Essay on Food Security

Food Security

Introduction

General statement

Food Security refers to the physical availability of food that would be enough for the survival and good health of the population. It is found to be existing when the people of all the countries have access to nutritious food that would be safe for their consumption and will help in satisfying their daily dietary needs  (Wilson & Pimentel, 2004).

Background statement

There have been formation of many councils and programs in all the countries to ensure that food security is achieved in them. There has been a constant growth in the production of food, but it has not been able to fulfil and match up to the tremendous increase in population that has been witnessed across the globe  (Schmidhuber & Tubiello, 2007).

Definition

Food security can be thus defined as the concept of supplying and availing the population of the world with sufficient amount of healthy, safe and nutritious food that is ensured through proper social means and is also made available during the times of crisis, emergencies and disasters that the nation faces. Food security ensures that irrespective of the circumstances, each and every individual in a nation should have access to minimum amount of food that is essential for their survival along with a good health  (Schmidhuber & Tubiello, 2007).

Justification

It is according to the justification of the fact that there is a large population that is to be satisfied and hence efforts are to be made to ensure that food security is achieved in all the nations across the globe. The increasing population and urbanization of the countries play a vital role in developing a threat to the food security and leads to generating the imbalance among the production and consumption of food among the population.

Thesis statement

Food security serves to be one of the major concern of all the governments across the globe to feed their population and ensure that each and every individual gets sufficient amount of food for their good health.

Preview

Food security has to face a number of challenges which have to be handled cautiously and carefully by the governments across the globe. To maintain a balance between the increasing population and the supply of food is a major challenge for the nations. This challenges and ways to cope with them are discussed further in the essay  (Wilson & Pimentel, 2004).

History

It is observed that average population growth rate across the globe is 1.3 % and this increases the pressure on the available resources of food production. As against this, the increase in food production is stable and it is not up to the mark to satisfy the increasing needs of the population. There has been increase in the per capita food production owing to the improved technology of food production. But, this has to be kept in check with the decrease in the availability of land that could be cultivated and used for production of crops as well as breeding of animals (Wilson & Pimentel, 2004).

It is observed that there has been a tremendous increase in the breeding of animals due to the advancement in the technology and improvement in the medical treatments that is provided for them. The production of sea food has also been increased due to the improvement in the fishing techniques and an increasing awareness among the people regarding the cultivation of animals that could be a source of food serving the large population across the globe. There has been a huge increase in the production of crops per unit area owing to the modernization adopted in the method of cultivation and using scientific techniques that would help in yielding more crops. It is a common problem being faced among the nations to satisfy these increasing population and provide them with healthy food  (Schmidhuber & Tubiello, 2007).

Challenges

The increasing population imposes a great challenge for the nations to fulfil the needs of the people and ensure that healthy food and nutrition is made available for them. This increase in the population in the nations also poses a problem of decrease in the land that was available for production of crops. There has been urbanization and industrial revolution in the past decade and this has greatly increased the pressure on the land that was available for cultivation of crops as well as breeding of animals. Hence, it is a major challenge for the developing as well as developed nation to cope up with the increasing demand of food per capita owing to the tremendous increase in population  (Schmidhuber & Tubiello, 2007).

 

It is found that the population growth is at much faster rate as compared to the growth in food production. It is estimated that the global population would be reaching to 9 billion by 2050  (Wilson & Pimentel, 2004). It is a significant problem for the nations to remove this imbalance and develop a steady growth that would be sustained over a period of years and help in providing the population with the required quantity of food irrespective of their economic and social condition.

Measures

There is a tremendous increase in population that imposes a threat to the food security due to the unavailability of the required quantity of land for cultivation of crops and breeding of animals. However, there are various measures which have to be carried to ensure that food security within the nation has been maintained continuously. For this there has to be allotment and specification of special area for the cultivation of crops and this has to be kept increasing steadily through managing the use of the area for constructing buildings, industries and other such purposes. There has to be continuous efforts to be made in improving the technology and science of cultivating crops and the breeding of animals  (Wilson & Pimentel, 2004).

There has to be considerable development of pesticides and insecticides that help to save the crops from getting wasted and infected due to insects and save a large quantity of crops that is produced. Development of high quality of fertilizers will ensure an increase in the production that is available per unit area of land and this has resulted in increase in overall production of crops within the same quantity of land that is available (Schmidhuber & Tubiello, 2007).

Conclusion:

It can be seen that there is a huge amount of imbalance between the demand of food and the population that consumes this food. Owing to this, there is a program of “Feed the Future” being introduced by the US and on similar basis there is formation of “Food Security Center Abu Dhabi” in UAE (FSCAD, 2014). Food security has to be achieved across all the nations for their development and ensuring good health of the population.

 

 

References

FSCAD. (2014). What is the meaning of the term. Retrieved December 28, 2014, from http://www.fscad.ae: http://www.fscad.ae/en/media-centre/faq

Schmidhuber, J., & Tubiello, F. N. (2007). Global food security under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 19703-19708.

Wilson, A., & Pimentel, D. (2004). World Population, Agriculture, and Malnutrition. World Watch Magazine.

 

 

 

Essay on Foreign Policy of a great Power – US Intervention in Syrian Crisis

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Foreign policy of a great power
Introduction
The foreign policies that are adopted by different nations depend on their economic status as well their military capacity and technology. Great powers of the world have been adopting various foreign policies on the basis of international politics and it has created conflicts and cold wars among them. One such case is the intervention of America in the Civil war in Syria. The war started in 2011 and since then America has been providing support in all the dimensions to the Syrian Army. The main purpose behind the support is that America wants to clear all the terrorists of the ISIL (“Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant”) in the regions near Syria and Iraq (Lynch, Freelon, & Aday, 2014).
It was clearly stated in the speech given by the American President, Barack Obama, on September 10, 2014, that they would bring all the terrorist and terrorist groups which have been posing threats to the security and integrity of America. It also gathered support from the other countries like Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Turkey and Jordan and started attacking the terrorist troops of ISIL in Syria (Barany, 2011). There are many factors which on the basis of which such foreign policies were adopted by America for the Syrian War and for the terrorist groups in Syria.
Analysis of the foreign policy
The foreign policy adopted by US was on the basis of their ideology of clearing all the terrorists which were planning to attack America. It involved attacking these terrorists and destroying their training and training centers even if it is in other countries across the globe. This made it necessary for America to assist the Syrian free army to carry operations against the rebels along with the terrorist group who inspired and planned such activities in Syria (Lynch, Freelon, & Aday, 2014). They also tried to have meetings for peace and treaties regarding end of the war with the Al-Nusra front in this area. It provided special military training to the Syrian army and also carried many air strikes on the different centers that they found were belonging to ISIL in Syria. However, inspite of their continuous efforts, they were not able to curb the harmful and dangerous planning and training of the ISIL.
For these reasons, Barack Obama, the President of US decided to have a direct military intervention in Syria (Carpenter, 2013). This was opposed and criticized by the Russian government through their foreign minister Alexander Lukashevich, in 2014. They stated that if US would intervene in Syria without the actual permission of the Syrian government, then it would be violation of the human rights law made in the United Nations. The foreign minister of Russia also demanded that this kind of military intervention had to be passed in the UN Security Council decision by America and then it had the right and power to carry a military intervention in Syria.
Factors affecting the foreign policy
There are various factors which were affecting the foreign policy adopted by US in executing an intervention in the Syrian war as well as destroying the terrorist groups in these regions. These factors are discussed below:
Structural factors
There are many structural factors which are affecting the foreign policies and decisions taken by US regarding the issue of terrorism and civil war in Syria. The pressure on the security and integrity of US was increasing due to the increasing threats that were received from the ISIL group. There have been incidents in America which were due to the outbreak of anger among the ISIL in Syria. The leaders of ISIL were enraged due to the intervention of the US military in their areas and they got pushed by these efforts carried by the US military. Due to this, they had developed an increasing discontent against the US forces and its allies. This was a great threat to the entire structure of US (Hastedt, 2014).
International factors
There were international factors which included getting support from some countries as well as facing opposition from other countries. The intervention of US in Syria was supported by most of the countries in the Middle-East and the other countries of the world. There was a clash of opinions among the two super powers Russia and US. Russia did not approve the act of US to attack and send military to Syria without its prior consent. Due to this, US had to pass their intensions and decisions in UN Security Council where it immediately got permission from them (Hastedt, 2014). This was due to the efforts carried by US and future plans made by them for the clearing of the terrorist groups of ISIL, Al-Qaeda and other such extremely dangerous and inhuman terrorist groups.
Domestic factors
There were many domestic factors which led to the intervention of US in Syria. The economy of US was largely affected by the arms and ammunitions which it provided to Syria. The trained manpower and skill that was available in US was made available for the Syrian forces. The main function involving domestic factor of the foreign policy was the incapability of US to finish off small terrorist forces in Syria which posed a great threat to them. This made US helpless and they came up with different plans for the counter attacking the terrorist groups (Hastedt, 2014).
Examples of efforts carried by America as a superpower in Syria:
America had sent many rounds of airstrikes in Syria and surrounding regions which were believed to be the training centers for the ISIL. America, then got a permission from UN regarding their military intervention in Syria through an article which was passed through the UN Security Council. US was supported by many other countries like Jordan, Turkey and UK. Here was the operation was named as “Inherent Resolve” by the US military forces. There were more than 100 airstrikes carried by the US troops on the regions near Syria and Iraq.
Reflections of the US foreign policy on the issue:
Due to the efforts carried by the US, there were other countries and super powers who came into the scenario and they started sending their troops to attack the training centers and other centers which were inhabited by the ISIL. Russia had a treaty signed with Syria which mentioned that Syria would destroy all of its chemical weapons. After this, US called back its troops and stopped airstrikes on the ISIL region in Syria. This was announced by the President of US, Barack Obama.
There have been instances which led to the development of cold war between Russia and America due to the foreign policy adopted by US to intervene in the Syrian region. This has helped the government of different countries to develop plans for destroying the training camps which were set by the ISIL in Syrian regions (Howell & Pevehouse, 2011). Thus, the foreign policy adopted by the US moved around generating security, integrity, safety and peace in their country which was threatened by the terrorist groups of ISIL, who had several training and living camps established in Syria. UN had to handle the situation by considering the point of view of different super powers who had planned to intervene in the situation existing in Syria.

Bibliography
Barany, Z. (2011). The role of the military. . Journal of Democracy, 22(4), , 24-35.
Carpenter, T. G. (2013). Tangled web: The syrian civil war and its implications. . Mediterranean Quarterly, 24(1), , 1-11.
Hastedt, G. P. (2014). American Foreign Policy: Past, Present, and Future. . Rowman & Littlefield.
Howell, W. G., & Pevehouse, J. C. (2011). While dangers gather: Congressional checks on presidential war powers. Princeton University Press.
Lynch, M., Freelon, D., & Aday, S. (2014). Syria’s socially mediated civil war. . United States Institute Of Peace, 91(1), , 1-35.

Essay on Food Security

Food Security
Introduction
General statement
Food Security refers to the physical availability of food that would be enough for the survival and good health of the population. It is found to be existing when the people of all the countries have access to nutritious food that would be safe for their consumption and will help in satisfying their daily dietary needs (Wilson & Pimentel, 2004).
Background statement
There have been formation of many councils and programs in all the countries to ensure that food security is achieved in them. There has been a constant growth in the production of food, but it has not been able to fulfil and match up to the tremendous increase in population that has been witnessed across the globe (Schmidhuber & Tubiello, 2007).
Definition
Food security can be thus defined as the concept of supplying and availing the population of the world with sufficient amount of healthy, safe and nutritious food that is ensured through proper social means and is also made available during the times of crisis, emergencies and disasters that the nation faces. Food security ensures that irrespective of the circumstances, each and every individual in a nation should have access to minimum amount of food that is essential for their survival along with a good health (Schmidhuber & Tubiello, 2007).
Justification
It is according to the justification of the fact that there is a large population that is to be satisfied and hence efforts are to be made to ensure that food security is achieved in all the nations across the globe. The increasing population and urbanization of the countries play a vital role in developing a threat to the food security and leads to generating the imbalance among the production and consumption of food among the population.
Thesis statement
Food security serves to be one of the major concern of all the governments across the globe to feed their population and ensure that each and every individual gets sufficient amount of food for their good health.
Preview
Food security has to face a number of challenges which have to be handled cautiously and carefully by the governments across the globe. To maintain a balance between the increasing population and the supply of food is a major challenge for the nations. This challenges and ways to cope with them are discussed further in the essay (Wilson & Pimentel, 2004).
History
It is observed that average population growth rate across the globe is 1.3 % and this increases the pressure on the available resources of food production. As against this, the increase in food production is stable and it is not up to the mark to satisfy the increasing needs of the population. There has been increase in the per capita food production owing to the improved technology of food production. But, this has to be kept in check with the decrease in the availability of land that could be cultivated and used for production of crops as well as breeding of animals (Wilson & Pimentel, 2004).
It is observed that there has been a tremendous increase in the breeding of animals due to the advancement in the technology and improvement in the medical treatments that is provided for them. The production of sea food has also been increased due to the improvement in the fishing techniques and an increasing awareness among the people regarding the cultivation of animals that could be a source of food serving the large population across the globe. There has been a huge increase in the production of crops per unit area owing to the modernization adopted in the method of cultivation and using scientific techniques that would help in yielding more crops. It is a common problem being faced among the nations to satisfy these increasing population and provide them with healthy food (Schmidhuber & Tubiello, 2007).
Challenges
The increasing population imposes a great challenge for the nations to fulfil the needs of the people and ensure that healthy food and nutrition is made available for them. This increase in the population in the nations also poses a problem of decrease in the land that was available for production of crops. There has been urbanization and industrial revolution in the past decade and this has greatly increased the pressure on the land that was available for cultivation of crops as well as breeding of animals. Hence, it is a major challenge for the developing as well as developed nation to cope up with the increasing demand of food per capita owing to the tremendous increase in population (Schmidhuber & Tubiello, 2007).

It is found that the population growth is at much faster rate as compared to the growth in food production. It is estimated that the global population would be reaching to 9 billion by 2050 (Wilson & Pimentel, 2004). It is a significant problem for the nations to remove this imbalance and develop a steady growth that would be sustained over a period of years and help in providing the population with the required quantity of food irrespective of their economic and social condition.
Measures
There is a tremendous increase in population that imposes a threat to the food security due to the unavailability of the required quantity of land for cultivation of crops and breeding of animals. However, there are various measures which have to be carried to ensure that food security within the nation has been maintained continuously. For this there has to be allotment and specification of special area for the cultivation of crops and this has to be kept increasing steadily through managing the use of the area for constructing buildings, industries and other such purposes. There has to be continuous efforts to be made in improving the technology and science of cultivating crops and the breeding of animals (Wilson & Pimentel, 2004).
There has to be considerable development of pesticides and insecticides that help to save the crops from getting wasted and infected due to insects and save a large quantity of crops that is produced. Development of high quality of fertilizers will ensure an increase in the production that is available per unit area of land and this has resulted in increase in overall production of crops within the same quantity of land that is available (Schmidhuber & Tubiello, 2007).
Conclusion:
It can be seen that there is a huge amount of imbalance between the demand of food and the population that consumes this food. Owing to this, there is a program of “Feed the Future” being introduced by the US and on similar basis there is formation of “Food Security Center Abu Dhabi” in UAE (FSCAD, 2014). Food security has to be achieved across all the nations for their development and ensuring good health of the population.

References
FSCAD. (2014). What is the meaning of the term. Retrieved December 28, 2014, from http://www.fscad.ae: http://www.fscad.ae/en/media-centre/faq
Schmidhuber, J., & Tubiello, F. N. (2007). Global food security under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 19703-19708.
Wilson, A., & Pimentel, D. (2004). World Population, Agriculture, and Malnutrition. World Watch Magazine.

Essay on Water Shortage in UAE

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Introduction
With the advancement of technology and numerous inventions in different fields, it can be seen that there is a constant increase in the usage of water per person across the globe. The current rate of consumption and production of portable water do not match and there is an imbalance created between them. At the same time, there are many application where the usage of water has not been tapped and the water resources are taken for granted. It has been prevailing in Middle East and UAE where there are very scarce resources of ground water. Also there has been a tremendous increase in the water consumption per person in UAE. It is obtained that on an average, 550 liters of water is consumed by the UAE residents per day. On the other hand, the global average consumption of water per person is 250 liters per day. If the consumption continues at such a high rate and considering the limitations of the water resources like groundwater and restricted exploring of the treated and desalinated water, there will be an acute water crisis faced by UAE by 2040 (KHALEEJ TIMES, 2015).
It has to be taken into consideration as it is very important for development and overall growth among different sections of an economy. There are constant measures and innovative initiatives developed for increasing the desalination of the water and waste water treatment in UAE. It involves using grey water for several commercial purposes (Botros, 2015). However, it can be observed that there are many initiatives to be developed on domestic and day to day level to reduce the consumption of water per person on daily basis. This has been developed in the following section and a remedy has been obtained and discussed for the same.
Problem
The problem in the water supply available in UAE is that there are very limited sources available and one of the most important resources that plays a vital role in water supply is groundwater and its resources are found to be decreasing. The level of groundwater has been projected to be falling by 2030 (KHALEEJ TIMES, 2015). It means that there would be decrease in supply despite of the tremendous increase in overall consumption due to increase in population and other such factors. There are many significant processes where the people can save water in daily use and the water saved can be sued for more important and significant purposes like irrigation and other processes of manufacturing (Alsalmi, Elkadi, & Leao, 2013) . Reducing the amount of water that is used daily requires identifying the activities that are consuming more water than it should have ideally. Water that is used in flushing is one of the section of water consumption where innovative designs and solutions can be developed.
Evaluating the problem
The problem exists in the lack of awareness and responsibility among the people in UAE regarding the use of water that is easily available to them. The statistics regarding the availability of water and its use has to be developed regularly and strict remedies have to be developed for reducing the amount of water consumed. This can be done through tracking the use of water in day to day life among the people living in UAE. The problem involves developing several innovative initiatives that have to be impactful and influence the consumption of water per person in UAE. Developing better treatment plants with high capacity to convert waste water into treated water that ca neb used for industrial and irrigation purposes.
Solution
The problem that has been discussed in the above section is the unnecessary quantity of water that is used for the sanitation and other purposes in houses. The water that is used in the flushing tanks can be reduced as every time during flushing a fixed amount of water is used which is not necessary. The general amount of water that is used every time a person flushes is about 3-4 liters. Instead of that, if a small bottle of about 500 ml is kept in the flush tank, then the quantity of water used during each flush will be reduced by 500 ml. The above mentioned solution can be implemented if a small flush tank cannot be designed and implemented everywhere. This will help in considerable decrease in the amount of water used. It can be observed that by keeping 1litre bottle in the flush tank, more water can be saved. But, this might not be the case as when 1 liter bottle is kept in flush tank, there would be instances where people would have to flush twice. However, the size of the bottle should be kept such that is does not increase the number of times one has to flush. So, it has to be obtained accordingly as per the usage of the toilet. In the below figure, an example of how to insert a bottle in the flush tank for reducing the water consumption during flushing has been shown.

(GREEN ORGANIC DEVOTION, 2012)

Conclusion
No amount of water generated or made available would be sufficient enough if the residents and the people in UAE do not realize the importance of water and restrict their use per person by keeping the average global consumption per person in mind. There are several slogans that can be developed for promoting saving of water and encouraging the people in UAE to realize its importance and use less water. It has to be considered that the countries in the Middle-east are the least secure in terms of water availability and number of potential water resources. Here, the usage of water on a domestic level for household purpose has been considered and a solution has been developed for the same. The solution of inserting a water bottle in the flush tank has the potential to reduce the per capita usage of water on a significant scale.
As mentioned above, with a very limited availability of groundwater in UAE, there have to be special innovative and effective irrigation methods developed and they should also focus on the crops that require less water for growing. Recycling the waste water serves to be a very feasible solution as it is reducing the accumulation of waste water that were led in the natural water bodies and at the same time, providing the water that is required for several purposes in UAE.

References
Alsalmi, H., Elkadi, H., & Leao, S. (2013). Urban growth in arid environments: Developing water sustainability indicators for Abu Dhabi (UAE). Liveable Cities, 5-25.
Botros, M. (2015, February 16). Solutions to tackle water scarcity in the UAE. Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com: http://gulfnews.com/news/uae/environment/solutions-to-tackle-water-scarcity-in-the-uae-1.1458061
Dakkak, A. (2015, January 31). Irrigation Systems in the United Arab Emirates. Retrieved from http://www.ecomena.org: http://www.ecomena.org/tag/water-scarcity-in-uae/
GREEN ORGANIC DEVOTION. (2012, January 18). RECYCLE YOUR WATER BOTTLE… IN THE TOILET? Retrieved from https://greenorganicdevotion.wordpress.com: https://greenorganicdevotion.wordpress.com/2012/01/18/recycle-your-water-bottle-in-the-toilet/
KHALEEJ TIMES. (2015, August 27). UAE among top 10 states to face acute water crisis. Retrieved from http://www.khaleejtimes.com: http://www.khaleejtimes.com/region/uae-among-top-10-states-to-face-acute-water-crisis

Essay on Governance in Sierra Leone


Introduction
The policymaking has played an important role in different countries ranging from its level of adoption. There are many functions which are depended on the policymaking process of an organization or department in an economy. The governance in a country is very important for understanding these policies in depth and ensuring a proper attainment of the goals and objectives by any government across the globe (Williams and Tunde 2006).
Sierra Leone, also known as the Republic of Sierra, serves to be a country in the west of Africa. It has Guinea towards its north, Liberia towards the south-east direction and towards the south-west direction, it has the Atlantic Ocean. Its population as per the 2011 United Nations census was around 6 million. It has its economic and political center at Freetown, which also serves to be its capital. It is the largest city in the country which is followed by the Bo city. For the purpose and ease of administration, Sierra Leone has been divided into 4 major regions on the basis of its geography and these four regions are the:
• Eastern Province,
• Western Province,
• Northern Province,
• Southern Province.
These provinces are further divided into 14 sub provinces, also known as districts. This helps in smooth functioning of the economy and proper administration can be carried out throughout the country. The framework of law and policy making would be developed accordingly, considering the welfare and overall development of the sub provinces and districts.

There are more than 16 different ethnic groups in Sierra Leone and this leads to huge diversity in the customs, traditions, the ways of living and life style of the people. These 16 inherited ethnic groups in Sierra Leone have their own languages and hence, it makes it very difficult to bind them through a firm law developed in one specific language among the 16 languages which are being used by the ethnic groups. The most widely used language in the country which is highest spoken in Sierra Leone is the Krio language. English is the language which has been accepted officially in the schools, governance and policy management by the government. At the same time, the main focus of the government is to make their citizens ready for a global exposure and hence, English has been gaining importance and respect in these regions.
Among these 16 ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, Temne and Mende are the two ethnic groups which occupy the highest area in the country. Among them, Temne people mostly occupy the northern region of the country, whereas the Mende people occupy the south-east region of the country. This advantages have been used for the handling of the government and political affairs of the country throughout the different regions and policies related to the law, international and national trade, governance and administration framework. It has a majority of its population following Islam and are Muslims and the contribution of such population in the economy of Sierra Leone is about 60% of the total contribution. 30% of the population follows different religious beliefs and traditions which are obtained through the inhabitation of different civilizations in the country. The main function of the selection and adoption of these languages is to develop a strong legal and policies framework which would help in developing appropriate international trade relations with other countries across the globe. This would help in smooth handling of the governance and would maintain a prosperous and peace in the country.

Thus, on the basis of the above description, a thesis has been developed which revolves around evaluating and analyzing the governance systems in Sierra Leone, political structures and legal framework which binds its administration. It also involves developing and identifying the important elements for the development of trade and international relations with other countries across the globe (Cartwright 1970). This is described through a statement which has been developed as follows:
Thesis statement:
The local governance in the Sierra Leone region of West Africa is self-sufficient and efficient.
Identification of the main challenges
There are many challenges posed before the country due to its poverty. It has an extremely low Human Development Index as compared to the other countries of the world and this can be seen by its HDI (Human Development Index) rankings, where it stands at 180th position among 187 countries. The high levels of poverty and unemployment along with illiteracy poses a great problem and challenge to the development of Sierra Leone. It has been found that more than 60% of its total population is living below the National Poverty Line. It has a great challenge to channelize its population in productive tasks like manufacturing and other related processes which requires large capital investments from other countries. There are many International banks like the World Bank and other globally commercial banks which are ready to provide finance to Sierra Leone for uplifting its economy and develop the quality of life among the people living in this region. At the same time, the biggest challenge is to develop potential projects which would help absorb these money and help in achieving employment for the youth in Sierra Leone. This would be very important as there are high levels of unemployment in the country and this would help them to get a suitable job for themselves.

The high rates of illiteracy is also one of the biggest challenge in developing the country and establishing a suitable framework on the shoulders of highly efficient and educated personnel. Thus, the main problem leading to illiteracy is poverty only as it leads to utilization of the finance earned by the individuals for the fulfilment of their daily needs. It has been struggling to find financial resources that would help in overcoming the effects of these disasters and regenerate the livelihood of the people which has been lost due to the disaster. The main issue is of illiteracy which leads to inefficient youth in the later ages and then leads to unavailability of jobs for such illiterate population. Hence, obtaining a solution for the problem of poverty serves to be one of the most important tasks of the government. Government has to develop many schemes and programs to provide the basic needs of food, clothing, shelter and other basic necessities which are required for leading a healthy life. This has to be done through getting proper financial resources from the financial institutions across the world (Jackson 2007).
There was a civil war that had broken in 2002 where the youth had adopted violent means to oppose the government and demand their basic rights and employment opportunities from the government. The civil war was an outrage of the youth which had developed due to the increasing levels of poverty. Illiteracy and unemployment where the people were not able to meet even their basic needs of food, clothing, shelter, electricity and other basic amenities. There were serious negative influences of this war. The people had to change their houses constantly which led to instability and inappropriate environment in the country. There were many cases of sexual violence and other forms of violence where the people who had shifted from one to province to another under the effects of the war for earning their livelihood. This people were subjected to exploitation and violence (De Jong, et al. 2000).

There are many challenges and threats which are faced by the country due to its proximity to the sea and other problems which are constantly persistent in the regions of Africa. The outbreak of the Ebola disease in the country as well as its neighbors tends to be serious problem for the government. Government had to manage appropriate medicines and treatment at a high cost for the patients of Ebola. The outbreak of the Ebola disease hugely damaged the efforts of the government which were carried to develop Sierra Leone’s economy and uplift the people from the extreme levels of poverty. This disastrous outbreak has led to the inefficiency of the government in taking measures for the development of the country as they had to solely focus on providing treatment to the patients of Ebola and also prevent it from spreading further in the society. Due to this, the government lost its track of development and the after effects of the Ebola outbreak resulted in increasing the efforts of the government. The outbreak had its effects and images left for over a decade and many more coming years and this would hugely affect the productivity and efficiency of the people to work and overcome their financial conditions. Hence, there would be a great challenge posed in front of the government to generate the high levels of employment and development in Sierra Leone and bring its position above the other countries on a global level (Adesina and Zinnah. 1993).
There were many problems created as most of the plans and schemes which were developed by the government were devastated due to the civil war as well as the outbreak of Ebola disease in Sierra Leone. This posed a great threat of development of the country and bringing its people to a general level of Human Development Index (HDI) and above the national poverty line. This challenges have been significantly creating huge pressures on the government in Sierra Leone (Williams and Tunde 2006).

Literature review
There has been a great struggle in the Sierra Leone country of West Africa since its independence from the British rule. The discussion regarding its freedom started between the British delegates and the political leaders from Sierra Leone on 20th April 1960 at London. This carried on for about one year, where there were many alternative plans and programs developed for the country to sustain on its own and execute the administration of its people on its own. Then, finally on 27th April 1961, Sierra Leone got its independence from the United Kingdom and it emerged as a separate country (Amowitz, et al. 2002).
However, since its independence, the country has been struggling to manage its poverty and maintain the required levels of development. The government has been constantly engaged in reducing the poverty through improving the literacy rates and generating employment opportunities for the people. But, due to the other problems and disasters which have struck Sierra Leone, the government has not been able to develop the required amount of financial sources and revenues that would be required for overcoming the problems faced by them (Jackson 2007). The problems faced by them are such that the root cause of most of them is poverty. Poverty and unemployment are interrelated. Many researchers have tried to establish this relationship for Sierra Leone and they have been considering various factors and variables which would help in contributing to the development of its economy (Adesina and Zinnah. 1993). The main functions of the government in uplifting an economy involves providing employment, eradicating poverty, obtaining high literacy rates and developing a general standard of living for all the people in the society.
According to Williams and Tunde, there should be no pressure on the children of the society regarding the security of their land and country (Williams and Tunde 2006). This would turns them into soldiers at a very young age and this has drastic effects on the overall development of the economy. There were many children and adolescents who had to join military and start training at a very early age, thereby compromising on their childhood, education and other necessities which they have to enjoy in their lives. The loss of a young soldier would draw huge poverty on his family as the family would be dependent on the soldier’s income for their livelihood. The incapability of the government to provide the required amounts of pensions and financial securities to the family of the soldiers who have died or severely injured during their service has led to the increasing level of poverty in the country. As a result of it, there was increasing level of discontent among the youth and other populations of the country regarding the government (Williams and Tunde 2006).
There were hardly any scope for employment due to the limited number of industries and plants that could absorb laborers and other technical personnel. This led to the decrease in the interest of the people towards education and this led to higher levels of illiteracy. This led to increase in the anger of the youth and resulted in an outbreak of a civil war in 2002 in Sierra Leone, Liberia and other disturbed countries in the neighborhood (Jackson 2007). There was an increasing discontent regarding the working of the economy, where the unicameral legislature which has been adopted by the government helped to overcome the problems after the civil war ended since 2002.
With the increasing technology and high levels of globalization seen across the world, there are many countries and financial bodies and institutions which have been coming forward to provide finance to Sierra Leone and help them in uplifting its economy. The United Nations and the World Bank have contributed immensely to the development of Sierra Leone. The other developed countries like USA and UK have also been providing considerable help in terms of technology, manpower and other resources which would help in overcoming the poverty that is existing in the society of Sierra Leone and they would considerably help in the development of its economy (Datzberger, Dittrich and Enria 2014).

Discussion of the relevant theories
Development of an economy depends on the application of human development theories. The level of human development index that has to be achieved through coordinated efforts of the country, United Nations and financial institutions like Banks and Global funds. There are many levels of human development which have to be achieved through coordinated efforts and planning of the government. The theories for human development include the Freud’s Psychosexual theory, Erikson’s Psychological theory and Piaget’s theory of cognitive development (Jackson 2007).
In the Freud’s theory, there is a relationship developed between the levels of development and the sexual freedom in the society. He has explained that a coordinated and collective effort is required from across all the sections of the society. He has explained that development of an economy and its Human Development Index also includes the development of the feminine gender in the society (Amowitz, et al. 2002). In the Erikson’s Psychological theory, he has described the effects of the psychological theory
Political structure and governance
The political structure of Sierra Leone consists of a unicameral legislature which has been established and implemented through the Constitution since 1991. It consists of three main bodies on which the governance is carried out and they are:
• The Legislature,
• The Executive and
• The Judiciary
The President is the supreme head of the government, commander-in-chief of the armed forces as well as the Police forces in Sierra Leone. Currently, the President of Sierra Leone is Ernest Bai Koroma, who has been appointed since 17th September 2007. There are 124 seats in the Parliament of Sierra Leone. it represents all of the 14 districts which hare present in the state. The judiciary of the country is headed by the Chief Justice, where he presides over the Supreme Court, which has the highest authority among the courts. For the administrative purposes, the country is divided into the four divisions which we have seen earlier (Datzberger, Dittrich and Enria 2014).
The law enforcement and policies have been developed and maintained by the Sierra Leone Police forces. The Police was first established by the British rule in 1894. The economy of the country has been dropping severely till 1990. However, after that, the government has carried various measures and plans to improve the economic, financial, social conditions in the country. The Bank of Sierra Leone has played a crucial role in developing the financial sources. There has been an excessive dependence of about 2/3rd of its population on agriculture or activities related to agriculture. It has been observed that about 58% of the GDP of Sierra Leone comes from agricultural activities (Amowitz, et al. 2002).
The governance has not been successful in reducing the levels of poverty considerably and this has resulted in continuous discontent among the people of Sierra Leone. This was the main reason which led to the outbreak of a Civil War in 2002, where the dissatisfied and frustrated people showed their anger through violent means. After the outbreak and demolition of the war, the government has been very effective in developing various plans and schemes for the overall development of the country which includes the rural development as well as the optimum utilization of resources in the urban areas. The efforts have been gaining positive results and the poverty level has reduced and there are many employment opportunities generated in the country (Datzberger, Dittrich and Enria 2014).
Discussions of key recommendations
The theories of human development discussed in the above sections show that there is a need to understand and implement the different factors that greatly influence the economic, political, social and psychological conditions in Sierra Leone. The recommendations regarding the development of their economy includes the development of various resources which are available to them. There are many resources which have to be developed and generated for the establishment of a stable economy. This resources involve manpower and financial assets and resources which would be obtained from the international financial institutions and bodies (Jackson 2007).
The allocation and maintenance of the resources involves appropriate planning and implementation. There has to be high levels of literacy obtained by emphasizing on education of children and providing various studying opportunities to them like reduction in the educational expenses and providing special incentives and scholarship to the people in Sierra Leone. There are many designs and plans which could be developed to increase the level of infrastructure and industrialization in the country (Datzberger, Dittrich and Enria 2014).
The coordinated efforts of improving the employment opportunities, increasing the levels of employment, developing the financial resources and increasing their efficiency, stabilizing the political structure to inculcate high levels of content and respect among the people regarding the governance in the country.

References
Adesina, Akinwumi A., and Moses M. Zinnah. 1993. “Technology characteristics, farmers’ perceptions and adoption decisions: A Tobit model application in Sierra Leone.”.” Agricultural economics 297-311.
Amowitz, Lynn L., Chen Reis, Hare Lyons Kristina, Beth Vann, Mansaray Binta, M. Akinsulure-Smith Adyinka, Taylor Louise, and Iacopino. Vincent. 2002. “”Prevalence of war-related sexual violence and other human rights abuses among internally displaced persons in Sierra Leone.”.” Jama 287 (4): 513-521.
Cartwright, John R. 1970. Politics in Sierra Leone 1947-67. Toronto: University of Toronto Press,.
Datzberger, Simone, Viviane Dittrich, and Luisa Enria. 2014. “From Peace-building towards Development: Opportunities and Challenges for Sierra Leone’s Future.” The London School of Economics and Political Science.
De Jong, Kaz, Maureen Mulhern, Nathan Ford, Saskia Van Der Kam, and Rolf Kleber. 2000. “”The trauma of war in Sierra Leone.”.” The Lancet 355 (9220): 2067-2068.
Jackson, Paul. 2007. “Reshuffling an old deck of cards? The politics of local government reform in Sierra Leone.” African Affairs 106, (422): 95-111.
Williams, Zack, and B. Tunde. 2006. “”Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone and the problems of demobilisation, rehabilitation and reintegration into Society: Some Lessons for Social Workers in war‐torn societies.”.” Social Work Education 25, no. 2 119-128.