Report on Environmental Pollution and Its Effects


Environmental pollution

The introduction of various substances in the form of materials or energies that may cause contamination of the environment and which causes harm to the various living beings existing in the environment is termed as Environmental Pollution. It is caused by pollutants which are the hazardous substances or energies that has harmful effects on the environment, thereby, contaminating it. Pollutants get spread in the environment through a medium like air, water, soil, etc. (Holdgate, 1979)
Every type of environmental pollution consists of following elements:
a) Source of pollution: It refers to the source of the harmful pollutants that cause the pollution of the environment. It may be a natural source or may also be a chemical or industrial process that leads to the generation of pollutants.
b) Pollutants: These are the agents that cause contamination of the environment by harming the organisms living in it.
c) Medium: It refers to the channel through which these pollutants propagate in the environment. It may be through air, water, soil, etc.
d) Target: It refers to the organisms that are affected by the propagation of pollutants through the medium. It also refers to the ecological cycle and its system which are adversely affected by the pollution. (Alloway & Ayres, 1998)

Pollutants that are the root cause of pollution are mainly classified in two categories:
Primary pollutants:
They are the pollutants which have a specific source from where they are emitted. They pollute the environment by directly entering a particular medium and then contaminating it which harms all the organisms and systems that comes in contact with the medium. Sewage wastes, pollen grains of plants, dust, acid rain, etc. are examples of primary pollutants. (Hill, 1997)
Secondary pollutants:
They are the pollutants which are produced by a specific biological process or chemical reaction between primary pollutants within a medium. These are not produced naturally, but may get generated over a prolonged period of time. As they contain a number of primary pollutants, they are more hazardous and harmful as compared to an individual primary pollutant. Sulphur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbon, methane gas, harmful, effluents from industries, biological wastes from hospitals, etc. are examples of Secondary pollutants. (Hill, 1997)
Environmental pollution can be classified as per the following ways:
a) According to the source: It involves the location or the source of generation from where the pollutants causing the environmental pollution are released or produced.
Agricultural pollution, industrial pollution, Biological waste pollution, Radioactivity, etc. are the examples of this type of environmental pollution.
b) According to the medium: It refers to the pollution which propagates through a channel. Air pollution, Water pollution, Noise pollution, Soil pollution, etc. are examples of this type of environmental pollution.
c) According to the nature and type of pollutant: It refers to the nature, substance or characteristic of the pollutants that are responsible for environmental pollution. It also includes their structure and composition. Heavy metal pollution, Non bio degradable waste pollution, Plastic waste pollution, etc. are examples of this type of environmental pollution. (Alloway & Ayres, 1998)

Forms of pollution:
• Air pollution: It involves the introduction of various poisonous gases, chemicals and particles in the atmosphere. It is the most common form of the pollution and since air is omnipresent, air pollution affects a large number of organisms and systems. There are various pollutants that cause air pollution like Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, Nitrogen dioxide, Sulphur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), dust particles, etc. (Trevors, 2013)

• Water pollution: It includes the discharge of harmful effluents, chemical, contaminated water into natural sources of water like lakes, rivers, seas and oceans. It also involves mixing of the domestic sewage that is directly led into the water bodies without proper treatment. It also involves oil spills that has resulted in the death of large number of aquatic animals. (Trevors, 2013)

• Noise pollution: It refers to the sounds and noises that are not desirable and whose intensity can harm the environment. It includes unnecessary honking of horn, noise made by the air-crafts, loud noises during festivals, noise created by various machines in the industries, etc. (Martinez, 2009)
• Soil pollution: It takes place when harmful chemicals, effluents and liquids are released in the soil and this may decay the quality of soil, thereby, affecting the organisms living on it. Releasing of chemicals from industries, heavy metals, pesticides and other agricultural wastes, etc. causes Soil pollution. (Trevors, 2013)
• Light pollution: It involves the pollutants that affects the vision like striking lights of cars, excessive illumination, inappropriate lightings in industries, etc. (Martinez, 2009)
• Pollution due to Non-biodegradable wastes: It involves collection of various form of pollutants that are not degradable biologically and get logged in the environment. They cannot be disposed of easily and hence cause environmental pollution. Plastic wastes, medical wastes like used syringes, gloves, industrial wastes, etc. are examples of Non-biodegradable wastes that creates pollution. (Martinez, 2009)
• Radioactive pollution: It involves the radioactive wastes generated during the processes of generating nuclear power, testing nuclear weapons and other such nuclear applications, etc. It is the most harmful form of pollution because its effects are observed even after many years. (Martinez, 2009)

• Thermal pollution: It is pollution which is observed by the harmful changes in the water bodies temperature due to release of many effluents from the industries and power plants. It also involves the global warming which is sudden tremendous increase in temperature mainly caused due to release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). (Martinez, 2009)

Effects of Environmental pollution

Effect on Humans:
• Pollution of air causes various respiratory disorders like severe breathing problems, Asthma, bronchitis, etc. and also causes respiratory diseases like lung cancer, blood cancer, etc. and various skin diseases can also be caused like irritation of skin, etc. Exposure to lead, silicon, asbestos, heavy metals may lead to neurological imbalance.
• Cardiovascular diseases are also caused due to increase in stress caused by the exposure to excessive and prolonged noise and water pollution. Noise pollution can affect the hearing leading to deafness, increased blood pressure.
• Water pollution leads to contamination of drinking water resources which causes large number of diseases like Jaundice, Typhoid, Cholera, etc. and also lead to prolonged illness among kids and women where it leads to globally 14,000 deaths per day as per a survey
• Spillage of oil and other hazardous effluents has led to many neurological disorders among children and old age people who are more prone to heart diseases.
• Exposure to radioactivity can cause serious defects in the entire area where it has spread and this will have adverse effects on the next generations as radioactivity affects the gene structure and mutates the DNA structure. (Singer, 1970)

Effect on plants and animals:
• Due to soil pollution, a large number of plants are getting extinct and many are endangered.
• Release of harmful effluents in the air as well as water resources leads to changes in the species of the plants resulting in a defected generations of the species.
• Pollution of air may also lead to disturbance in the photosynthesis cycle of plants.
• Air and water pollution also causes a large number of diseases in the animals and this may affect their next species. (Gibbons & Scott, 2000)

Effect on Eco-logical system:
• Soil becomes infertile and its pH also decreases which may adversely affect the ecological cycle of the living organisms.
• Global warming and greenhouse effect is created by release of harmful gases like Nitrogen dioxide, Sulphur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), etc.
Release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere leads to acidification of the oceans. (Freedman, 1995)

Bibliography
Alloway, B., & Ayres, D. (1998). Chemical Principles of Environmental Pollution. Water, Air, \& Soil Pollution, 216–218. Retrieved july 24, 2014, from http://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Y5x1KHrDKBQC&oi=fnd&pg=PR11&dq=Environmental+pollution+in+detail&ots=aPQI5IgFeh&sig=Chu9fwpOingUpz0tgmA3thTP9Lw#v=onepage&q=Environmental%20pollution%20in%20detail&f=false
Freedman, B. (1995). Environmental ecology. San Diego: San Diego: Academic Press.
Gibbons, J., & Scott, D. (2000). The Global Decline of Reptiles, D\’ej\`a Vu Amphibians Reptile species are declining on a global scale. Six significant threats to reptile populations are habitat loss and degradation, introduced invasive species, environmental pollution, disease, unsustainable use, and global climate change., 653–666. Retrieved july 24, 2014, from http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/50/8/653.short
Hill, M. K. (1997). Understanding environmental pollution. Cambridge University Press.
Holdgate, M. W. (1979). A Perspective of Environmental Pollution. Cambridge University press.
Martinez, J. (2009). Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants. Environmental pollution, 2893–2902. Retrieved july 24, 2014, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749109002942
Singer, S. F. (1970). Global effects of environmental pollution. Transactions American Geophysical Union, 476–478. Retrieved july 24, 2014, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/EO051i005p00476/abstract
Trevors, J. (2013). Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. An International Journal of Environmental Pollution. Retrieved july 24, 2014, from http://www.springer.com/environment/journal/11270


Case Study:

What decisions best suites the Company in the business decision?
Discuss whether the company should concentrate on Profit or Product Image or both?

In this cut throat competitive world, as per the stake holder’s theory, a company does not only gain its long term objectives and long term loyalty of the customers by merely making profits or large sales, but it also involves building customer relationships, good rapport and corporate image in the society and also on the perception of the customers regarding the company. A company should definitely be working to make more and more profit, but in the process of obtaining them, they should think of building enduring organizations. In order to maintain an image through which the customers would love to engage with the company on a long term basis, a company should take core interest in accomplishing societal purpose and providing appropriate atmosphere to the people working in it. Companies that emphasize more on corporate social responsibility, can easily deal with the politicians and global business regulators and have much lesser chances of undergoing inquiries, accusations and public campaigns against it for violation of human act and other such issues. Considering the above points, production in China is not favourable since it involves issues of improper working culture and conditions, exploitation and work place harassment of the workers, repressive dictatorship and unnecessary censorships.
Owing to the above factors and considering the fact that the company would hardly have any control in the working procedures and this may result in public campaigns which would adversely affect the sales as well as the product’s brand image among the customers. Hence, giving the production to a contractor in China is not advisable from the marketing and branding perspective. Instead, special incentives, appreciations and awards, apart from the financial ones, should be provided to the current workers which would ensure loyalty and provide them the urge to stay in the company and not constantly demand for a hike.

Report on Emergency Operating procedures in a Nuclear power plant

Report title: Emergency operating procedures in a nuclear power plant
Student’s Name:
ID Number:
Date of Submission:

Report objectives
The report aims at deriving and understanding the activities that are carried in Nuclear power plants and that required to be analyzed for developing safety control in the different operations that are carried out in the nuclear power plant. It involves developing certain emergency operating procedures for the transition between different states in a nuclear power plant. The severe consequences that have to be faced due to the failure or collapse of a nuclear power plant due to any specific reason are to be obtained. Obtaining a straight and simple process that reduces the complexity involved in the reactions carried in the nuclear power plant has to be achieved.
Different plant states and accident conditions
There are different states through which the materials are passing in the nuclear power plant. These states undergo transition from time to time and the rate of transition is generally carried out in a controlled environment with controlled values of different parameters in the transition (Park & Jung, 2007). The different states that are observed in the nuclear power plant are as follows:
• Generation of steam by nuclear fission reaction involving the splitting of a radioactive element like Uranium.
• Converting of water into steam through heating,
• Steam driving the turbines that are connected to generators to produce electricity.
There are several phases in the nuclear power plant that are to be handled with utmost care as the harmful effects of failure, explosion or other sort of accidents in the nuclear power plant would be having its adverse effects on the next generations of the population that exists in that particular area where the nuclear power plant is present.
The different plant states that are observed in the nuclear power plant are as follows:
Design basis accidents:
It refers to the hazards or possibilities of accidents that are due to some faulty design or improper consideration of various stresses, pressure and forces that are going to be developed in the Nuclear power plant.
Transients:
It refers to the temporary state that is not going to be persisting for a long time. There are many processes that come under this state in nuclear power plant like the feedwater temperature, flow of feedwater, Residual heat developed, Steam pressure developed, etc.
Beyond Design basis accidents:
It refers to the occurrences that are neither temporary and nor due to any design base problem. These are the most difficult to handle as they occur suddenly and can hardly be predicted. However, few steps can be taken to avoid them like time to time maintenance of various equipments used in the plant and checking the temperature, pressure and other physical quantities at regular intervals of time in the plant (INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA), 2005).
There are several measures that are developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for handling the situations of accidents that may occur in the nuclear power plant.
Transition from one state to another state
There is a continuous transition of materials in different physical states throughout the nuclear plant. It involves development of steam through the nuclear fission reaction where energy is emitted due to the splitting of Uranium atoms into two parts. It involves using the heat energy derived from it to heat the water and change its state from liquid to gaseous. The steam is then flowed through the turbines where with the help of the generator the kinetic energy of the steam is converted into electrical energy through the turbines that are installed in the plant. The uranium that is used in the nuclear power plant is extracted from the mines under high security and integrity of operations is retained throughout the process. It is then passed through different cycles which consists of enrichment process that is carried on the extracted Uranium and the Uranium that is obtained after enrichment is then purified and cleaned for using it as a fuel in the nuclear power plant (Arkadov, Getman, & Rodionov, 2012). Thus, it is a process in which there is a transition of materials and substances from one state to another. This transition occurs at each and every stage carried in the nuclear power plant which involves conversion of states and there is transfer of energy as well as generation of immense amount of energy during the entire process.
Purpose and scope of emergency operating procedures
The main purpose of developing emergency procedures in a nuclear power plant tends to be the safety of the country as the substances present in the nuclear plant and the reactions that occur in the nuclear power plant may develop very severe consequences in case of any kind of failure or external attacks on it. There is a huge scope of developing and upgrading the emergency operating procedures throughout the nuclear power plant as it is a matter of national as well as International security of the nations across the globe (Arkadov, Getman, & Rodionov, 2012).
There is a very high amount of energy dissipated in the nuclear power plant through the nuclear fission of Uranium. The energy that is released when a Uranium atom splits into two is about 215 MeV. This is a very high amount of energy that is released through nuclear fission of a single Uranium atom. The processes that are carried out in the nuclear power plants have to be carried under severe control and restricted environment that limits the values of energy and temperature generated in the nuclear power plant during the reaction and after it (Park & Jung, 2007).
Example of plant conditions that require the use of emergency operating procedures
There are various procedures that develop critical conditions of functioning in the nuclear power plant. During such cases, it is a matter of great concern to develop the required level of emergency operating procedures in the plant. For example, the feed water temperatures, the rate of energy emitted through the nuclear fission of Uranium and other highly active isotopes of radioactive elements similar to Uranium that are enhanced artificially for obtaining better results like Thorium. There has been strict laws developed by the “Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)” in US for regulating the operating procedures in the nuclear power plants. There are several emergency operations developed by the “Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)”. There are many coordinated plans and programs developed and implemented by coordination among the NRC and FEMA. There have been serious advancements and specifications included in the safety management and emergency operations that are carried in the nuclear power plant after the accident that had occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear energy facility in Japan in the year 2011 (NUCLEAR ENERGY INSTITUTE (NEI), 2015).

References
Arkadov, G. V., Getman, A. F., & Rodionov, A. N. (2012). Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Optimum Nuclear Power Plant Life Management (PLiM). Elsevier.
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA). (2005). Accident Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants with Graphite Moderated Boiling Water RBMK Reactors. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
NUCLEAR ENERGY INSTITUTE (NEI). (2015, February). Emergency Preparedness at Nuclear Energy Facilities. Retrieved from http://www.nei.org: http://www.nei.org/master-document-folder/backgrounders/fact-sheets/emergency-planning-emergency-preparedness-at-nucle
Park, J., & Jung, W. (2007). A study on the development of a task complexity measure for emergency operating procedures of nuclear power plants. . Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 92(8), , 1102-1116.

Report on Eco-Audit of a Jet Engine bracket

Student’s Name:
ID Number:
Attendance Number:
Instructor:
Submission:

Table of Contents
1. Introduction 4
2. Method 5
2.1. Design: How and where it is made. 5
2.2. Original Design 5
2.3. Proposed design by the winner 7
2.4. Final reinforced design for production 10
3. Eco- Audit of the process: 11
3.1. Passive energy use during the parts life and the options at end of life. 12
4. Results and analysis: 13
5. Discussion 15
6. Conclusion 15
7. References 16

List of Figures
Figure 1: Load Considerations in the original bracket 5
Figure 2: Original Design of the bracket 6
Figure 3: Layout of the proposed bracket design 7
Figure 4 :3 D modelling of the proposed bracket 8
Figure 5: Final look of the proposed bracket 9
Figure 6: Finalized reinforced bracket design 9
Figure 7: Eco-Audit technology in Granta 12
Figure 8: Stress calculation in the finalized bracket 14

Introduction
Due to the advancement in technology and invention of better methods of production of aerospace parts, there has been a huge demand for developing cost effective and power as well as fuel efficient parts. The performance of the aircraft engines is very much depended on the parts it is made up of. These parts contribute to the overall weight of the aircraft and these reduces the efficiency by increasing the consumption of fuel (Mattingly, 2002). At the same time, it is also very important to maintain the high quality in terms of robustness, stiffness, toughness and other such physical aspects of the parts. This has to be achieved through effective designing using multiple engineering tools to optimize the size and structure of these parts without compromising in its strength and durability (Rawal, Brantley, & Karabudak, 2013).
For designing and developing such parts, additive manufacturing is a very useful solution. It is also known as 3D printing and provides a unique as well as exclusive feature to develop parts of any shapes and test the various parameters related to the strength and durability of the parts through 3D modelling. It makes the practical testing of the design possible through accurate and precise dimensioning of the part in the design modules. It helps in developing components which would be lighter in weight and would also provide the required levels of strength and performance (Dehoff, Peter, Yamamoto, Chen, & Blue, 2013).
GE Corporation has been carrying production of the aerospace and other engineering components for over years and is a very trusted name across the globe. It has been striving to develop product s and designs that would help in minimizing the weight of the components and at the same time provide the required performance. It has been encouraging engineers across the world to develop designs and structures that would provide the above mentioned characteristics (GRABCAD.COM, 2014).
In one such attempt, it had organized a competition for all the GRABCAD designers to develop brackets for jet engines which would be very cost effective and of high quality. For this competition, the participants would use the original design provided by the company and modify it through additive manufacturing techniques and design for developing a better engine bracket than the current used design. There were many specification in terms of load bearing capacity, weight, dimensions, thermal load bearing capacity, capacity to absorb tension, material, static linear loads, yield strengths as well as the size and diameter of the bracket.
Assumptions:
It is assumed that the development of the product is in the initial stage where the forging and shaping of the loading bracket is carried out. The 3 different methods used in the production of the 3 obtained designs of the load brackets have to be evaluated in terms of additive manufacturing processes. It has been then evaluated through the CES EduPack software. In this software, the data regarding the development of the product would be evaluated. In this evaluation, any other forces or external factors affecting the moment of inertia of the loading fraction has been neglected. The standard readings of the parameters are considered for analyzing the passive energy used by the company in the development of the product, that is, loading brackets.
Method
The method used involves considering the current design specifications, evaluating the best design provided and developing an optimum design for the engineering brackets used in the jet engines (Kalpakjian, 2001). The design and the load as well as other requirements of the designs has been evaluated and determined in the answer developed (Chu, Graf, & Rosen, 2008).
Design: How and where it is made.
Original Design
The design involves following the specific procedure of modelling, printing, testing, simulation, modifying and then finishing for final mass scale production (GE.COM, 2015).
The design of the original bracket developed by GE Corporation and used in the jet engines considers the static and torsional loads as shown in the figure below:
Figure 1: Load Considerations in the original bracket

(GRABCAD.COM, 2014).
The design of the engineering loading bracket which specified the above specifications is shown in the figure below:
Figure 2: Original Design of the bracket

(GRABCAD.COM, 2014).
Proposed design by the winner
The design that was proposed by M. Arie Kurniawan, the winner of the competition used Direct Metal Laser Sintering method of manufacturing (Dutta & Froes, 2015). The weight of the bracket was reduced from the original 2033 grams to 327 grams. In his design, it can be seen that he has used the principle of H-beam and developed a profile of the bracket on the basis of that.
The layout of the fraction that has been developed by M. Arie Kurniawan, involves development of the torsional and static loads that are going to be exerted on the bracket. The layout of his design is shown below:
Figure 3: Layout of the proposed bracket design

(GRABCAD.COM M. KURNIAWAN, 2015)
After developing the design and the layout, there was a 3D model developed by him, where he had used additive manufacturing tool and GRABCAD software fir displaying the model in 3 dimensional form and there

A 3D model of the design was developed by him which is shown in the figure below:

Figure 4 :3 D modelling of the proposed bracket

(GRABCAD.COM M. KURNIAWAN, 2015)
The final look of the design of the bracket that was developed by him is shown in the figure below:
Figure 5: Final look of the proposed bracket

(GRABCAD.COM M. KURNIAWAN, 2015)
Final reinforced design for production
The design proposed by the winner was then reinforced through simulation and modelling by the GRC engineers in its New York plant. They attached every bracket with an MTS servo testing machine which worked on hydraulics. It has been developed through the FDM manufacturing method which refers to Fused Deposition Modelling (Hambali, Smith, & Rennie, 2012). The weight of the final model was about 240 grams which was very less and ensured the compactness in the design and the performance of the bracket was also retained through high strength and durability of the component.
Figure 6: Finalized reinforced bracket design

(GRABCAD.COM M. KURNIAWAN, 2015)
After considering all the designs mentioned above, details of the technical and other specifications of the brackets developed in each stage is tabulated below:
Design Material Weight (g) Manufacturing method Cost (£)
Original (O) Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V 2,033 Milling 150
Proposed by the Competition winner (CW) Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V 327 DMLS 250
Finalized Fibre reinforced (FR) PLA, Basalt fibres, Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V
Epoxy PLA (182)
Basalt (20)
Titanium (33)
Epoxy (5) FDM, autoclave. 50

Eco- Audit of the process:
Eco-Audit of the production process refers to considering, evaluating and analyzing the effects of the manufacturing process on the various elements of the environment (Steger, 2000). “CES EduPack 2015” is a software which provides a complete analysis of the various processes and functions involved in the development of a product. It helps in providing evaluation of the product in terms of its cost, effectiveness of different methods of manufacturing, impact on the environment and evaluation of specific technical terms used in the development of the product. It involves maintaining of data bases regarding the material and the information regarding the various manufacturing and designing processes. The basic principle on which the CES EduPack software works in developing an eco-design of the products involves following of a specific flow of steps and measures which are shown in the following figure:
CES EduPack: Eco-design Tools

This design is followed for the data evaluation and analysis for the various processes which hare carried out in the software. At the same time, there is formulation of the Eco-Audit tool which requires setting up of the various parameters and developing the configurations regarding them.
The eco-auditing tool involves considering the following technology through user interface, Materials and Eco data, dashboards and reports as shown in the figure below (Amacher, Koskela, & Ollikainen, 2004). It provides an example of the Eco-Audit technology developed by Granta.
Figure 7: Eco-Audit technology in Granta

(GRANTDESIGN.COM ECOAUDIT, 2015)
CES EduPack evaluation of passive energy use during the parts life and the options at end of life.
Passive energy use refers to the energy consumed ddurign the production of the parts or components. In our case, for production of loading brackets for the jet engines, the energy that is utilized depends on the design and manufacturing of the part (Collopy & Eames, 2001). There are three designs available. We have carried an ecological audit considering the energy used by the three designs for different processes involved.
This would include considering the usage of passive energy during the development of the loading bracket. This has been carried out using the CES EduPack software and the result of the analysis is shown below. The parameters regarding the evaluation data have been collected though the energy used in the manufacturing, transporting, matrial collection, usage, disposal and End of Life potential for the brackets developed by the three designs considered above. It is shown as follows (Radford & Rennick, 2000):

Results and analysis:
The proposed model by M. Arie Kurniawan, result into development of the below design. The design that was developed by him was very effective in reducing the weight. It reduced the weight by about 85%. Axial loads of the range of 8000 to 9500 pounds was exerted on the bracket. It was observed in their testing, that there was only one bracket which failed in these extreme conditions, whereas all the other brackets met the requirement. There was torsional load of about 5000 pounds per inch (Johnson, 2001).
Eco-Auditing of the manufacturing process involves considering the stress faced by the loading bracket during its operation (Cerdan, Gazulla, Raugei, Martinez, & Fullana-i-Palmer, 2009). It is discussed and shown in the following figure:
Figure 8: Stress calculation in the finalized bracket

(Dehoff, Peter, Yamamoto, Chen, & Blue, 2013).

Discussion
The model that has been developed by the M. Arie Kurniawan, has reduced the weight of the original design of the loading fraction by a considerable amount. However, the material used is also the same and the process suggested by him for manufacturing of the fraction is DMLS which is suitable for metals and it is the best practice for such kind of production (Roy, Caird, & Potter, 2007).
However, using of FDM by the GRC engineers has helped increase in reduction of the weight. The method of FDM would be appropriate as it would be cost effective and at the same time, it would be very accurate for the production of loading brackets (Kyprianidis, 2010).
Conclusion
From the above analysis and eco-audit carried of the three designs, it can be seen that reducing the weightage of the loading fraction would help in reduction of fuel consumption in jet planes, thereby, increasing the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the process.

References
Amacher, G. S., Koskela, E., & Ollikainen, M. (2004). Environmental quality competition and eco-labeling. . Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 47(2),, 284-306.
Cerdan, C., Gazulla, C., Raugei, M., Martinez, E., & Fullana-i-Palmer, P. (2009). Proposal for new quantitative eco-design indicators: a first case study. . Journal of Cleaner Production, 17(18), , 1638-1643.
Chu, C., Graf, G., & Rosen, D. W. (2008). Design for additive manufacturing of cellular structures. Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 5(5), , 686-696.
Collopy, P. D., & Eames, D. J. (2001). Aerospace manufacturing cost prediction from a measure of part definition information (No. 2001-01-3004). . SAE Technical Paper.
Dehoff, R., Peter, W., Yamamoto, Y., Chen, W., & Blue, C. (2013). Case Study: Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Brackets. ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES, 19-22.
Dutta, B., & Froes, F. H. (2015). The additive manufacturing (AM) of titanium alloys. . Titanium Powder Metallurgy: Science, Technology and Applications, , 447.
GE.COM. (2015). ADVANCED MANUFACTURING IS REINVENTING THE WAY WE WORK. Retrieved from http://www.ge.com: http://www.ge.com/stories/advanced-manufacturing
GRABCAD.COM. (2014). GE jet engine bracket challenge. Retrieved from https://grabcad.com: https://grabcad.com/challenges/ge-jet-engine-bracket-challenge
GRABCAD.COM M. KURNIAWAN. (2015). M. KURNIAWAN BRACKET DESIGN. Retrieved from https://grabcad.com: https://grabcad.com/library/m-kurniawan-ge-jet-engine-bracket-version-1-2-1
GRANTADESIGN.COM ECODESIGN. (2015). Granta’s Guide: Five Steps to Eco Design. Retrieved from http://www.grantadesign.com: http://www.grantadesign.com/eco/ecodesign.htm
GRANTDESIGN.COM ECOAUDIT. (2015). Granta’s Eco Audit Methodology. Retrieved from http://www.grantadesign.com: http://www.grantadesign.com/eco/audit.htm
Hambali, R. H., Smith, P., & Rennie, A. E. (2012). Determination of the effect of part orientation to the strength value on additive manufacturing FDM for end-use parts by physical testing and validation via three-dimensional finite element analysis. International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation, 3(3-4), , 269-281.
Johnson, R. B. (2001). Jet Engine Metallurgy (No. 530038). . SAE Technical Paper.
Kalpakjian, S. (2001). Manufacturing engineering and technology. . Pearson Education India.
Kyprianidis, K. G. (2010). Multi-disciplinary conceptual design of future jet engine systems.
Mattingly, J. D. (2002). Aircraft engine design. . Aiaa.
Radford, D. W., & Rennick, T. S. (2000). Separating sources of manufacturing distortion in laminated composites. . Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 19(8), , 621-641.
Rawal, S., Brantley, J., & Karabudak, N. (2013). Additive manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy components for spacecraft applications. 6th International Conference on IEEE. (pp. 5-11). Recent Advances in Space Technologies (RAST), .
Roy, R., Caird, S., & Potter, S. (2007). People Centred Eco-design: Consumer adoption and use of low and zero carbon products and systems. . Governing technology for sustainability, , 41.
Steger, U. (2000). Environmental management systems: empirical evidence and further perspectives. European Management Journal, 18(1),, 23-37.

Research Report on Effects of Consumption of Drugs during Pregnancy

Student’s Name:
ID Number:
Attendance Number:
Section:

Table of Contents
1. Introduction 4
1.1. Statement of problem 4
1.2. Significance to the society 4
2. Relevance to the study 5
2.1. Hypothesis 5
2.2. Research questions 6
3. Research method 6
3.1. Data Sampling and Participants 6
3.2. Data Evaluation and Analysis 7
4. Findings 7
5. Sensitivity to ethical issues 9
6. Strengths and limitations 9
7. Conclusion 10
8. References 11

Abstract
There has been an increase in the number of infant deaths and other disorders among the new born babies. There are a lot of complications observed in the mothers during the pregnancy and during the time of giving birth. The major reason of such issues is consumption of drugs as well as other substances like caffeine, alcohol and nicotine by the mother before delivery, that is, during their pregnancy.
The purpose of the research paper is to identify the influence of the consumption of legal as well as illegal drugs by the expecting moms during their pregnancy. The data has been collected through interactive interviews, using a questionnaire. The reasons for the illnesses among the mother and the new born child are obtained and a further empirical data can be analyzed for future implications.

Introduction
Pregnancy is a condition where the immunity of the women becomes weak and she requires special care to be taken of, where she has to take proper, balanced and healthy diet. She not only has to take care about using illegal drugs, but also at the same time, has to take care while taking many legal and prescribed drugs as well. This is beacause the foetus in the womb of a woman is very critical and it is very prone to any kind of infections or abnormalities depending on the consumption of food and other substances by the expecting woman (Casper, Fleisher, & Lee-Ancajas, 2003).
During pregnancy, the use of drugs is not only limited to the consumption of drugs like marijuana and cocaine, but it also involves consumption of alcohol and caffeine in excess (Streissguth, Barr, Martin, & Herman, 1980). The research including such women who used drugs during the time of their pregnancy has been carried out and provided in the resarch. It has been evaluated and analyzed for developing useful remedies and solutions to this problem (Sannerstedt, Lundborg, Danielsson, & Kihlstrom, 1996).
Statement of problem
The harmful effects of consuming drugs by the expecting moms during their pregnancy. This serves to be the problem which has been evaluated in the research.
Significance to the society
The health of the babies at the time of their birth and for some time after that is a matter of great concern for the doctors and scientists. This is due to the reason that irrespective of the improvement and upgradation of technology and science, there is a huge number of deaths among the infants. It has been found that on an average about 50% of the women took legal or illegal drugs during their pregnancy. The immmunity of the child is adversely affected by this. It is observed that about 2 – 3 % of the total defects found in the child during their birth were due to the consumption of specific drugs to cure their illness or treat any disorders faced by the expecting mother (Gunatilake & Patil, 2015).
The use of drugs also worsens the condition of the expecting mom and she has to go through unnecessary complications while giving birth to their child. There may be many diseases or disabilities developed in the baby in the later stages. It is observed that the number of cases of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has increased tremendously (Kesmodel, Wisborg, & Olsen, 2002).
Relevance to the study
It has been observed that the consumption of prescribed drugs, knowingly or unknowingly, has serious health issues in the child even before their birth in the foetus of the mother. Many times, the disabilities and other disorders related with the mental condition of the child and its capacity to resist virus have been incorporated through the use of drugs by the expecting mom during pregnancy (Casper, Fleisher, & Lee-Ancajas, 2003). There are many cases which are relevant to the study carried on the statement problem. This relevance has been obtained through researches carried among the women who consumed drugs during their pregnancy. There were different effects on the health and condition of the children who were born from such mothers (Gunatilake & Patil, 2015).
Hypothesis
The effect of consumption of drugs is different depending on the level of consumption. This has to be obtained in the research. Also, the influence of prescribed drugs, alcohol and caffeine on the health of the child and mother after delivery has to be obtained.
The research would be evaluating and analyzing the same in a predefined and statistical manner.
Research questions
1. Does consumption of illegal drugs like marijuana and cocaine by the expecting moms during their pregnancy affect the baby?
2. Which are the legal drugs which should be avoided during pregnancy by a woman? Why should they be avoided?
3. What is the level of prescribed drugs that can be taken during pregnancy?
4. What are the disorders which are most commonly sen in the child whose mother had consumed drugs during their pregnancy.
Research method
Quantitative research has been carried out which will help in obtaining the data regarding the effects of the drugs consumed by the expecting moms during their pregnancy. Quantitative research would help in obtaining the logistics of the data. There has been a questionnaire which has been developed on the basis of the effects on the child as well as mother.
Data Sampling and Participants
The research that has been carried out involves considering the cases of women where they used to consume legal and illegal drugs before pregnancy. It has been done by taking interactive interviews of the women who consumed such drugs in their teens as well as during their pregnancy. The women who were interviewed were in the age between 20 – 30 years. The sampling was random, that is, all the women were from different fincancial, social and cultural backgrounds. The only things that they had in common was that they had consumed drugs during their pregnancy in different quantities. It may even include usage of alcohol and excessive consumption of caffeine and nicotine.
The participants were asked responsive questions on the basis of a questionnaire that was prepared in advance considering most of the factors related to the consumption of legal as well as illegal drugs.
Data Evaluation and Analysis
The level of consumption of drugs has been evaluated among the women. The effects of the drug consumption was then tabulated on the basis of the level of consumption and the effects on the mother as well as the baby born to them.
The evaluation of the data was carried on the basis of likert scale where the intensity of the effects as well as the level of consumption were developed on a scale which ranked between 1 – 5. In the scale, 5 ratings shows extreme agreement and 1 rating shows extreme disagreement and 3 shows undefinite response.
Findings
In the table, the average of the responses got from the mothers are shown. Here, 5 ratings show that the effect was extreme and the condition was worst. The level of intensity decreases from 5 to 1.
It was found that when the consumption of drug was very low during the pregnancy, there were mild effects on the health of the child and the condition of the mother during the delivery was average. However, the condition worsened with the increase in consumption of drugs, where the babies were observed to have various mental and physical illnesses. There was Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) observed in most of the cases where the expecting mom consumed heavy drugs. The condition of the child whose mother had regularly being consuming alcohol and caffeine was somewhat improper. The child experienced excessive frustration, prolonged illness and weak immunity.
The findings of the data collected is shown in the table below:
Consumption details Drug consumption Very low
(during pregnancy) Drug consumption Medium
(during pregnancy) Drug consumption Very high
(during pregnancy) Alcohol and caffeine
Effects on:
Problems during the delivery of the child 3.5 4 5 3
Health of the mother after delivery 4 4.5 5 3.5
Condition of the child 4 5 5 3
Disorder in the child 3.5 4.5 5 3.5
Nature of the child 4 4 4.5 3.5

Sensitivity to ethical issues
The topic is very sensitive as it is related to the health of the new born babies and also on the health of the mother. Developing of disorders and issues of mental and physical illnesses would lead to huge requirement of the medical facilities. This would consumer a large portion of the government’s revenue (Gunatilake & Patil, 2015). Also, it would promote unhealthy environment in the country. Hence, it is a matter of great concern to tackle the ethical issues created by the use of drugs consisting of legal as well as illegal drugs and also including the consumption of caffeine and alcohol (Gunatilake & Patil, 2015).
Strengths and limitations
The research has been supported with empirical data which strongly supports the findings. Any futher research carried on this topic can use the findings of this research as a base for extensive research in the future.
The women were randomly collected and were asked before the research regarding the consumption of drugs during their pregnancy. On the basis of that only, the women were selected for the interview.
However, there are few limitations of the research. It is not involve women from across different countries. This has to be achieved as the behavior and strength of the women are different as per their origin. The data was not able to accurately name the disorders faced by the children. it only provided the presence of any disorders or illnesses among the children.
Conclusion
It cn be stated that the women who were consuming drugs during their pregnancy had large number of adverse effects on the child which was born. The intensity of these effects depended on the level of consumption of the harmful substances by them.

References
Casper, R. C., Fleisher, B. E., & Lee-Ancajas, J. C. (2003). Follow-up of children of depressed mothers exposed or not exposed to antidepressant drugs during pregnancy. . The Journal of pediatrics, , 142(4.
Gunatilake, R., & Patil, A. S. (2015). Drug Use During Pregnancy. Retrieved from http://www.msdmanuals.com: http://www.msdmanuals.com/home/women-s-health-issues/drug-use-during-pregnancy/drug-use-during-pregnancy
Kesmodel, U., Wisborg, K., & Olsen, S. F. (2002). Moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth and death in the first year of life. . American journal of epidemiology, 155(4), , 305-312.
Sannerstedt, R., Lundborg, P., Danielsson, B. R., & Kihlstrom, I. (1996). Drugs during pregnancy. . Drug safety, 14(2), , 69-77.
Streissguth, A. P., Barr, H. M., Martin, D. C., & Herman, C. S. (1980). Effects of maternal alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine use during pregnancy on infant mental and motor development at eight months. Alcoholism:. Clinical and Experimental Research, 4(2), , 4 – 12.

Report on Construction of a Reinforced Beam


Contents
Abstract 2
Properties of reinforced concrete 2
Slump testing of concrete 3
Procedure: 3
Curing of concrete 5
Curing process: 5
References 6

Abstract
Concrete is a composite material which mostly comprises of water, cement and aggregates. However, in order to achieve desired physical properties and in order to improve various forms of strength of the concrete, they are mixed with additives and reinforcements while preparing their mixture (Mehta, 1986). Reinforced concrete can be termed as a composite material where the low tensile strength and ductility is enhanced by the reinforcement of materials in its mixture that possess higher tensile strength and ductility. This type of reinforcements can be done using steel, fibres and polymers. We are going to carry research on the various properties of reinforced concrete along with few tests to enhance and measure its quality. I am going to design a reinforced concrete beam in this work.

Properties of reinforced concrete
Reinforcement of concrete improves its properties and makes it suitable for desired applications which require high tensile strength and ductility. Properties of reinforced concrete are as under (Mehta, 1986):
• High tolerance of tensile strain, that is, high tensile strength,
• High relative strength,
• Strengthens the bonding ability of concrete without considering the pH and moisture content,
• High anti-corrosive strength and ability to withstand water effectively
• High thermal compatibility is achieved which helps to resists changes at different temperatures.
• High durability that allows it to be designed in desired shapes,
• High ductility that helps it to get moulded easily.

Slump testing of concrete
Slump test is carried out on concrete to measure the workability of fresh concrete. It helps to ensure the consistency of a particular batch of concrete which measures the ease with which the concrete flows. It also helps to estimate the degree of wetness. The slump test measures the nature of the concrete in the shape of inverted cone facing the gravity. It helps to obtain the suitability of the concrete for specific applications with specific strengths. It is carried out as follows (Khayat, 1999):

Procedure:
This test involves taking a fresh concrete that is just prepared and is taken in its wet state.
This test is carried with the help of a mould which is in the shape of an inverted cone and is called as the slump cone. This cone has a handle on its outer side and is kept on a hard, moist, smooth and non-absorbent surface as shown in the figure below.
The cone should be firmly held in its place. The fresh concrete is filled in the cone in three successive stages with the quantity gradually increasing by 30 % every time. It is then tamped by a steel rod at each stage of slumping as shown below. The tamping is carried by immersing the rod till the last level of the concrete.
After the third stage where the concrete overflows the cone and rises up to the top, the cone is very slowly carried above vertically without shaking or moving the mixture in it. The concrete layer inside remains undisturbed. After removing this, the concrete tilts which is known as slumps and is shown in the figure below. Measure the distance between the upper end of the slump and the straight edge of the cone. This distance is termed as the slump and it is measured for the reinforced concrete to measure its workability. The height of the slump helps to estimate the strength and wetness of the concrete and helps to determine its use in the specific field as per the desired application.

Slump test procedure of reinforced concrete
There are four types of slump that are obtained in the slumping test. They are:
• True slump: In this type of slump, retains the shape and subsides or tilts gradually without creating major slopes.
• Zero slump: In this type of slump, the concrete does not slump at all and there are hardly any changes in the level of concrete.
• Collapsed slump: In this type of slump, the concrete subsides completely, that is, it collapses completely.
• Shear slump. In this type of slump, the upper portion of the concrete subsides along the sides slipping in the side direction, thereby, leaving a sloppy surface.

On the basis of this slumps that are determined, the workability and suitability of the concrete for different purposes is obtained.
Slumps in the range of 0 – 25 mm are very dry and are used in the construction of roads. Slumps in the range of 10 – 40 mm are used in the foundations that require light reinforcement and workability of medium quality is required. Slumps in the range of 50 -90 mm are used in the applications which require high workability and wetness to withstand vibrations and other stresses that come in its way.
Curing of concrete
Curing of concrete is termed as the process which helps the concrete from losing the moisture and helps to maintain it in a desired temperature range. Through the curing process, we can increase the strength of the concrete and reduce the permeability comparatively. It also helps to delay the drying shrinkage until the concrete has gained the strength to withstand cracking due to shrinkage (Bairagi, 2013).

Curing process:
When mixture of cement and water ids made, hydration takes place. When this mixture is prepared, it has sufficient amount of water. But gradually, it goes ion decreasing rapidly due to the evaporation and loss of moisture from the surface of the concrete. But it is necessary to retain this water in this stage, so as to ensure that the concrete gains adequate strength and is durable enough to be used for the desired purpose. There are various ways by which curing can be achieved and they are (Aoyama, 2001):
• Water cure: In this type of cure, the concrete is sprinkled and mist sprayed so that it gets fully filled and flooded. It is one of the most effective method of curing that helps reduce the evaporation of water from the surface.
• Water retaining methods: In this type of cure, there are various coverings that are used on the surface to avoid the evaporation of water from the surface. This coverings consists of canvas, sand, burlap or straw. This makes sure that the surface of the concrete mixture stays wet and the moisture is not lost from it.
• Waterproof paper or plastic film seal: In this type of cure, various film seals made of water proof paper or plastic are applied when the concrete becomes moist enough that it does not get damaged. However, application of plastic seal is not desirable where the appearance of concrete is of great importance because it removes the upper colour and smooth surface of the concrete.
• Chemical Membranes: In this type of cure, there is a construction of membrane made up of chemicals that provides adherence to the surface of concrete and protects it from consistent evaporation. However, special care needs to be taken while selecting the chemical and the application of the concrete is to be considered before using the chemical.
In this way, curing of concrete helps to withstand the structural loading, high tensile stresses, fatigue, weathering, corrosion, abrasion, low permeability and chemical attack.
References
Aoyama, H. (2001). Design of modern highrise reinforced concrete structures. . London:: Imperial College Press.
Bairagi, N. (2013). Reinforced concrete design.,. Journal Of The Indian Institute Of Science, 83(5 \& 6).
Khayat, K. (1999). Workability, testing, and performance of self-consolidating concrete. . ACI Materials Journal,, 96(3).
Mehta, P. (1986). Concrete. Structure, properties and materials.