Essay on International Security

Essay on international security

Q.1) Discuss the trend from national security to international security. What are the main areas of concern for the study of world politics? How should the global community respond to new threats?

National security refers to the state which ensures that the integrity with respect to the politics, economics and sociology is maintained in a nation. It involves various steps and measures that have to be implemented to make sure that the security of the nation is kept intact. It also focusses on developing strategies related to different fields that have a direct effect on the life of the people living in the country (Katzenstein, 1996.).
International security on the other hand refers to the concept and practises that are execute d among the different nations to make sure about each and every nation’s integrity, survival as well as the safety. It involves developing agreements and signing peace bonds between the nations to avoid any kind of tension among them that would disturb the life of the people in the respective nations (Joseph S. Nye & Lynn-Jones, 1988).
There has been a great influence of the national security on the process and development of international security. It provides the nations with an opportunity to threaten the nations where national security is weak. However, there are several organizations like the Human Rights Association and the United Nations that work in establishing rules and measures to ensure the integrity and security of the nations across the globe. It implements various checks on the practises followed by the nations that has the potential to harm or affect the security of another nation (Katzenstein, 1996.).
Areas of concern for the World Politics:
In terms of the security pertaining to the national as well as international security, there are various areas that are very sensitive and require to be concerned immediately. These areas include the various inhuman and unethical practices that are going on in the nations that has its effects on the World Politics.
These areas include the violence that is happening against the women, gender discrimination in various fields, poverty, breaching of the human rights for various individuals that involve women, poor people and minority class of the society. This areas have to be taken in to consideration and are a matter of great concern that the various nations are facing. The nations have to ensure strict laws in its judicial system that would provide severe punishment to the individuals who are involved in such inhuman and unethical acts (Booth & Wheeler, 2007). The people in different countries have to come and fight together to completely eradicate such acts and beliefs from the society. There has to be several amendments in the law that provides the minor, poor people and women with the right and power from their side to fight against any sort of injustice that is observed against them in the form of behaviour, attitude and treatment by the other people (Stewart, 2006).
New threats to the Global community:
There is a tremendously increasing threat of the nuclear war breakdown between the nations. This serves to be one of the biggest threat to the entire mankind. This kind of threat has been developed due to the increasing insecurities among the countries and the growing urge in them to prove themselves superior to the other one. The urge for power in the world has also led to the increase in military action of few of the nations that would pose a serious threat to the integrity of large number of innocent people. There is a threat of military warfare among the super powerful nations that are constantly fighting to prove their superiority to the other nations and achieve the tag of the most powerful nation in the world (Abbott, Rogers, & Sloboda, 2006).
There has to be a deep level of understanding about the security between the nations and equal treatment should be provided to each and every nation across the globe. There has to be measures that would ensure peace like development of the peace unions and entities that would strive for the peace among the nations (Booth & Wheeler, 2007).
Nations breaching the security of a weaker nation that are actually weak in terms of their military power and strength of the armed forces has also been a constant threat to various communities across the globe. This has to be eradicated from the minds of these nations that though they have military superpower they cannot harm the integrity of other nations and it does provide them any right to them politically as well as socially.
Q.2) What are some of the problems with collective security?

Collective security can be termed as the way of ensuring that there is integrity and security among the nations that would involve nations to committing themselves to the attainment of peace with the other nations in terms of the political, defence and social element. There has to be a proper understanding among the nations to treat each and every one equally and take the peace and integrity of the other nations as a matter of prime importance which should not be breached (Booth & Wheeler, 2007).
There has to be special laws that have to be framed to make sure that the treaties among the nations are not breached and a severe punishment would provide one of the best approach to ensure it. The security in terms of the geographical borders that are continuously been breached by the nations since ages is a field that has to be developed the most (Abbott, Rogers, & Sloboda, 2006). The borders have to be predefined by the nations while signing a treaty and then the organizations like United Nations that are executing the treaty will take care that the treaty is not breached by any of the nation. In armed conflict, when a treaty is signed by the peace governing organizations involves considering one of the nation as aggressor and this serves to be a major issue for the nations that are signing the treaty.
For example, in 1920, japan breached the rules of the League of Nations by occupying a part of china and this violated the collective security policies. Japan had to face punishments which had to be developed due to the use of veto power provided to each nation in the League. However, no major action except condemning the act was taken.
In the above case, it is observed that there was a breach of the collective security which should be curbed by not only developing severe penalties but also implementing them to create the fear among the nations who try to violate it. The issue of security among the nations has to be considered of great importance and developing strategies that would set a guidelines for the nations regarding it has to be developed by the peace governing organizations among the nations across the globe. There are severe laws that are actually framed to restrict any of the nations to violate the breaching of border or social security of the other nations.
Thus, these are the problems that are in terms of the collective security among the nations.

References
Abbott, C., Rogers, P. F., & Sloboda, J. (2006). Global Responses to Global Threats: Sustainable Security for the 21st Century. Oxford Research Group.
Booth, K., & Wheeler, N. (2007). The Security Dilemma: Fear, Cooperation, and Trust in World Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, .
Joseph S. Nye, J., & Lynn-Jones, S. M. (1988). International Security Studies: A Report of a Conference on the State of the Field. International Security, 5-27.
Katzenstein, P. J. (1996.). The culture of national security: Norms and identity in world politics. . Columbia University Press,.
Stewart, P. (2006). Weak states and global threats: Fact or fiction? The Washington Quarterly, 27-53.

Case Study on Germany’s Real Refugee Crisis

Name: Hamdan Khalid Aldaisi ID: 201114629
Germany’s Real Refugee Crisis., Wergin, Clemens.,
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/15/opinion/germanys-real-refugee-crisis.html?_r=0, 15th/ September/2015
This article highlights the migration of the refugees from Syria and Middle East to Germany and other parts of Europe and the situation of crisis that is developed due to that. There are various effects on the economies of these countries when they accommodate and accept such a large population. The foreign policies of Germany, U.S. and other European countries are concerned regarding this situation and they are trying to develop an appropriate course of action without any military help. Many decisions regarding the security issues and foreign policies have to be taken by the European countries themselves as the U.S. is not playing a pivotal role in establishing peace and solving these issues existing in the European countries, especially in Germany.
The main concern of the crisis is to fit the refugees in the country in such a way that it does not led to excessive pressure on all the other resources which would adversely affect its economy. Major part of the issue revolves around Germany where they are incapable of taking any major action that would succumb the activities carried out by Syria and also help in rehabilitation of the refugees. The German government also declined the proposal of imposing controlled military operation in these areas which was proposed by one of the most renowned German diplomat, Wolfgang Ischinger, in 2013.
The situation has simply worsened after then and there is an increasing pressure on the European countries, mostly the central and west part, from other explosive countries like Ukraine, Libya and few regions of the Africa. This involves taking advantage of the lack of management or ability to take decisions and excessive dependability of the European countries on U.S. for effectively handling the security of their regions.

The foreign ministers have to develop policies based on strict military action that would help in restabilising the peace and harmony in these regions. For this, they have to come together and instead of considering the sympathetic humanitarian side, they should also analyse the impact that their decisions have on the integrity, security and sovereignty of this entire region.
Thus, it can be seen that the article focuses on the flaws and incapabilities of Germany as well as entire European government to tackle the refugee crisis and also handle the increasing influence of unstable economies like Syria, Libya and other dynamic countries in these region.
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Report on Role of Government of Hong Kong in the Housing Market

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Introduction
With the advancement of technology and tremendous increase in the demands of the people, there has been a wide scale migration of population from the rural towns to urban areas. When there is a huge migration of such population and there is very limited availability of resources in the urban area or city, then there are many issues and problems that are developed. One of the most significant problem that it induces is the shortage of land (Ang, 2015). There is very limited area available in the city for human habitation as the area is used for multiple purposes like industries, recreational activities and other infrastructural amenities.
Housing unaffordability refers to the incapability of the people of a nation to get sufficient and reasonable housing facilities that can be afforded by them and that should possess a good living condition. It is a problem that has been persisting in the rural areas due to the sudden boost in their population (Li, 2014). It has been observed in Hong Kong with very high rates of median multiple of National housing unaffordability as compared to the other cities of the world (Day, 2015). It has been shown in figure 1 in the Appendix.
A similar problem has been observed in Hong Kong where there is a huge scarcity of land availability and it has been observed in the level of price rises and number of construction projects that are increasing considerably (Brownlee, 2015). The people belonging to the labor section and other such low income occupation are on the suffering end with hardly any space to own for themselves. They live in an extremely small space that is far beyond the normal requirements of a human. While living in such conditions, they are never able to rise economically and as a result there is no increase in the standard of living and per capita income of the people in Hong Kong despite of the continuous increase in the number of billionaires in it (Ching, 2004). People do not have their own houses in Hong Kong. It can be observed that about 50% of the population of Hong Kong lives in their own houses, whereas 90% population in Singapore, 67% people in Australia and about 85% in Taiwan live in their own houses (Ang, 2015).
The housing problems can be solved through private housing policies as well as by providing efficient public housing facilities by the government (REFORM OF THE FEDERATION, 2015). There are different problems that have been developed Government plays a pivotal role in the management of the housing availability to the low income groups in Hong Kong. The problems and their solutions that the government should develop for solving or reducing the problem of housing unaffordability in Hong Kong.
Research on the problems
There are many problems that have been developed due to the tremendous boost in the urban population and inefficiency of the government of Hong Kong to provide them with a sufficient standards of living. There are two main problems that are identified and they are:
1. Unaffordability of houses and
2. Quality of life of the people in the available housing
These problems has been discussed in the following section.
Unaffordability of houses
There is a huge gap developed in the house prices and the household of the people in Hong Kong. This has resulted in large scale of unaffordability of houses by the people.
The median developed for the house prices and household income has been shown in figure 2 in the Appendix. It has the following standards for unaffordability of houses:
Affordable: Median Multiple = 3.0 and under
Moderately Affordable: Median Multiple = 3.1 to 4
Seriously Unaffordable: Median Multiple = 4.1 to 5
Severely Unaffordable: Median Multiple = 5.1 and over
According to the above mentioned median multiples, the median multiple of Hong Kong is extremely high at about 14.9 and is the highest among the other cities of the world (STEDU.STHEADLINE, 2015). The median housing price is observed to be HK $4,024,000 which is approx. US $520,000 while that in New York is $405,400 in the year 2013. The median multiple that has been obtained considering the housing prices and the income of the household is about three times more than Tokyo that tends to be one among the most expensive cities across the globe (Chen, 2014).
Quality of life of the people in the available housing
There has been a tremendous fall in the quality of living and other standards of the people in Hong Kong. It has been obtained through different indexes of pollution, income, life expectancy and other such parameters. It was found that the quality of life was deteriorating in Hong Kong. It has been compared with the quality of life in the last decade, that is, last 10 years. It can be seen in figure 3 provided in the Appendix.
One of the most significant factor contributing to the decline in the quality of life of the people is unavailability of houses at affordable prices for the population.
Suggested solutions
There are few solutions that demand a pivotal role and contribution to be played by the government as they are the ultimate owners of the properties and housing enterprise. Government has to develop more number of projects in terms of public housing as compared to the previous years (Delang & Lung, 2010). These housing programs and schemes would be providing solutions to the various problems that are existing due to the unaffordability of houses in Hong Kong. There has already been a tremendous increase in the demand for public housing as observed in 2011. There were about 100,000 public housing applications in 2006 and it increased to about 150,000 in 2011. However, government was able to provide only 15,000 public housing facilities through units (LSE CITIES, 2011). \
Thus, it requires a better planning and execution from the government side to reduce the unaffordability of the houses and decrease the gap that has been developed among the rich and the poor. There are many public housing schemes and programs that accustom to good standard of living and other facilities has to be developed by various means that are available to them. It also has to provide good and reasonable income opportunities to the low income section of the society so as to make them self-sufficient.
Limitations of the solutions
It can already be seen that the lack of land for housing purposes in Hong Kong is a major problem that has to be dealt with (Huang, Shen, & Zheng, 2015). Thus, while providing extensive public housing units, the health of the laborers, construction workers involved in developing the houses as well as the people that would be residing in these houses, is kept at risk. Availability of sustainable living conditions tends to be the major concern and limitation of the government. It should therefore also take measures to increase the income of these group of people as a result of which they would be able to afford reasonable prices which they are not able to in the current scenario.
References
Ang, B. L. (2015, April 3). Hong Kong Real Estate: Is The Lack Of Land A Myth? Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com: http://www.scmp.com/comment/insight-opinion/article/1699405/what-housing-crisis-hong-kong
Brownlee, I. (2015, February 2). What housing crisis in Hong Kong? Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com: http://www.scmp.com/comment/insight-opinion/article/1699405/what-housing-crisis-hong-kong
Chen, L. (2014, October 8). Beyond The Umbrella Movement: Hong Kong’s Struggle With Inequality In 8 Charts. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com: http://www.forbes.com/sites/liyanchen/2014/10/08/beyond-the-umbrella-revolution-hong-kongs-struggle-with-inequality-in-8-charts/#6b8288b050b6
Ching, S. W. (2004). Housing Problems Accompanying Urbanization (Hong Kong’s Lesson). Centaline Property Agency, 1-6. Retrieved from https://www.housingauthority.gov.hk/hdw/ihc/pdf/cswcs.pdf
Day, B. (2015). 12th Annual Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey: 2016. Performance Urban Planning, pp. 1-56. Retrieved from http://www.demographia.com/dhi.pdf
Delang, C. O., & Lung, H. C. (2010). Public housing and poverty concentration in urban neighbourhoods: The case of Hong Kong in the 1990s. . Urban studies.
Huang, J., Shen, G. Q., & Zheng, H. W. (2015). Is insufficient land supply the root cause of housing shortage? Empirical evidence from Hong Kong. . Habitat International, 49, , 538-546.
Li, J. (2014). Recent trends on housing affordability research: where. CityU on Cities Working , 1-21.
LSE CITIES. (2011). Hong Kong’s Housing Shame. Society for Community Organization, 1-3. Retrieved from https://lsecities.net/media/objects/articles/hong-kong/en-gb/
REFORM OF THE FEDERATION. (2015). Supply, demand and government involvement in the housing market. PART TWO: PRESSURES ON CURRENT HOUSING AND HOMELESSNESS ARRANGEMENTS. Retrieved from https://federation.dpmc.gov.au/supply-demand-and-government-involvement-housing-market
Siu, F. (2016, February 10). Hong Kong property prices are outrageous: why no competitiveness complaints? Retrieved from https://www.hongkongfp.com: https://www.hongkongfp.com/2016/02/10/hong-kong-property-prices-are-outrageous-why-no-competitiveness-complaints/
STEDU.STHEADLINE. (2015, May 12). Housing – an intractable problem . Retrieved from http://stedu.stheadline.com/: http://stedu.stheadline.com/sec/sec_news.php?aid=13770&cat=6&subcat=14

Appendix
Figure: 1 Housing unaffordability graph

(Day, 2015)
Figure 2: House price/ Household Income

(Siu, 2016)
Figure 3: Quality of life in Hong Kong

Essay on Population by Gender in UAE

POPULATION BY GENDER


Table of Contents
1. Introduction: 2
2. Trends in the population by gender: 2
2.1.1. Sex ratio in UAE during 2005: 3
2.1.2. Sex ratio in UAE during 2010: 3
3. Population growth in UAE: 4
4. Infant mortality gender rate: 5
5. Fertility Transition in the UAE 6
6. Future scope 7
7. Conclusion 7
8. Recommendation 8
9. References 8

Population by gender
Introduction:
Population can be categorized on various basis like the type of age group, standard of living, position in the society, type of work and on the basis of gender. The most significant categorization which is of great concern among the different nationalities is the last one which is population by Gender. This serves to be a significant factor in the contribution of equality that is to be observed in the society.
It can be calculated on the basis of sex ratio. The term sex ratio refers to the number boys of for a particular number of girls. It is the ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls in a country. It helps to analyse the number of girls in a population and helps to evaluate the value and respect of women in the particular culture. The ratio of the sex helps to estimate and understand the position and mind-set of the people in the society. It gives an overall idea of the trend that is followed by the people along with their customs and traditions regarding the birth of a child.
Trends in the population by gender:
It has been observed that there has been a tremendous increase in the population from 1980 to 2010 where it was about 1 million in 1980 to 8.4 million in 2010 and 9.1 million in 2013. It is estimated to reach more than 15.4 million till 2050.

(The demographic Profile of the United Arab Emirates , 2014).
It is found that the number of females per every male is very less. This can be expressed in the form of sex ratio which is given by:
Sex ratio = Number of boys/ number of girls
Sex ratio in UAE during 2005:
2822/1327 = 2.1266
Sex ratio in UAE during 2010:
5940/2482= 2.4
Thus, it can be seen that the number of girls against the number of boys has been continuously reducing in UAE since the last few years. This has to be taken as a matter of concern due to the reducing number of the female gender in UAE. This has been due to the political, economic and social conditions that would be more favourable to men. This belief has gained importance and is increasing over the years in the states in UAE.
Population growth in UAE:
It is observed that there has been an increment of over 14% during the last three years. During the initial case, from 1985-1990, the growth rate has been increasing steadily at around 5-6 % until the period from 1998-2000 where there is a decline in the growth rate from 5.87% to 5.09 % (Gonzalez & Karoly, 2008). This has been due to the changing law structure for the immigration of the people across the globe to UAE (The demographic Profile of the United Arab Emirates , 2014).

(The demographic Profile of the United Arab Emirates , 2014).
However, the growth has been continuously increasing from 5.87 to 14.21 in 2010. This incredible increase in the population is due to the transparency in the immigration law by the UAE government. A large number of opportunities available in the UAE market has also contributed immensely in the increasing population in the countries of UAE.

Infant mortality gender rate:
The infant mortality rate helps to estimate the number deaths of infants per 1000 live births during a particular time period. In the below graph, it is shown for the period from 1985 to 2014 (The demographic Profile of the United Arab Emirates , 2014).

(The demographic Profile of the United Arab Emirates , 2014).
It is found that the number of males that were dead for females was more. But, considering the huge difference in the population of the males, it can be stated that this difference is found to be very low in terms of the infant mortality rate among the genders.
The mortality rate is hugely affected by the number of males that are getting birth which is much more than that of the number of females getting birth. Hence, the difference that is found in the infant mortality rate can be showing more deaths among boys than girls, but considering the overall number of girls and boys present, this number would be actually less.

Fertility Transition in the UAE
The fertility rate can be defined as the average number of births that an individual woman can give in her lifetime. This can be ranging from giving births to a boy or a girl (The demographic Profile of the United Arab Emirates , 2014).

(The demographic Profile of the United Arab Emirates , 2014).

The fertility rate can be high due to the less number of women in the country and this increases the pressure on the existing number of women to give more and more births to the child. The fertility rate has reduced due to the increasing tension in the life style of the people, increase in the inflation during the time period.
It has reduced from 5.23 per woman during the time of 1980-1985 to 1.82 in 2000-2005. This has resulted in less number of females per males due to the reduction in the number of births per each women. This will not affect the sex ratio till over 25 years.

Future scope
The transition in the trend of the number of people migrating from the foreign countries to UAE (International Migration Report 2013 , 2013). This serves to be one of the major reason that would help in contributing to the gender ratio in the country with more than 2.3 as the sex ratio. This ratio can be reduced by bringing in equal number of immigrants of both the genders from the foreign countries to UAE. This has also contributed to the number of Refugees that are coming to UAE from the neighbouring countries (The demographic Profile of the United Arab Emirates , 2014).
International Migrant (IM) Stock for the UAE, 1990-2013

(The demographic Profile of the United Arab Emirates , 2014).
Conclusion
Thus, it can be obtained that the number of females per every male is much less in UAE. This has to be seen as a matter of great concern in UAE which has resulted due to various reasons. The feeling of superiority possessed by men over women, the myths and beliefs that women could not achieve more than men in terms of various fields. There has to be steps and measures to be taken to check the number of abortions on the basis of sex determination of the infant. This also includes providing equal opportunity to both the genders in the society. It can be concluded that the population by gender is not uniform in UAE (Poston & Bouvier, 2010).

Recommendation
We have found that the population by gender is not uniform in UAE and there are various measures that have to be taken to ensure that the sex ratio decreases with an increase in the number of girls for a particular number of boys. This can be achieved by keeping a track of the abortion and checking that the sex determination is not done among the pregnant women. It can be completely banned from the system. Also, developing special incentives for raising a girl child can be provided like providing them with the necessities of life at a very low cost, providing their education at a low cost and announcing special scholarship for the higher education studies of the girls. This will encourage the people to give birth to a girl child instead of getting them aborted. The number of immigrants from the foreign countries has also to be kept under check on the basis of their gender and ensure that there are enough opportunities provided to the females that can migrate to UAE for an aspiring career in UAE.

References
Gonzalez, G. C., & Karoly, L. A. (2008). Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Rand Corporation.
(2013). International Migration Report 2013 . NewYork: United NAtions.
Poston, D. L., & Bouvier, L. F. (2010). Population and Society: An Introduction to Demography. USA: Cambridge University Press.
The demographic Profile of the United Arab Emirates . (2014). Retrieved from http://www.escwa.un.org: http://www.escwa.un.org/popin/members/uae.pdf

Report on Strategic Partnership between UAE and India

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Joint statement issued as Mohamed Bin Zayed wraps up successful visit to India

Q1.
The facts:

• UAE – India Business council established in September 2015
• Signing of Comprehensive Strategic Partnership Agreement between UAE and India.
• Joint efforts for Dubai Expo 2020.
• Signing a memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for encouraging huge number of Emirati investors to invest in number of potential businesses and plans developed by the government of India.
• Inaugurating the new port Nhava Sheva of the DP world at Mumbai on 12th February.
• Provide support to the Internation Solar Alliance (ISA) as well as International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)

The description of the topic discussed:
• Many topics were discussed in the three day visit of His Highness Sheikh Mohamed Bin Zayed to India.
• The topics were from different dimensions of the factors that are contributing in the successful development and growth of the two nations, India and UAE through multiple partnerships.
• Crude oil trade, development and implementation of renewable sources of energy as well as solar energy across both the countries, promoting measures that would help in increasing the role and contribution of both the countries in the development of each other’s economies.

The interpretation and future of the strategic partnership with India.

• A bright and sustainable future can be achieved for UAE and India through improvement in the strategic partnership and development of several new tie-ups for different businesses that ensure overall growth of the people in both the countries.
• There have already been many partnerships that have been successful in the past and both the dignitaries decided to take this partnership to an altogether new level and take it to great heights.
Q2.
There are many key areas where UAE would like to strengthen its relationship with India and increase the number of strategic partnerships that are developed between India and UAE. The main elements that are mentioned in the joint statement as the key areas that UAE would like to develop its relationship with India are development of trade and investments related to it, security and Defence, Anti-terrorism measures to collectively fight against terrorism, production of Defence and military related technologies and system, innovations in Information Technology (IT) and various forms of electronic devices, development of space technology. The success of the bilateral engagement between the two nations have helped in strengthening the relationship between them and this has to be improved through continuous efforts of multi-lateral engagement of different businesses between the two countries. The relationship has to be strengthened through making potential investments and developing strategic alliances in the topics regarding the development of renewable sources of energy and solar energy in particular for both the countries. There are many cultural exchange programs that has the potential to strengthen the relationship between the two nations with an increasing interaction between the cultures of the two countries through the people living in them. It involves developing a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership Agreement between two nations.

Q3.
UAE has identified the huge potential that India has in terms of economic growth, exposure to a large market and potential schemes, plans and projects that are development by the government for the overall development of India. UAE wants to invest in the different innovative and potential projects like the “Start-up India, Make in India, Smart city, Clean India and Digital India”. It involves the participation and contribution of UAE through investment and other forms of support in the mega project that are planned by the Indian government like mega industrial manufacturing corridors and the development of the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor to boost the businesses that are carried out across the globe from India. It includes making considerable amount of investments in the various development projects that are designed by the Indian government for improving the infrastructure in the country. There has been a huge amount of investment through the satisfied projects that are carried out by the Space Agency in UAE and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) due to the success of the partnerships observed among them. It has been followed by investing in the form of a Memorandum of Understanding as well as developing Joint Working force for the space related operations, inventions and innovations that are to be incorporated between both the countries.
Q4.
In terms of the supply of fossil fuels, UAE tends to be one of the most significant exporter of crude oil to India. For initializing partnership in the field of consumption and utilization of fossil fuels, there has been a Memorandum of Understanding between the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) and Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Ltd. (ISPRL). Increasing the use of renewable sources of energy and making technological innovations for implementing solar energy in particular serves to be the goal of both the nations, India as well as UAE. UAE and India have developed many strategic partnerships evaluating the significance of the critical issue of climatic change that was mentioned in the Paris Agreement. For renewable Sources of energy, both these nations signed a “General Framework Arrangement for Cooperation” in renewable Energy. There would be new and advanced solar technologies developed by both the countries related to the initiatives mentioned in the International Solar Alliances (ISA) through its Second Steering Committee. It also includes considering the critical issues of climate change between the different nations as well as provide coordinated efforts to promote the strategies and initiatives developed by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). For achieving this huge impact on climate change they have to follow the policies and strategies developed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change

Q5.
There has been a considerable amount of partnership and strategic alliances developed between India and UAE through the bilateral security operation that has helped in achieving high levels of security as required by their National Security Councils. There are many issues and areas related to the Defence and security where UAE and India would be working together and these areas include, marine security, cyber security and measures against terrorism. Both of these countries emphasize achievement of sovereignty across the nation and a structure of non-interference in the working of the government to ensure success and growth of the two nations. There would be sharing of technology and Information Technology concepts that would help in maintaining the security across different sectors in the two nations related to the communication technologies. There would be an improvement and increment in the strategic partnerships and programs that are developed between the two countries in terms of the training, Defence techniques and technologies and an emphasis on the defence technologies and equipment to be developed in India. Improving the maritime security of the international water borders that are existing between UAE and India through various sessions of the “Joint Defence Cooperation Committee” that is established between the two. Developing various programs and anti-terrorism strategies to fight terrorism and save all the countries across the globe from its harmful activities serves to be one of the most important element in the cooperation that would be strengthened between UAE and India.
Q6.
There are different forms of globalization that have been discussed in class and they are mentioned below. Along with that its implications that have been mentioned in the text are also discussed below.
Economic:
It refers to the exchange of valuable of products and services that are of high quality and have huge potential to contribute in the development of the economy of the nations that are adapting it. UAE and India have obtained a significant level of strategic partnership that has helped in developing a healthy economic relationship between the two through investments in different potential sources like the development of Framework related to the economic growth.
Financial
It refers to the factors related to the technology and its implications in the market among the countries that are implementing globalization in their strategies which is observed in case of India and UAE.
Political
It involves multiple levels of literacy to be achieved through achieving sovereignty among the nations that has been observed through the strategic alliances developed between India and UAE.
Military
It consists of developing military and defence alliances for safeguarding the security of the nations as seen in the case of UAE and India where they have developed many ties to support and improve each other’s military and defence.
Cultural
It includes a large of intercultural interactions between UAE and India.
Environmental
The strategiec partnerships that are adopted for the benefits of the environment like measures to develop renewable source of energy and solar energy between India and UAE.

Criminal
The steps that are taken to curb the terrorist activities observed in India and UAE have to be taken into consideration through development of strict, innovative and impactful solutions to eradicate terrorism from the two nations as well as from across the globe.
Q7.
The philosophy that is related to the concept of globalization has varied levels of interpretations and implications from the global point of view. However, there are four general concepts of the globalization philosophy that have been discussed and they are:
Internationalization:
It refers to the different strategies that are developed between the nations to encourage the concepts of globalization across different international borders across the globe. It involves spreading and expansion of the business and other programs carried by the two countries to the entire world.
Liberalization:
It includes the characteristic of freedom that has to be achieved in all the aspects of the society for overall growth and development of India as well as UAE. Liberalization ensures that the strategies that are developed in these nations are favorable in helping them to achieve a significant position in the world.
Universalization:
The concept of universalization refers to the ideology of spreading the business and various technological concepts to various parts of the world through universalization of the strategies and partnerships that can be seen between India and UAE.
Westernization:
It refers to the adaption of the westernized culture, its technology and other perspectives of an economy to inculcate overall development among the various plans and schemes that are developed in India and UAE.