Report on Ethical Dilemma With Reference of Blue eyes- Brown eyes” experiment


Description of the experiment selected
The experiment selected is the “Blue eyes- Brown eyes” experiment which was first carried by the American activist against racism and a primary school teacher, Jane Elliot. An outline of the experiment is provide below. The experiment was first conducted on the school kids where she used to teach. In this experiment, she divided the children in the class into two groups, namely, blue-eyed and brown eyed. She randomly placed few students in the blue eyes group and the others in brown eyes group. She provided collars of fabric to separate them from each other on daily basis. She provided the blue-eyed group with exclusive privileges, leisure and powers like they were made to sit on the first bench, were allowed to play only with the blue-eyed group kids and were made to observe a superiority in terms of their behavior and conduct as compared to the brown eyed group of kids. The brown eyed kids were made to do more work which was tedious and they were provided with an inferior status in the classroom and they were made to sit on the back benches. She observed the behavior and result of these practice and then after one week, she reversed the grouping of the kids. She, then interchanged the groups of the kids, that is, the ones who were in blue-eyed group were shifted to brown eyes group and vice versa. Then she asked the kids to provide their experiences during this exercise. The results were observed, evaluated and analyzed by her for critical learning (Peters, Beutel, & Elliott, 2011).
It was executed by her on observing the racist trends going on in the society on the death of Martin Luther King Jr. These trends victimized the so called ‘black’ people in the society on the basis of their sheer origins and color. Jane Elliot carried this experiment, where she was seeking to identify the behavioral and attitudinal changes that comes into the minds of the people when they blindly follow racism and consider the concept of superiority and inferiority on the basis of races (Byrnes & Kiger, 1990). The context of the study was to identify the effects of racism and the superiority and inferiority complex developed in the society on the performance and behavior of the people (Brown, Parham, & Yonker, 1996). The experiment was conducted by her in U.S., on 5th April 1968, that is, one day after the death of the Martin Luther King Jr. She had viewed one news on TV, where she was moved by the racist comment given by the reporter to the person whose origin was black. There were many other news that displayed this unethical trend of displaying the races, as a measure for the superiority and inferiority of a person (Bloom, 2005).
The hypothesis of the experiment was to identify the effect of the concept of racism in the minds of the people. The other thing that she aimed to find was the influence of this concept on the performance as well as mental state of the person. Developing research on her hypothesis, she found that there were negative results on the people who were believed to be inferior which refers to the brown-eyes group in the class and there were positive results on the blue eyes group. However, the attitude and behavior of the blue eyes people had become unethical that propagated inequality (Pendry, Driscoll, & Field, 2007).

Ethical concerns
The experiment largely provided an extensive understanding of the concept of racism that was prevalent in the society and the way people perceived it. The impact on the psychology of the people due to their belief in such racist behavior has been obtained. While studying the experiment, she obtained that the people who have been assigned with the inferiority attribute in the society, like the brown eyes group in her experiment, had become very isolated and depressive (Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992). Thus, it created the ethical issues of inequality in the society. It also spread a very poor practice in the society through which there would be no scope or opportunities provided to the people, who were tagged as inferior by the society, just because of their color. The ethical issues involves hurting the basic human sentiments of respect and equal position in the society. Providing equal opportunities for growth and development of a specific group, community or locality has to be the ethical practice which has to be followed by the organizations and individuals in the society. This was severely violated during those times, which was identified by Jane Elliot, as she was an activist against racism. These kind of issues were best to be handled by encouraging equality in behavior and opportunities provided to the people (Newstrom & Davis, 1986).
The experiment had a huge impact on the cultural diversity in the society. It promoted the practices like diversity training in the organizations and also provided the governments with a base for eradicating the racism from the society. She also became a full-time diversity management trainer for various big organizations like GE, AT &T, IBM and other such popular firms. It laid the foundation of the awareness among the masses across the world. People were mentally, psychologically and physically affected by the experiment carried to identify the racial trends in an organization. There were many implication adopted by the people in their organizations to observe that malpractices like racism gets removed from their organizations. U.S. companies carried various styles of diversity training as there were Federal Laws passed by the government regarding the acceptance and promotion of multiculturalism in the organizations. It was also accepted in other countries like UK, with the development of the “Race Relations Amendment Act 2000” (Infinito, 2003).
The study as the modified by her and introduced in her works of “A Class Divided”, where the effects of her first experiments were observed on the same group after a long period of time. Since the 21st century, there has been an increasing adaption of the diversity training method introduced by her. Using this techniques, organizations achieve their goal of promoting multiculturalism in their structure and at the same time increase the efficiency and performance of the individuals through motivation and better mindset. There were changes in the level of implication of the experiment, but the concept has been retained even after so many years. According to me, there was huge impact on the society through her work which started from a simple, yet meaningful experiment carried by her on a group of school kids. This changed the perception of races in the coming generations (Ely & Thomas, 2001).
Reflection
The experiment was carried out when there was a huge tension developed in the American society due to the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. there were existing trends of racism prevailing in the society. Hence, the ethical issues had to be raised and discussed for observing equality. The experiment was significant and was necessary to open the minds of the people and bring awareness among them. The results of the experiment carried by Jane Elliot had short term impact on the culture and trend in U.S. However, it had a long term impact in terms of the concept being followed by organizations and governments across the world. Individuals and their respective professions grew tremendously and prospered due to the eradication of the racist trends from the society (Chen, 2002).
There is an approach which could have been obtained along with this study, where the focus would not have been solely, on the cultural difference, but on the behavior and attitude of the people as well. It is true that people are going to consider races in the society and it is fair unless it does not harm the rights and welfare of any other community or race in the society. Thus, differences in races does not necessarily lead to development of superiority and inferiority behavior, but the mindset of the people leads to the development of such concepts. This would largely help in reducing the ethical concerns and issues which are developed among the cultures observed across the globe.
I would love to be a part of such a study today. I would like to be a researcher, where I would carry such experiment which would help in determining the effects of racism in today’s world. I would then develop a hypothesis which would be studied, evaluated and analyzed for observing the behavior, attitude and psychology of the people in different organizations. On the basis of the results of the experiments, I would recommend the organizations or a group of people regarding their behavior and provide them with a complete explanation to eradicate this concept from their minds. I would introduce flexible cultural behavior for introducing more comfort in the experiments. There would be higher levels of interaction between the two groups developed in the experiment. They would be provided with many opportunities to perform and establish their behavior and beliefs through learning.
This kind of experiment and study can be conducted in UAE, too. However, there is a very rare requirement of conducting such an experiment in the Arab society as it has welcomed cultures and people from all across the world to establish and develop their lives in UAE. There are few issues like considering the Arab population as superior, which are observed in the society. These issues are relevant in few UAE origin companies, where, more incentives and perks are given to the local employees as compared to the foreign employees (Behery & Paton, 2008). But, considering the larger interests of the society, UAE does not permit and allow such racism which would hurt the feelings and sentiments of different cultures.

References
Behery, M. H., & Paton, R. A. (2008). Performance appraisal-cultural fit: organizational outcomes within the UAE. . Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 1(1),, 34-49.
Bloom, S. G. (2005). BlueEyes, BrownEyes: The Experiment that Shocked the Nation and Turned a Town Against its Most Famous Daughter. . Smithsonian Magazine.
Brown, S. P., Parham, T. A., & Yonker, R. (1996). Influence of a cross‐cultural training course on racial identity attitudes of White women and men: preliminary perspectives. . Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(5),, 510-516.
Byrnes, D. A., & Kiger, G. (1990). The Effect of a Prejudice‐Reduction Simulation on Attitude Change1. . Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20(4), , 341-356.
Chen, M. (2002). Leveraging the asymmetric sensitivity of eye contact for videoconference. . SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 49-56). ACM. .
Ely, R. J., & Thomas, D. A. (2001). Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes. Administrative science quarterly, 46(2),, 229-273.
Infinito, J. (2003). Jane Elliot meets Foucault: The formation of ethical identities in the classroom. . Journal of Moral Education, 32(1), , 67-76.
Newstrom, J. W., & Davis, K. (1986). Human behavior at work. . New York. : McGraw-Hill.
Pendry, L. F., Driscoll, D. M., & Field, S. C. (2007). Diversity training: Putting theory into practice. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80(1), , 27-50.
Peters, W., Beutel, B., & Elliott, J. (2011). The eye of the storm. . ABC News Productions.
Sue, D. W., Arredondo, P., & McDavis, R. J. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70(4),, 477-486.

Essay on Coping mechanisms in Adolescents

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Coping
Coping is defined as an effort or an attempt by the individuals for overcoming stress and other unfavorable outcomes that might develop while trying to develop a solution for the problems that may be between two individuals or a group of individuals or within the individual. It is carried out by the individuals by procrastinating the methods and outcomes of their tasks and preparing themselves accordingly to reduce overall stress and tension developed in them. It is one kind of psychology that has been developed within the individual for their personal health and psychological benefits. It is very important for the individuals to execute appropriate coping at the right time and in the right way, so as to avoid the negative effects developed while solving or dealing with any problem (Fanshawe, 1991).
Coping mechanisms
Coping mechanisms are the techniques and measures adopted by the individuals for handling of the outcomes in the form of physical and mental strain that would be developed while tackling a specific problem. There are many ways by which the coping process can be carried out through different mechanisms including various practices. There are two types of practices which hare generally followed in coping mechanisms and they are:
• Adaptive coping mechanism and
• Maladaptive coping mechanisms (Fanshawe, 1991).
Roles of coping mechanisms
Coping mechanism is important for handling the stress and tension that is developed during carrying activities for solving particular problem. This would provide an individual with the peace of mind and calmness that is required after performing any specific tough task. It helps the individuals to prepare themselves for the next task and develop learning from their earlier experience.
Stress
The main reason of carrying coping is development of stress. Stress refers to any kind of physical or mental strain that has been experienced by the people due to the problems faced by them. These problems may be due to financial, political, social, cultural, religious and behavioral elements that have a huge impact on the individuals.it is one kind of reaction provided by the body to different situations and it differs from one person to another. However, there are many common reasons for development of stress in adolescents at a very early age in their life.
There is development of stress due to the elements which are not favorable to one’s health and mental state and these elements are called as stressors. The development of stress due to stressors involves many factors like the environmental condition, physical factor, chemical factor and any other actions occurring naturally or carried by any person or a group of people (Fanshawe, 1991).
Stressors differences between boys and girls
There are many different attributes and behaviors observed in boys and girls of the adolescent age.
Stressors for Boys:
In the adolescent age, boys develop stress due to the following reasons:
• Lack of sincerity,
• Sports activities and aspirations,
• Big dreams and less efforts,
• Problems with other people and students in the school
• Increasing desire of attaining adulthood.
• Unhealthy eating and drinking habits
• Excessive spending leading to developing of financial pressure.
Stressors for Girls:
Among the adolescent girls, stressors which are developed are as follows:
• Body image conceptualization from the media
• Obsession with personal appearance,
• Very sensitive and emotional nature,
• Body dissatisfaction and depression
• Excessive involvement in relationships
• Increasing dissatisfaction of their belongings.
Maladaptive coping mechanisms
Maladaptive coping mechanisms are the techniques and methods which would have negative effects and consequences on the person adopting it. However, these effects, would sometimes, considered as positive for reducing the stress. But, this would be only for a short span of time. This is because, these kind of coping mechanisms would provide immediate relief and reduction in stress, but it would have huge negative effects on long term basis. Thus, it is very important to identify the characteristics of the coping mechanisms, before practicing any one of them. These practices are mostly adopted to overcome the anxiety that has been developed among the individuals. There are various ways through which maladaptive coping mechanisms. We have discussed the most commonly used method of coping mechanism that is using drugs.
Consumption of drugs, tobacco and alcohol:
It is one of the most commonly practiced technique of coping mechanism. Individuals, when get stressed or feel unhappy and helpless, try to get some relief and pleasure through consumption of drugs, tobacco products, cigarettes and alcohol in different quantities. They do get temporary relief from drugs and alcohol as they manipulate the senses of an individual. However, this relief and pleasure is just momentary and it has many harmful side effects observed for a long time. This includes development of intolerant nature, crime activities for getting the costly drugs, increasing frustration among the adolescents and excessive violent attitude among them (Newcomb, Maddahian, & Bentler, 1986).
Common drugs used
There are different kinds of drugs used across the world. However, the most common ones are the
Illegal or Illicit drugs:
These are the drugs which are not permitted by the law. The examples of these drugs are:
• Marijuana
• Cocaine
• Heroin
• Amphetamines.
Licit or legal drugs:
These are the drugs which are permitted by the law. But, the law does not promote its excessive usage and usage for wrong reasons. The examples of these drugs are:
• Tranquilizers,
• Nail paint and remover
• Cough syrups
• Gasoline substances like petrol, oil, diesel and kerosene
Specific painkillers and other addictive medicines (AUSTRALIAN DRUG FOUNDATION (adf), 2015).
Difference between adaptive and maladaptive coping mechanisms
There is a very thin line difference between the methods of practicing adaptive and maladaptive coping mechanisms. These differences are mentioned below:
• A maladaptive coping mechanism technique would provide only temporary solution and relaxation, whereas adaptive coping mechanism would provide slow, but long term relaxation and relief.
• There would be no psychological and physical disorders observed on practicing adaptive coping mechanisms. On the other side, practicing maladaptive coping mechanisms generates huge number of disorders and health related problems among the individuals.
• Practicing maladaptive coping mechanisms is more difficult as compared to the adaptive coping mechanisms. But, its consequences are very adverse too (AUSTRALIAN DRUG FOUNDATION (adf), 2015).

References
AUSTRALIAN DRUG FOUNDATION (adf). (2015, April). Drugs – teenagers. Retrieved from https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au: https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/drugs-teenagers
Fanshawe, J. P. (1991). Assessing school‐related stressors and coping mechanisms in adolescents. . British Journal of Educational Psychology, 61(1), , 92-98.
Newcomb, M. D., Maddahian, E., & Bentler, P. M. (1986). Risk factors for drug use among adolescents: concurrent and longitudinal analyses. . American Journal of Public Health, 76(5),, 525-531.

Essay on Quasi Experimental Designs

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Quasi-experimental Designs
Introduction
Quasi-experimental design is a form of study which is used to measure the impact of certain variables on a targeted group of people without any kind of randomization in their selection. It has two kinds of variables namely, dependent variable and an independent variable which influences the initial dependent variable taken into consideration (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002).
Strengths of Quasi-experimental designs
Quasi-experimental design method is very much useful in carrying an analysis on a particular group with respect to a specific variable where the group cannot be pre-selected on random basis. It saves a lot of time as well as resources while analysing a group which is to be analysed is too difficult to control and handle. It has high external validity as the experiment is being conducted under controlled variables and there is no chance of fluctuation under these variables (Weisburd, Lum, & Petrosino, 2001).
Weaknesses of Quasi-experimental designs
Quasi-experimental designs does not include randomization and hence the statistical results are less valid internally and it does not exactly help to identify the causal results cannot be determined easily and accurately. It does not consider the behavioural factor that is to be involved in critical cases where the mental state and background of the person has to be considered for analysing the behaviour of the person. It does not consider various variables which are important for the analysis as it has is executed under extremely controlled condition with controlled variables taken into consideration (Weisburd, Lum, & Petrosino, 2001).
Experimental design for Criminal Justice Research
For criminal cases, there are a number of variables that are to be considered for analysing their behaviour and at the same time generalising the results of the experiment has to be observed (Dantzker & Hunter, 2006). Classical method of experiments, also known as true experimental design requires an environment to be controlled naturally which is extremely difficult while conducting a research experiment on criminals. Hence, in such situations, conducting the experiment by quasi experiment design is the best solution where experiment is carried out in a controlled environment which is maintained artificially (Weisburd, Lum, & Petrosino, 2001).
For a group of people, like in the criminal justice research Cases, it is beneficial to conduct research through quasi experiment design as it provides required external validity in the research. The manipulation of the variables taken into consideration can be dangerous and unfavourable while conducting a criminal justice research as they have a distinct and intensified psychology. Thus, using quasi experiment design is preferable as it does not permit changes in the variables (Dantzker & Hunter, 2006). It provides better results than the classic experimental design when specific variables are considered to analyse the behaviour and its influence on the criminals while carrying a criminal justice research. Criminal justice research requires security and highly controlled environment which is very well provided by quasi experiment design.

References
Dantzker, M. L., & Hunter, R. D. ( 2006). Quasi-Experimental. In M. L. Dantzker, & R. D. Hunter, Research Methods for Criminology and Criminal Justice: A Primer (pp. 103-105). Jones & Bartlett Learning,.
Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Wadsworth Cengage learning,.
Weisburd, D., Lum, C. M., & Petrosino, A. (2001). Does research design affect study outcomes in criminal justice? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 578(1), , 50-70.

Research Paper on Stress


Stress
What is stress?
Stress can be defined as the feeling that is developed by the people when they are provided instability in the mental as well as physical balance (Subramaniam, 2010). Stress tends to be the reaction of the people when they are subjected to different and unsteady situations. Stress plays an important role in causing the feeling of motivation as well as depression depending on the way the person responds to it and treats it in their life (Fisher, 1988).
The feeling of stress is affected by the external factors as well as the inner perceptions of the person who is developing it. It tends to push the person to an altogether different level of mental state and provides them with the adrenaline rush to take it as a challenge and complete it (Gordon, 1994. ). Stress depends on the quality of work that the person is doing. It is more likely to occur and affect the mental state of the person when the person is burdened by a large amount of tasks which are out of his reach to be completed or when he thinks that they are above his capabilities in terms of the work and time restrictions that are required to be completed in the task (Luine, Villegas, Martinez, & McEwen, 1994).
Stress serves to be one of the major reason for over the top performance of the individual and at the same time for extremely poor performance of an individual. We need to understand that what causes this difference in terms of the results that are generated from stress (Pettinger, 2002). It, therefore needs to be studied and analysed in terms of its effect on the individual’s mental and physical state that affects the capabilities of the individual to perform the task in either in a successful way or lead to a failure of the task.

While observing the effects of the stress, analysis and evaluation have to be made to understand the impact of the stress that is developed in an individual. There are two types of stress on the basis of the effects that it produces and they are (Selye, 1974):
• Positive stress:
It refers to the stress that has a positive effect on the human psychology that helps him to perform positively. This type of stress is also very commonly known as “Eustress” which comes from the Greek origin which refers to “good”. In this type of stress, the person gets the adrenaline rush and takes the task that has created the feeling of stress as a challenge to be completed. This boosts the performing capability of the individual and provides him with the vision and ability to see beyond all the odds and complete the task and emerge as a winner in successfully completing the task and achieving the goal set by him.
For example: The stress that is created in the athletic people for performing their best in sports events pushes them with the urge to perform better against all the obstacles that are present in their track. It provides the required adrenaline to the sportsperson and this challenges them to complete the task and achieve their goal.
Thus, it is found that that positive stress boosts the thinking and working capacity of the individual. It also provides them with the vision to look beyond the odds and achieve miraculous things. Positive stress not only provides a boost to the performance, but also leads to great increase in the level of self-confidence and self-belief of an individual with respect to himself and imposes greater trust on the individual from the other people (Lazarus & Launier, 1978). This motivates the individual to push himself for the next challenge.

• Negative stress:
It refers to the stress that produces a negative effect on the human psychology. It is also very commonly known as “distress” which comes from the Latin origin which refers to “disagreement”. In this type of stress, the person gets the anxiety in the form of worries and takes the task that has created the feeling of stress as impossible to be completed. This restrains the performing capability of the individual and provides him with the vision and ability to consider all the odds that may actually be in the way or may be created due to his inner perceptions. This tends to break the morale and hope of the person to perform the task within the time frame and in the required manner (Manning & Curtis, 1988).
For example: In a company which produces clothes and involves many functions to be carried out manually, there is an urgent consignment that they have to deliver within a very tight deadline. This creates positive as well as negative stress among the individuals depending on the way they perceive and react to it. Persons that would develop stress would take it as a burden and would develop excuses for not performing the tasks as required. They might also keep the quality of the production at stake with the urge of completing the task with negative stress in his mind (Work-related stress, risk management and Management Standards, 2004). This would leave him frustrated and can also lead to his illness.
Thus, it can be seen that negative stress tends to develop a psychology that contributes to the failure of the individual in completing the task and achieving the goal that has been set.

What causes it?
There are various reasons that are external as well as internal that leads to development of stress in an individual. We have seen the types of stress, but there are various elements that are responsible for creating a particular effect of stress and the way it is perceived (Cooper & Payne, 1988). These factors are as follows:
• Anxiety:
It is a feeling that is developed in the mind of an individual when he comes across a stressful situation. It is good if anxiety is controlled to a level that it does not harm the performance levels. But, if this feeling is developed intensely than it may lead to development of unnecessary and negative stress in an individual (Steptoe, 1989).
• Unexpected events:
This refers to the occurrence of events or incidents that were not at all expected by the individual. He does not have any idea about how he has to react on it and this leaves him stressed. This also breaks his morale and disturbs his emotions if it is perceived negatively by the individual (Steptoe, 1989).
• Sudden pressure:
It refers to the sudden load or pressure that the organization or the senior imposes on the individual. If the pressure is not handled properly, it affects the ability of the person to do the work effectively and provide accurate results as and when required (Steptoe, 1989).
• Negative mind set:
It refers to the perception and frame of mind of the person when he comes across any situation in his life. This is one of the most significant reason for development of stress. It refers to the attitude that a person will develop while he faces a particular situation and a person who will be pessimist will tend to overstress himself by always seeing the negative side of the situation (Steptoe, 1989).
• Emotional imbalance:
It is the unstable mental state of an individual when he faces a situation. This may lead to the overstressing of the individual due to his flow of emotions that might not even be related to the situation (Colder, 2001, ).
• Initial Over excitement:
It refers to the stage when the situation makes an individual over excited and after sometime due to his incapability or acceptance of the real situation leaves the individual distressed. This reduces the hope of the individual and also breaks his morale to perform the task (Colder, 2001, ).
• Low self-belief and self-confidence:
It is a state of mind where a person tends to develop unnecessary stress and overstress himself due to his lack of belief and confidence in himself. He thinks that he is not capable to perform the task and the required thing and this leaves him distressed (Colder, 2001, ).
• Unclear vision:
It refers to a lack of understanding and unclear vision in the mind of the person who is going to perform the task. It develops stress as the individual is not aware about the significance and positive effects of the tasks in the form of benefits and takes it as a burden to be completed which leads to the development of stress (Colder, 2001, ).
Thus, the causes that we have derived leads to two levels of stress which are:
“Hypostress which is understress” and” Hyperstress, which is overstress”. It is found that both the type of stresses affect the ability of an individual to do the work and develop unnecessary stress in his mind (Selye, 1974).

References
Colder, C. R. (2001, ). Life stress, physiological and subjective indexes of negative emotionality, and coping reasons for drinking: Is there evidence for a self-medication model of alcohol use? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,, 237-245.
Cooper, C., & Payne, R. (1988). Causes, coping, and consequences of stress at work. . Chichester:: Wiley.
Fisher, S. (1988). Perspectives on stress and stress-related topics. Biological Psychology, 275-278.
Gordon, A. (1994. ). Organizational stress and stress management programs. International Journal of Stress Management, , 309-322.
Lazarus, R. S., & Launier, R. (1978). Stress-Related Transactions between Person and Environment. Perspectives in Interactional Psychology, 287-327.
Luine, V., Villegas, M., Martinez, C., & McEwen, B. (1994). Repeated stress causes reversible impairments of spatial memory performance. Brain Research, 167-170.
Manning, G., & Curtis, K. (1988). Stress without distress. Cincinnati, Ohio: Vista Systems.
Pettinger, R. (2002). Stress management. . Oxford, U.K.: Capstone Pub.
Selye, H. ( 1974). Stress without distress. Philadelphia: : Lippincott.
Steptoe, A. (1989). Individual differences, stress, and health psychology. Biological Psychology, , 299-300.
Subramaniam, S. (2010). Stress. Chandigarh, India:: Abhishek Publications.
Work-related stress, risk management and Management Standards. (2004). Work & Stress,, 89-90.

Report on Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

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14-Oct-14


Contents
Introduction 1
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory: What is it? 1
Enthralling Vocation 2
Accountable 3
Giver 3
Individual Development 3
Conclusion 3
Bibliography 4

Introduction

Employees are one of the most fruitful and valuable assets a company can possess and is also a fundamental part of a management process. Many organizations figure out the value of their employees and constantly motivate their employees and make them realize their worth and to do that it is essential to initiate a harmonization in the workplace and maintain it between the organization and its human element which is the employees of the organization. The managers who prove to be dynamic are able to motivate their employees in a better way than most. The constant motivation provided by the company to employees results in a content workforce which works to their fullest capacity and the company gets a higher retention rate due to the loyalty gained from it. Managers at times implement several motivational theories to set a motivational environment in the workplace which will be remaining a perennial source of motivation for everybody in the office. Herzberg’s two factor theory has been proven effective in many cases and analyzing the two factor theory will provide us with a greater insight on one of the most successful motivational theories made for corporate workplaces which has passed the test of time over its effectiveness. (Stello, 2010)
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory: What is it?

Stimulating people’s lives is essential to people who aspire to become managers and when it comes to motivation, Herzberg was one of the most established theorists on the subject of motivation. He focused on aspects like enrichment of work and he believed that true motivators relied on factors like work recognition, taking responsibility and constant advancement. One of his most well known theories is the two factor motivational theory. This theory is based on a simply captivating and clarifying idea of dividing the concept of motivation into factors of hygiene and motivation and is otherwise recognized as a “two need system” This separation of elements has a core reason behind it of separating factors like discomfort, miscommunication and avoiding unpleasantness. When the employees are already motivated at their workplace in an effective manner, they focus on their personal lives and make it better in way like being fit, create a peaceful and happy atmosphere at home and by doing that, a person is constantly motivated both at his home and his workplace. (Noell, 1976)
The hygiene factors have the potential of demotivating a person by health issues like tiredness, sleeplessness and lethargy and the purpose of the two factor theory is to remove those factors by motivating a person to even focus on his personal life and hygiene by offering gym benefits or developing a healthy workplace where people can work out before or after office. This aspect has a significant effect on how the employee performs at the workplace.
It has also been put forward through the theory by Herzberg that motivators are sometime more effective than the motivational factors themselves. If there is motivation flowing through the work place then an employee doesn’t feel stressed and his/her potential is unleashed and overdoes themselves at times which can be considered one of the best perks or developing a motivated workplace. If the managers become motivators and deploy the message and qualitative steps of the two factor theory then employees will personally feel that the person he/she works under genuinely cares about them and wants them to succeed at both their workplace and personal lives. (House & Wigdor)
The factors which make a motivator successful in his task of motivating the workplace and his employees are:
Enthralling Vocation

The motivator is supposed to be an excellent communicator who gets through to people and convince them to develop good qualities and should have a bit of humbleness to show that he/she cares for the people that work for him/her.
Accountable

In certain events arising at a workplace, a manager has to be both answerable and accountable for his actions and the accountability portion is useful when an employee needs help or wants to explain a situation then if the manager is accountable the employees won’t hesitate to come forward and communicate effectively with the manager.
Giver

A manager has to motivate his employees by rewarding the people who work with zest and achieve superior goals with accolades and benefits. By doing that the employee who has worked with dedication will feel like their dedication has been recognized when it bears fruits of rewards and benefits.
Individual Development

An efficient motivator will invest himself into cultivating a workforce which becomes a family by caring for them and nurturing a spirit of passion for work and a penchant for enriching the togetherness of the workforce.
This theory recognizes the immaculate satisfaction that can be derived from work itself which draws attention to work design and enlightens managers about the issues going on in the workplace. (Amoako & Dartey-Baah, 2011)
Conclusion

Herzberg put forward in his theory that the workforce must be motivated so that they can achieve a sense of job satisfaction but at the same time, he also suggests that an unhealthy workplace will result in demotivated employees and lack of any kind of satisfaction. In conclusion his observational findings about a healthy work culture has enriched the work lives of many employees and has provided job satisfaction and motivation to workplaces. (Yusoff, Kian, & Idris, 2013)
Bibliography
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