1975).
These elements mentioned and developed by him also includes he norms, values, ideal structure and framework for maintaining relations, socialization as well as internalization, the cultural aspects and the solidarity in actions through predetermined consequences and its analysis. There are many concepts that link to the theme and concept of the movie, “One flew over the cuckoo’s nest”. The basic common principle is the human behavior and approach that has been described in both the works, where in the movie it has been played through different roles assigned to the people.
Linking the elements of Durkheim with the movie:
The human psychology and approach while developing important decisions during critical situations has been described in both the work. Durkheim provided a critical evaluation and analysis of the human behavior for sustenance and survival in the society. This has been described through the characterization of the different approaches to human social behavior as shown in the movie, through different characters. In both the works, there is a huge emphasis on group thinking and influencing each other through shared social and mental beliefs.
The character of McMurphy is a form of the rebellious approach of the collective conscience. He had to face the ruling approach of the Nurse Ratched.in this manner, the two main characters are interlinked with the concepts in the book by Durkheim (Pope, Cohen, & Hazelrigg, 1975).
One flew over the cuckoo’s nest and Weber’s concept:
Max Weber, is one of the most renowned German sociologist, who has developed many theories and concepts regarding the human behavior and actions in the society. At the same time, the influence of the different types of rationalities on the decision making abilities of an individual has been developed. This psychology and genera latitude of the people involves four different types of rationalities and they are:
Purposive rationality, belief oriented rationality, Meaning oriented rationality and conventional rationality. These are the four forms of rationalities that include the human behavior and psychology throughout the society. He has very well included the terms like bureaucracy, class, groups, status and different forms of authority that are prevalent.
This converges with the concept of social behavior shown in the movie, where there are two different rationalities displayed by the lead characters. The characters have displayed behavior as per their thinking and their approach towards life and their perception of the situation.
Linking the elements of Weber with the movie:
There are different rationalities which are described by Weber and are prevalent in the movie. The different characters have developed psychology and understanding of the issues as per the different rationalities observed in them. It can also be seen that the elements and different characters in the movie have developed different psychology in their practices and it has resulted to the development of conflicts between the characters. The intensive differences in the behavior and attitude of the people through huge differences in the rationalities are due to the understanding and ability of thinking of the members in the society (Pope, Cohen, & Hazelrigg, 1975).
Understanding the issues addressed
There are many issues addressed through the movie. It involves understanding and critically analyzing the dictator and rebel type of characterization of the two main persons that play a significant role in the movie. Both the researcher, Durkheim and Weber, have developed an approach towards developing of a behavior on the basis of the beliefs, thinking, moral and attitude in the society. These elements have been displayed among the characters of the movie. The main issue is of the difference in the style of thinking. This is the root cause of almost all the conflicts that are existing among the individuals in the society. Thinking leads to developing of attitude, which leads to the carrying of actions.
It considers the other issue of consequences faced due to the different approaches and style of living. This has been portrayed very well in the movie, where there is a death of the lead character and his friend in the mental ward.
Critique Durkheim and Weber’s
Durkheim has proposed the concept of collective conscience, which refers ot the beliefs and social structure followed by the individuals. It does not however, provide a firm base or strategies which would help in obtaining an ideal behavior among the people in the society. The perception and awareness that has been spread in the society as per Durkheim, needs to be channelized and evaluated for developing a critical understanding of the actions and their consequences observed across the society.
The rational approach provided by weber, has been successful in developing a critical evaluation of the reasons that are responsible for different actions of the people in the society. He, was however, not completely successful in establishing the effects of the rationalities on the overall welfare of the society. These rationalities have to be evaluated, studied, practices and the evaluated by the individuals. Different rationalities does not necessarily lead to conflicts, but different level of understanding and inability to justify other’s behavior is the root cause of the conflicts and incidents that are developed by different rationalities.
References
Kesey, K. (2002). One flew over the cuckoo’s nest. . Penguin.
Pope, W., Cohen, J., & Hazelrigg, L. E. (1975). On the divergence of Weber and Durkheim: a critique of Parsons’ convergence thesis. . American Sociological Review,, 417-427.