Google Mobile world
Google has been developing the mobile operating systems known as Android. They carry a conference every year which is known as Google I/O that focusses on the software developers across the globe and is held at San Francisco in California. The terms of “I” and “O” refers to input/ output and also represents to “Innovation in the Open”. The Google I/O focusses on providing sessions regarding developing web, mobile and other applications with the help of Google. It also provides an in depth information and knowledge about creating web technologies with Google such as the Chrome, Chrome Operating System (OS), Android, APIs, web tool kit and search engines. Google’s I/O 0f 2014 was carried at the Moscone centre in San Francisco. In this conference, they announced and launched various devices and apps like Android wear, Android Auto, Android TV, Android One, Google fit, modifications in the Chromebook, API for Gmail and the Google Slides mobile app for the Android (KAWANO & OHTSUKA, 2012).
Google has also recently launched the new version of Android with the name of Lollipop and “Android L” as its codename. Android L was launched on the 25th of June 2014 in a presentation held at the Google’s I/O conference. Google also provided a brief introduction of various platforms that are Android oriented and new technologies. Google has modified the Android version in “Android L” where they have modified the notification system across it. This version also provides the developers with a huge scope with more than 5000 new APIs that can be utilized by them (Jackson, 2014).
Google has been developing a project with the codename “Project Ara” which serves to provide them with a hardware panel and module that will help in creating highly technical smartphones. In this module, there will be a scope of keeping an extra module of the user’s choice through the structural frame. These modules include providing the desired display, keyboard and additional battery. It also provided the users with the feature of removing the modules that do not function appropriately and also upgrade the modules that they want to.
This will help in improving the life of the handset, reduce the burden or loads on the system and also help to handle the unnecessary content or modules in the mobile phone that the users don’t want to be in their mobile phones. On the whole, Google is going to develop a hardware that would take the modular world in the mobile phones to an altogether new level.
Thus, it is observed how Google has been occupying a significant role in the development of operating system and modules for the mobile world. It has recently launched Android L that has introduced a large number of features in the mobile phone industry. It is going to launch the Project Ara in next year, that is, in 2015, where it is going to revolutionize the smart phone world by highly user friendly modules (Jackson, 2014). Google is all set to provide the users with an ultimate experience to develop and manage the modules in their mobile phones.
Jackson, W. (2014). The Future of Android: The 64-Bit Android 5.0 OS. In W. Jackson, Android Apps for Absolute Beginners (pp. 591-650). Apress.
KAWANO, Y., & OHTSUKA, T. (2012). Input-Output Linearization for Transfer Functions of Input-Affine Meromorphic Systems. 133-138.
With the advancement in technology and easy availability at low price across the globe, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. The use of smart phones has resulted in mobile addiction across the globe. It is very much necessary to stay connected through smart phones with numerous features like social networking, banking facilities, high speed internet and entertainment options. It almost performs the function of the PCs with the use of MS Office possible in the smart phones. Hence, the large scale increase in the use of smart phones, there are a few disadvantages which are in the form of hazards to the mankind and environment on the whole. These hazards have to be handled effectively and should be taken as a priority to save the environment and human from the harmful effects of the toxic substances.
Importance of the topic and rationale of study:
The use of the cell phones is increasing tremendously across the globe. It is found that the number of cell phones has way crossed the figure of 6.8 billion which is almost going to equal the human population of the world (Wang, Chen, & Liu, 2012). This serves to be good from the technical point of view, but at the same time, the large quantity of hazardous wastes that are created by them tend to be a major threat in the future for mankind. We observed that green computing helps the proper disposal and recycling of the hazardous materials that is produced by the unsafe parts of the mobile phones when they are of no use or are dumped in the regular trash. It has to be considered as one of the most optimum solution for the problem of handling the wastes that is created by cell phones. The topic is noteworthy due to the following reasons:
• The number of mobile phone users reached 6.8 billion in 2013 from 2 billion in 2005. This has to be considered significantly to solve the problem of pollution that is being created by the hazardous material present in the mobile phones (Wang, Chen, & Liu, 2012) .
• The cell phones are not turned off when not in use during the nights when the user is sleeping and hence there is a great amount of power and energy wasted in the form of the radiation that is generated by the battery during this time (Geyer & Blass, 2010).
• The number of mobile phones is easily going to cross the figure of 7 billion by 2015 which would be the population of the world at that time. Thus, the use of such large number of cell phones by individuals would result in to tremendous increase in ensuring safety from the radiation that is generated in them (Wang, Chen, & Liu, 2012).
• Every day there are more than a million cell phones produced. The fact that the cell phones that have become old can be either repaired or recycled if it is of no use can be a good solution to the management of the hazardous wastes that would be created by disposing them improperly (Geyer & Blass, 2010).
• It is observed that an average time in which an individual changes his mobile device is 20 – 24 months which means that every 2 years, a large number of mobile phones are either of no use or need to be repaired. This figure is very alarming and calls for an action for encouraging the proper recycling or repairing of such cell phone devices (Geyer & Blass, 2010).
The study of the concept of green computing helped us to learn various aspects that are to be understood and considered while developing a critical analysis of the subject. It helped us to generate few learning outcomes which are discussed below:
There are a wide range of technological solutions that are available for executing the green computing of cell phones in the countries. It involves using more environment and human friendly materials for producing the chips that are used in the cell phones which largely consist of lead and arsenic. There has to be proper care which is to be taken while developing the technology in cell phones to make sure that it does not get excessively heated which would multiply the amount of radiation that it emits. The technological aspect of reusing the chips and circuits of the old cell phones in developing the new devices serves as a great step in the green computing of the cell phones (Geyer & Blass, 2010).
Green computing of the cell phone devices have to be considered as a collective responsibility of each and every individual. People are directly or indirectly affected by the hazardous material in cell phones on long term basis and there has to be a sense of understanding that has to be inculcated among the people across the globe to overcome this problem. It can be started on an individual level by ensuring that one shuts down the devices when they are not in use and at the same time make them work on power saver modes to minimize the amount of radiation that is emitted through them. It serves to be a common goal of the mankind that is to be shared equally by contribution from each and every person in the process of green computing of the mobile phones. UAE has taken significant measures in ensuring that the hazardous material in the cell phones is disposed of safely through developing recycling centres at various places and also encouraging people to use them by providing them with benefits in the form of schemes and concessions (Ahmed, 2013).
The issue of handling the hazardous wastes created through cell phones tends to be the problem of all the nations across the globe. There is generation of a large amount of radiation daily through the use of the cell phones. At the same time, there is a wastage of great quantity of power and energy by the people. Hence, considering the social responsibility of saving the environment from the hazardous effects of the cell phones that can be tackled through green computing have to be undertaken as a priority in each and every culture (Geyer & Blass, 2010)..
The generation of heat in the cell phones is due to the consumption of battery and internet services over the phone. The excessive heat that is generated can be controlled by turning off the internet when not in use and to control the usage and multiple downloads across the devices. The disposal of cell phones in the soil will damage the soil and when the disposed parts gets mixed with the water resources. There are various other steps and information about reducing the hazards of the cell phone use which is provided here further. Using the power saver option in the devices, turning off the system when not in use and cautiously handling the toxic wastes that is created by the devices after they are no longer in use. These are the various means through which green computing can be adopted and applied to save the world from the harmful effects of the toxic materials present in the cell phones. (Harmon, Demirkan, Auseklis, & Reinoso, 2010).
Reflective learning outcomes
Understanding the subject in the form of problem based learning has helped us to develop a better bonding among the team members while developing various solutions for the problem. It helped us to involve the understanding and logic of all the members in the team. The group interaction during the project helped us to develop a critical thinking of the green computing through brainstorming among all the team members. Team work helped us to gather a large amount of data regarding the project about the hazards of cell phones by each and every member of the team.
The only problem that was faced during the team work was dominance of few members in developing the solution that supressed the opinion of other team members and did not allow them to express their views openly. Thus, it could be observed that using team work technique would be more effective if a balanced and equal input is taken from each and every member without the dominance of any specific member in the decision making process.
Problem based learning helped to develop a clear understanding and evaluation of the topic. This approach helped us to develop maximum possible solutions that would be feasible for the problems that are specified and observed in the project. The use of Problem based learning technique should not be made for the projects that require a complete understanding of the process or terms that would involve a detailed description of the concept. Hence, it can be recommended that the Problem based learning could be recommended for the projects that involve critical analysis of the terms and issues that are existing in the market.
Ahmed, N. (2013). Enterprise Asset Management System: A Green Gulf Implementation Case. In F. Albadri, Information Science Reference (pp. 57-70). PA: Hershey,.
Geyer, R., & Blass, V. D. (2010). The economics of cell phone reuse and recycling. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 515-525.
Harmon, R., Demirkan, H., Auseklis, N., & Reinoso, M. (2010). From green computing to sustainable IT: Developing a sustainable service orientation. . In I. S. (HICSS) (Ed.), 43rd Hawaii International Conference (pp. 1-10). Hawaii: IEEE.
Wang, X., Chen, M., & Liu, Y. (2012). A Survey of Green Mobile Networks: Opportunities and Challenges. Mobile Networks and Applications , 4-20.
SECURING INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 2
2. Literature Review: 2
3. Analysis of the security: 4
4. Opinion and critical reflections: 5
5. Conclusion: 6
6. Recommendations: 6
7. References 7
Securing information systems
Information systems refers to the system that consists of the computer that helps in processing as well as interpreting of information. It refers to the handling of the database to develop that relates to the software part of the computer. It serves to be one of the most important medium of sharing and storing an individual’s data within a system. It is keep by the company where the employee is working or by the individual himself, while carrying the important data to as the pillar of the information that is to be shared with the people on the whole (Laudon & Laudon, 2010).
It is observed that the main purpose of information system is to collect and store data of an individual or an organization. It helps in developing a database in the form of a software that would help in keeping the integrity of the information intact the security of the information system is important to ensure the confidentiality of this system. This would be studied and discussed in this article.
There are various researches that have been incorporated in the field of information system and its security throughout the system that helps in ensuring the genuineness and trust on the information system to store data and information for an individual or an organization. These researches are discussed below.
In 1989, Ewald along with few other researchers carried an extensive research of the methods that can be used in securing the information services. They came to the methods that involves using portable means to save this information. They proposed use of a data carrier to store the data that can be embodied in the form of a card or so that can be carried by the owner and also be passed to whomsoever he wants to through sharing of the passwords (Anderl, Frankel, & Zahavi., 1989.).
In1991, Whang and Gurbaxani have displayed the impact that these systems referring to the information systems have on the integrity and overall structure of an organization (Gurbaxani & Whang., 1991). They proposed the use of a computerized system that would help in securing the information throughout and at the same time would ensure the flexibility of the sources. It can be coded and decoded by the users and the company from the database whenever it would be required by them.
In 1996, Swanson and Guttman helped to determine the general principles and practices that are related to the securing of the information systems. The organizations can review as well as use this kind of structure for securing their data in the software related to the information systems that the company has been storing in it. They provided a very common understanding of the elements that are needed and expected to be taken care of while dealing with the information technology and information system of an organization (Swanson & Guttman, 1996).
In 2003, Zhang and Li developed the sharing of an information system that involved the usage of a supply chain management system in the management of the information systems. The derived using of the internet and developing an internet based supply chain management for the securing of the data that is used in the data management and storage of the information service. This kind of securing of the information system helps in improving as well understanding the chain value across the organization. It also helps in achieving and fulfilment of few strategies for the system that could have generated only through effective supply chain management of the resources and the information system (Zhang & Li, 2003).
In 2008, Javidi stressed on utilizing the optimal technologies for the securing of the information system. It stated that the systems need to be protected in terms of the information and data that it contains pertaining to the different field that are to be evaluated through the information system. It involves employing newer systems to store and manage the information system through usage of data in the storage of the information system. They have propagated the next generation of information systems that would be storing information and at the same time ensure its security through the means of optical technologies. These technologies serve to be one of the most significant factor in the growth of the information systems management through portable means that would ensure safety and security in the means of transactions and other interpretation of the files covered in the information system (Javidi, 2008).
This shows the emergence of the security systems that are developed to ensure the integrity of the information systems that would at the same time provide confidentiality in the means of the storage as well as its flexibility in terms of the dedicated use by the owner in terms of the organization or an individual. It therefore, helps in ensuring that the major portion of the system remains intact with very less scope for breaching of the system or leaking of the information stored in it through the use of optimal modes of technology.
These researches not only help the system to emerge as a successful one but also help in achieving the trust of the users that the data and information that is processed through such a system is secure and would not be interpreted or harmed by any other external sources.
Analysis of the security:
It helps in ensuring that the security of the information system is achieved with highest level of intimacy and confidentiality among the system to detect the data and store it. It involves understanding the medium of the information storage system that twill help in easy coding and decoding of the data that is stored in the information system. It also helps in generating a system that would be self- sufficient in providing the entire data to the designated users through controlled access with the help of codes or passwords that only the user would be having with him, thereby ensuring the integrity of the data. It is also found to be one of the most important factor that while achieving confidentiality and security in the information systems, it has to be made sure that there is an equal emphasis on the storage system and retrieving system that would help in regenerating of the data from the information system. This has to be done in such a way that it offers highest level of integrity and movement of information system is not much affected during the entire process (Anderl, Frankel, & Zahavi., 1989.).
Analysing the security can be carried out by storing the data in the information system and then retrieving it through the means for the designed system to use and consume the data that is being taken into consideration. This involves considering the other factors like the security and integrity as well as the trust on the system that it would not manipulate the data or the information that is imbedded in it through a proper security system. There are various choices available while selecting an information system. This involves acting on the possible threats, considering the vulnerabilities that the system possesses and taking measures to ensure that the risk is being managed quite well by the system that we have chosen for the storage and interpretation of the information in the form of data through the information system.
Security choices for an information and system
This kind of system will help in achieving robustness of the information that is being processed and utilized through it by easy storage, coding, memory and regeneration of the information through decoding and retrieving the information from the system by various means of management that can be achieved through the system.
Opinion and critical reflections:
There are mixed reviews on the security that this systems provide in storing the data and information through the information system. It involves considering the fact that the major part of the source is obtained through a system which can be controlled or operated by any other person who has an expertise over the system. To some extent, this concern is true (Gurbaxani & Whang., 1991). But, it should not refrain the systems to store the data and retrieve it through the information system in a different manner. It should be observed that highest level of security and integrity is obtained by safeguarding these systems and using measure that would prevent them from being getting tampered and manipulated by any other sources from outside.
Thus, it can be stated the methods that are used for the storage and retrieval of the information system must be such that it ensures security and integrity of the information naps well as data that is being stored and processed by in the system through the use of technology and other secure sources.
It also helps in easy retrieval of the information through decoding of the system and the data would be retrieved back from the software that will help in ensuring the security of threat with respect to the user.
There are various methods that could be incorporated in improving the structure as well as the modes of obtaining the stored information from the system. This could be very well achieved through more advanced means that would track the user or the company for the retrieval of data and information through them. It can also be achieved with higher level of technology in the system that will help in easy storage and retrieval of the information from the software that would be merged to store the information system in it.
These methods will help in achieving the security and integrity of the information and data that is stored in the information systems.
(Hofstede, Van Deusen, Mueller, & Charles, 2002)
(Talke & Hultink, 2010)
(Fraj-Andrés, Martinez-Salinas, & Matute-Vallejo, 2009)
Anderl, E. C., Frankel, O., & Zahavi., A. (1989.). Security file system and method for securing data in a portable data carrier.” . U.S. Patent No. 4,882,474. .
Gurbaxani, V., & Whang., S. (1991). The impact of information systems on organizations and markets. Communications of the ACM , 59-73.
Javidi, B. (2008). Securing information with optical technologies. Physics Today, 27-32.
Laudon, K., & Laudon, J. (2010). Management Information Systems: International Edition, 11/E. Pearson Higher Education.
Swanson, M., & Guttman, B. (1996). Generally Accepted Principles and Practices for Securing Information Technology Systems. US: National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Zhang, C., & Li, S. (2003). Securing information sharing in internet-based supply chain management systems.
Smartphone world: Android and IOS fighting for the market
A smartphone is a mobile phone with greater ability to compute and connect as compared to the basic phones. The evolution of smartphones has made many things possible and accessible at the click of a button. Smartphones have now evolved to perform the tasks of a camera, computer, music player and help in GPS navigation. Operating system is the soul of the smartphones. Android, IOS, Blackberry and Windows are the various operating systems that are used in smartphones. In the world of smartphones, Android developed by Google and IOS developed by Apple are the two operating systems that occupy the largest market as compared to the others mentioned above. We are going to observe the efforts that Android and IOS are putting to survive in the world of smartphones. There are various features provided by both of them to their customized users. Android was founded in 2003 whereas IOS was founded much later in 2007 and both of them provide each other with core competition.
Smartphone operating systems and its evolution:
In the past few years, smartphones have evolved from being a simple feature oriented mobile phones to providing the facilities of mini-computer, high resolution camera and well equipped music player with the option of accessing the internet and all of the social networking sites. It has made various tasks possible at one go which earlier used to take huge amount of time. Smartphones have been designed to accomplish multiple tasks which is possible with the help of the operating systems. There are various factors like the installation and running of applications, browsing facilities, connectivity options and other such features that are obtained using the operating system. There are two operating systems, namely Android and IOS that have managed to get the support of the people across the globe.
The company developing Android is Google and the one developing IOS is Apple Inc. The latest version of IOS which is IOS 8 is going to be the eight version of the IOS against the fifth version of Android which is Android L (Liu, Li, Guo, Shen, & Chen, 2013). Along with the advancements in the smartphones, this Operating systems are also used in IPad and other tablets. Google glass working on Android system and apple watches working on IOS are the latest inventions that have revolutionized the technology across the globe.
Android is much more flexible in terms of customization and applications. On the other hand, the flexibility of IOS in terms of installing and using applications is limited (Tilson, Sorensen, & Lyytinen, (2012). Since its development, Android has undergone various modifications so as to cope up with the technological requirements and increasing demands of the people. Modifications and up gradations can be easily made in Android as compared to the IOS (Basole & Karla, 2011).
It can be observed that with the various advancements in technology, smartphones have evolved completely along with the operating systems that runs them. It is also observed from the above discussions that IOS is more customer and user specific as compared to the Android. IOS has maintained its standard to be high in terms of accessibility. However, Android has large number of applications and other features that are much more easy to use and it makes it more favourable to be accepted and used globally. Both of them are striving hard to prove each other’s efficiency in the smartphone world, which will be observed in the latest IOS 8 and Android L versions.
Basole, R., & Karla, J. (2011). On the evolution of mobile platform ecosystem structure and strategy. Business \& Information Systems Engineering. 313–322.
Bradley, T. (2013, november 15). Android Dominates Market Share, But Apple Makes All The Money. Retrieved september 11, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com: http://www.forbes.com/sites/tonybradley/2013/11/15/android-dominates-market-share-but-apple-makes-all-the-money/
Goadrich, M., & Rogers, M. (2011). Smart smartphone development: iOS versus android. 607–612.
Liu, Y., Li, F., Guo, L., Shen, B., & Chen, S. (2013). A Comparative Study of Android and iOS for Accessing Internet Streaming Services. 104–114.
Tilson, D., Sorensen, C., & Lyytinen, K. ( (2012). Change and control paradoxes in mobile infrastructure innovation: The android and ios mobile operating systems cases. 1324–1333.
Date of Submission:
There is an increasing demand from the internet packages users in UAE. There are two main companies who cater to providing their services and extensive network in UAE and they are du and Etisalat. The research involves identifying the company which offers better internet packages from the two. It involves obtaining the review of the users in terms of the internet speed for downloading and surfing, quality of the network, cost effectiveness and value for money provided by the two companies. The research would be establishing an outcome after analyzing the data collected through questionnaire from the people in UAE who are using either of the Telecom network between du and Etisalat. The analysis has to be evaluated and a better alternative from among the two has to be obtained through quantifying the data and arranging it in a systematic manner.
The Background to the Study
With the advancement in technology, the attitudes and requirements of the users have also changed by leaps and bounds. Owing to this, the users are demanding for different kind of customised internet packages that offer different privileges to them and integrate all the options that they require. At the same time, there is an increasing competition among the network providing companies to maintain their share in the telecom and internet market and also increase their growth and profit. The efforts and services that helps a telecom company in UAE to achieve success would be discussed in the research through discussing of the internet packages provided by them.
The Significance of the Study
There are different elements that are to be considered by the companies while providing their services to the people. Hence, developing adequate knowledge of such requirements and developing services accordingly would help in obtaining the desired share in the market. The significance of the study can be established from the fact that there is a huge competition between the two biggest telecom companies of UAE that we have taken into study. Observing it, there is a user’s perspective which has to be obtained for the services reading internet packages provided by the companies. It would help in quantifying the data and supporting it with the opinions and views of the people who use du or Etisalat or have used both.
The Purpose of the Study
The study aims at comparing the schemes and plans regarding internet packages that are offered by the telecom companies of du and Etisalat in UAE. It tends to obtain a better telecom operator from the two companies through coordinated efforts including the opinions of the users.
The comparison of the internet packages provided by du and Etisalat will be done on the basis of few research questions which are provided below:
Which company from du and Etisalat provides better internet packages?
What is the speed of the internet packages provided by the two?
What is the value for money and cost effectiveness provided by the two companies, du and Etisalat?
Hypothesis involves developing an approach towards the research paper while establishing an initial set of discussion that would help in further discussion and research on the topic. The comparison of the internet packages provided by the two most significant companies in UAE, that is, du and Etisalat.
Definitions of Terms or Operational Definitions.
Mbps: It is defined as the megabytes per second and is the unit to measure the transfer speed of the content for using it in the computer, phones and other devices.
Internet Plan: Internet plan refers to the various internet packages and cost related schemes which are provided by the telecom companies to the users.
4G and 5 G: It is the measure of speed of downloading content from the internet. 4G indicates high speed and 5G indicates very high speed.
Researchers and technological giants have been developing various strategies and plans for improving the hold of their company in the telecom industry (Carroll, 2014). At the same time, the needs of the users have to be taken into consideration and they have to be fulfilled. Researchers have developed the importance of the ethical policies and other values to be practiced in providing of the services by telecom industry (EMIRATES 24/7, 2015). The norms in UAE also state that the rules and regulations must be followed as per TRA which the policies of the telecom industry (Cherrayil, 2014). Establishing the relationship between the various schemes and services regarding the internet packages provided by du and Etisalat needs to be obtained considering the above mentioned researches and news regarding the study in UAE.
The framework for the research aims at developing the theoretical elements which would help in developing a comparison and then evaluating it for providing the best alternative. The elements which are to be identified in the framework include
• Speed of the internet
• Network availability at different places
• Tariff and cost of the plans offered
• Service quality offered by the two companies.
Establishing the relationship between the needs of the people and the services that they get would be done through evaluation of the opinions and reviews obtained from the internet users of du and Etisalat
Materials and methods
The method that would be adopted for executing the comparison between the internet packages provided by du and Etisalat would be questionnaire. It would help in evaluating and obtaining of the views and opinions of the customers in UAE who are using these company’s internet packages. The material that would be required would be a questionnaire that would help in obtaining the exact data from the users.
Instruments or materials or apparatus or equipment
The method adopted is the questionnaire and it is to be filled by the users, either manually or over the web. It would be quantitative research as it focuses on the quantity of the people rather than the quality of the people involved in research. Carrying the research with the help of questionnaire would help in obtaining high validity as well as reliability as it involves direct reviews and opinions of the internet package users of du and Etisalat Company.
Data Collection Procedure
Data is to be collected form the users of the internet packages of du and Etisalat. It would be collected randomly from people who use this services and are from different backgrounds. This type of data handling would help in establishing and involving different type of usage by the people across UAE. Data has to be collected online as well as manually from the users and maximum number of users would help in developing a more valid and reliable research outcome.
Data Analysis involves using or analysing the data collected through various sources for developing a research outcome. Here, there are various factors that help in determining the efficiency and quality of the internet packages provided by du and Etisalat in UAEAnalysing the data should be through identifying the key variables of the research on the basis of which data is to be quantified. After establishing the variables for the research, the opinions and reviews of the users have to be tabulated under these variables that would help in quantifying the data.
The limitations of the research is that it would be considering the views of both the types of people, those who want more speed and those who want cost effectiveness. Hence, the outcome that would be obtained through analysing of the data would be less reliable and valid in terms of the user’s behaviour. The study is carried on a limited number of people and that too confined to one locality, however, the outcome would have been different if the users were from cross whole of UAE. The mind-set of the people and their honest reviews and opinions are required in the research and their truthfulness is one of the biggest challenge for the research.
The instruments used in the research including the questionnaire and other data from different valid and trustable resources are to be provided over here.