October 21, 2014

Submitted by: Ahmed Yousif Al Ali,
ID: S200308493,
Prepared for: Mr. Youssef Beydoun,
Section: 05T2BEIT50

Abstract 4
Introduction 5
3.1 Recycling 5
3.2 Problem/Opportunity 6
3.3 The Goal of the Study 6
3.4 The Significance of the Study 6
Research Questions 7
Research Question # 1 (RQ1): 7
Research Question # 2 (RQ2): 7
Research Question # 3 (RQ3): 7
Literature Review 8
Overview 8
Importance of Recycling 8
Effective ways of recycling 8
Recycling in UAE 9
Methods 10
Results 10
Discussion 14
Discussion on RQ # 1 14
Discussion on RQ # 2 14
Discussion on RQ # 3 14
Conclusion 14
References 16
Appendix A 17
Academic Honesty Statement 17
Appendix B 18
Membership Responsibility Matrix 18

Recycling plays a significant role in the management of waste and provides a scope to reuse the waste by converting it into the initial product again through recycling. It is an important aspect in terms of effective waste disposal systems and wastage management. Recycling is a concept of making sure that the materials that have been used by people gets used again by getting converted into newer materials that could be utilized in a different manner. It is an effective way of making sure that each and every part of recycling of different things are done differently as per required.
Furthermore, there are a lot of ways to recycle any kind of waste depending upon the material that is being recycled. Most of the materials except for the industrial wastes, toxic wastes and fumes, and many other household wastes cannot be wasted because of a change in nature. There are few ways and methods which we are going to observe in the disposal of waste through recycling of the resources.

Moreover, along with the global importance that recycling holds as a process, many countries have come forward to promote recycling and to discourage the wastage of any kind of resources that human kind might need. This includes all the factors like preserving oil, construction waste, water treatments, reusing plastic materials, paper and clothes. There are a number of ways in which this recycling process could take place in UAE and in a global arena. Looking at it subjectively, there are people who would disagree about taking up recycling process due to their own beliefs. In the end, the conclusion is that recycling should be undertaken as it is for mutual good and a cleaner environment would help in building a sustainable earth.
3.1 Recycling
Recycling is a process which ensures that humans make the best out of natural resources and make sure that they can be made use of for a long time. Recycling is about the process which is all about transforming things that have been used into new products. NRDC (2014) states that process is mainly used as a means to maintaining the balance, using the energy resources, eliminate the damage, and manage disposal of waste and emissions of greenhouse gases in the environment. Recycling is a process that is a part of the recent modern revolution brought up in terms of garbage disposal globally after the introduction of the phenomenon of global warming. The process of recycling follows the step-by-step process of Reducing, Reusing and then finally Recycling. The different types of recycling can be divided into a lot of categories and are broadly classified according to the kind of materials they are and the type of products that they can be recycled and transformed into. As a result of the highly known and discussed effects of global warming and the role of the waste in causing it, governments around the globe have started making more efforts towards making people aware of the importance of executing and regularly practicing recycling.

There are many institutions and organizations in UAE, have been coming forward in initiating and promoting the uses for recycling in many ways. Especially, the government has been taking steps and introducing new options as to encourage people of UAE to contribute in disposing waste in an effective manner and making a difference in reducing the possible impact of global warming on the world. According to an article by Emirates 24×7 (2013), by 2014 it could be made mandatory for each and every household in UAE to recycle their waste.

3.2 Problem/Opportunity
Recycling serves to be an important aspect I the maintenance of resources could be a very crucial and transforming process in UAE when it comes to applying it on a large scale. Furthermore there are a lot of aspects of recycling that could be very useful in managing the waste and maintaining the balance in natural resources. According to Emirates 24×7 (2013), the government officials are stressing on the fact that these opportunities could bring a positive transformation in terms of return on investment in monetary terms and time.

3.3 The Goal of the Study
The goal of our study is to identify the impacts of applying and promoting effective recycling methods and strategies in the UAE
3.4 The Significance of the Study
This study describes the different ways of recycling and would provide a better insight into the effects of efficient methods of recycling that could be undertaken appropriately in the UAE and the long-term impacts and benefits that could occur as a result of that.

Research Questions
The research questions of this study are based on the impacts and facts surrounding recycling that could be carried out as an integral process in garbage disposal in UAE.
Research Question # 1 (RQ1):
What are the most effective methods of re-cycling that can be used in UAE?
Research Question # 2 (RQ2):
What are the ways in which recycling could be included effectively among people in UAE?
Research Question # 3 (RQ3):
Identify the impacts of recycling on the environment in UAE.

Literature Review
This literature review would describe various related existing literature to recycling which is specifically from the UAE point of view. This section would include various summaries regarding the important aspects that are relevant to the study and that would aid in providing a better insight into the foundation on which our research is based upon.

Importance of Recycling
In their work, Ebreo, A., Hershey J. and Vining J. (1999) state that there are multiple reasons to argues as to why recycling the waste could be a very important change for the world. However, one of the most important reasons for it is to bring about a reduction in terms of energy consumption and improvement in the state of the environment. This kind of transformation is also brought about by recycling some of the very basic waste that we can throw away. The society that is to be formed at this stage and beyond is going to be driven by energy resources and resources that would help in making earth more sustainable. The ethical correctness behind supporting recycling has never been questioned and that is because of these reasons. Moreover, with the increasing number of problems arising in the way of waste management, recycling has become a very crucial and important choice for everybody to accept. The importance of the process of recycling is very high, as it is the foundation for our study and we are going to discuss about how to bring it about.

Effective ways of recycling
Two very famous researchers on recycling, Boerschig and De Young in 1993, have pointed out that there are many ways in which recycling could be carried out effectively in organizations. The manner in which recycling anything depends on the nature of the material that is being processed. Natural resources like fuel and water cannot be recycled but can be preserved for a long time by using them efficiently. In order to preserve fuel, people could opt for carpooling from walking whenever possible and using water conservatively should be given a similar importance. Plastic Materials could be reused and utilized and thus made use of properly. Furthermore industrial waste is treated in a better manner these days to make sure that it is disposed in a safe way and prevented from toxically harming people in any way. These days even materials le batteries and metals are recycled and reused effectively in order to bring sustainability through conservation of energy resources.

Recycling in UAE
It is observed that UAE has been one of the biggest pioneers in the recycling process in terms of oil and the construction industry. Rogers, in 2011, has found out that as a result of the construction waste getting collected, there even are plants solely used for recycling this waste or at the least eliminating it. Oil refining and oil treatment are given a lot of importance in UAE as oil revenue in UAE is one of the biggest in the world, which makes it even more mportant to be rescued.

In summary, the literature review section has described various existing literature related to our study and the covers almost all key aspects of it in a major way. These literature sections are interrelated and attached to each other was confusion.

The method that is used to clean the city through recycling and create a cycle that helps to reuse the resources in the city is very important. We are going to observe methods that will help the city in developing a recycling process that will benefit the entire city. The mode of research that we have chosen for this study is a secondary research. Secondary research refers to the kind of research in which the researcher does analysis on the basis of his evaluation related to existing sources researches, journals, websites or other information sources. More specifically secondary research is the way in which the researcher relies on the primary research carried out in a professional manner. Secondary research was best suited for this project as there is a lot of data available regarding the topic and it would fit fairly well considering the time limits on this study. The most careful thing that any researcher should take care while using secondary research is whether the authors who are primary to that study have analyzed and evaluated the research in a better way.

This section deals with findings based upon the research questions asked for having a deeper insight about the project. The purpose of this study is to assess benefits or impacts of recycling in UAE.
Research Question # 1: What are the most effective methods of re-cycling that can be used in UAE?
This question can be very well attended by using the qualitative mode of data analysis by considering the secondary data. UAE is popular for its industrialization and consumerism. Therefore, recycling methods are applicable on consumer waste and industries. First of all, consumer waste can be recycled by using certain methods such as collection, sorting and rinsing. The method of collection has sub-sections in the form of curb side collection, buy-back centres, drop-off centres, distributed recycling. On the other hand, industrial waste can be recycled by applying methods such as e-Waste recycling and plastic recycling. Plastic recycling is further segmented into physical recycling, waster plastic pyrolysis and chemical recycling (WHAT HAPPENS TO MY RECYCLING?, 2010).

It can be seen from this pie-chart that two major sections of recycling in UAE are industrial and other zones. There is another major scope in landscape irrigation as well.

Research Question # 2: What are the ways in which recycling could be included effectively amongst people in UAE?
This question is answered by using the secondary data through the qualitative form of analysis. After identifying the methods of recycling, recycling codes are introduced for developing a uniform and consistent system. Nowadays, there is a high level of wastage in the form of water bottles and plastic packages. These plastics are of seven types and out of these seven types; two types of plastics are recyclable. Therefore, these codes will assist in the identification of these plastics. A deeper understanding of recyclable and non-recyclable can definitely help in bringing up beneficial results. The diagram given below fulfils this demand and it can provide a path way for taking the next step towards the process of recycling (Plastic Packaging Resin Identification Codes, 2014).

Card boards, electronic items, papers and plastics were considered to carry out the research and it can definitely provide a way forward to the people.

Research Questions # 3: Identify the impacts of recycling on the environment in UAE.
This question is answered by using the secondary data through the qualitative form of analysis. Famous economist Steven Landsburg has stated in his paper that paper recycling has adverse effects on the tree life. He believed that paper companies give incentives for replenishing their forests. Therefore, when there is high demand of paper; there will be larger forests but reduced demand may lead to farmed forests. It is traditional approach of different companies where they grow more trees than they cut (Hart, 1999).
However, it has been constantly discussed that farmed forests are useful but still, these forests are not able to hold the soil along with a need for high quantity of fertilizing agents. The major confusion serves to be the size of the tree that are grown against the size of trees that are cut.

All in all, there are savings in terms of air pollution and energy consumption by using different kinds of materials and recycling them. Moreover, people think that recycling assists in reducing the pollution but they need to understand the fact that the process of recycling actually increases the level of pollution. For examples, newspaper recycling needs to remove the bleached ink from the paper which is a chemically extensive process leading to the generation of highly toxic chemicals. At the same time, curbside recycling needs heavy moving vehicles to carry out the trash. This process will again lead to the increase in the level of air pollution. Therefore, recycling has mixed effects upon the environment (Cordato, 1995).
Discussion on RQ # 1
The first question deals with different methods used for recycling. Here, in UAE; there are two major sectors in the form of general consumers and industries. Different methods that are used for recycling were developed that considered the source of the waste and its potential use.
Discussion on RQ # 2
Second question deals with the ways to recycle where first of all, recycling materials were identified with the help of a diagram. These recycling materials are plastics, cardboards, papers and electronic items. All these items were further segmented in order to sort them on the basis of their applicability for recycling.
Discussion on RQ # 3
Third question deals with the understanding of environmental impacts of recycling. Here, theorists have come up with different views. People said that recycling should not be done as it may reduce the forest development. Moreover, recycling leads to air pollution and generates toxicity due to chemical agents used.

At the conclusion, it is observed that recycling can be carried and studied through a lot of different perspectives and that it should not be neglected by giving it less priority or importance. However, there is no denying the fact that recycling should be taken on a very serious perspective in order to make sure that the chances of global warming issues and other major environmental calamities might strike the earth are eliminated.
Government in UAE also stresses on the effective use of the resources. Furthermore, the governments could also try to understand the perspective of the consumers and find easy ways in which recycling takes place. Organizations that specialize in terms of recycling should be formed and promoted so that efficient waste management takes place rather than limiting it to a moral responsibility. This study however looks at very limited aspects of recycling and thus is partially inclined towards the favor of recycling process and its benefits on the UAE.  
Boerschig, S., & De Young, R. (2010). Evaluation of Selected Recycling Curricula: Educating the Green citizen. Journal for Environmental Education.
Cordato, R. E. (1995, December). Don’t Recycle: Throw It Away! Retrieved October 13, 2014, from Ludwig Van Mises Institute: http://www.mises.org/freemarket_detail.aspx?control=212
Ebreo, A., Hershey, J., & Vining, J. (1999). Reducing solid waste. Linking recycling to environmentally responsble consumerism. Environment and Behavior, 107-135.
Emirates 24×7. (2013, March 1st). Recycling could become mandatory for every UAE household by 2014. Retrieved October 12th, 2014, from emirates247.com.
Hart, B. (1999, November 5). The waste of recycling. Retrieved October 13, 2014, from Jewish World Review: http://www.jewishworldreview.com/cols/hart110599.asp
NRDC. (2014 ). Recycling. Retrieved October 12th, 2014, from nrdc.org: http://www.nrdc.org/recycling/
Plastic Packaging Resin Identification Codes. (2014). Retrieved October 13, 2014, from American Chemistry Council: http://plastics.americanchemistry.com/Plastic-Resin-Codes
Rogers, S. (2011). Battling construction waste and winning: lessons from UAE. Proceedings of ICE-CE Report, 41-48.
WHAT HAPPENS TO MY RECYCLING? (2010). Retrieved October 13, 2014, from 1 Coast 1 World: http://www.1coast.com.au/page8390/What-happens-to-my-recycling.aspx

Appendix A
Academic Honesty Statement

In producing this project, I have:

• Followed the academic honesty requirements as specified in this document
• Not referred to or copied another student’s/group’s work
• Let another student/group refer to or copy from my solution
• Asked anyone else (from outside or within the college) to complete this project (or parts this project) for me

I have read and understood the above instructions and confirm that all of the material contained in this assessed task is my own work or is appropriately sourced. I understand that the penalty for cheating is dismissal from the HCT.

Student Name Student ID Signature Date
Ahmed Al Ali S200308493
October 21, 2014

Appendix B
Membership Responsibility Matrix

Ahmed Yousif Al Ali

Doing research required me to do surfing to gather information for a long period of time to make researching topic selected. I started with a brief written which is called Abstract. Then I made index which contains important subjects for my research. Hence, I added paragraph for each topic. I considered the guidelines tutorial such as Text Citation, Referencing, APA Formatted Examples etc. to enhance my research.